alissa kate anissa kate : This Is An Un Official Fan Site Tribute
alissa kate anissa kate
Porn Queen Actress Superstar


alissa kate anissa kate

5.1 Methylazoxymethanol acetate 5.2 Social isolation 6 Genetic models 6.1 DISC1 6.2 Neuregulin 1 and associated genes 6.3 Dysbindin 6.4 Reelin 6.5 Other genetic models 7 See also 8 References Uses and limitations[edit] The modelling of schizophrenia in animals can range from attempts to imitate the full extent of symptoms found in schizophrenia, to more specific modelling which investigate the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. Each extreme has its limitations, with whole-syndrome modelling often failing due to the complexity and heterogeneous nature of schizophrenia, and antipsychotic-specific modelling being often not useful for discovering drugs with unique mechanisms of action. Developing models based on a particular sign or symptom of schizophrenia has been one approach. This approach has the advantage that the results are more likely to be valid across the species boundary.[1] In order for an animal model to be useful in developing treatments, results from the animal model must translate into results in the patient with schizophrenia, this is called the validity of the model.[2] Criteria for assessing the validity of animal models of schizophrenia include face validity, construct validity, and predictive validity.[2][3] Phenotype[edit] The validity of an animal model of schizophrenia can be measured using several behavioural, cellular and anatomical traits (the phenotype of the model).[1] Behavioural traits[edit] Prepulse inhibition Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the inhibition of the response to a startling stimulus when the stimulus is preceded by a weaker stimulus. Abnormalities in PPI are seen in patients with schizophrenia.[1] Latent inhibition Anomalies in latent inhibition have been linked with schizophrenia in acute events. in latent inhibition, frequent presentation of a stimulus reduces the rate at which the stimulus produces meaning.[1] Paired click gating In Paired-click gating or P50 gating, a click which quickly follows a previous click produces a reduced response. This gating is reduced in schizophrenia patients relative to normal subjects.[1] Social withdrawal One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is social withdrawal, this has been modelled by socially isolating animals.[1] Locomotor traits Some locomotor changes, including stereotypy, are used to test the validity of animal models. Locomotor anomalies are often found in patients with schizophrenia.[1] Other traits[edit]

Cortical volume Reduced volume of the prefrontal cortex is an anatomical trait of schizophrenia patients which is used to test the validity of animal models.[1] NMDA receptor gene expression Variations in the expression of the NR2B and NR1 subunits of the NMDA receptor are used to test developmental animal models.[1] Dopamine release Neuroimaging studies on patients with schizophrenia have found increased dopamine release after treatment with amphetamine relative to normal controls.[1] Pharmacological models[edit] Dopamine[edit] Diagram illustrating dopamine pathways, and brain areas involved. Dopamine pathways and associated brain regions. (VTA is the ventral tegmental area.) In the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, schizophrenia was hypothesised to be caused by disturbed dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter which is involved in other diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. There is evidence for increased activity of the mesolimbic pathway, a dopaminergic pathway, in schizophrenia patients. This comes from the discovery of increased L-DOPA decarboxylase levels in the brains of these patients. L-DOPA decarboxylase is an enzyme which converts L-DOPA to dopamine by removing a carboxyl group.[4] Animal models were first produced for schizophrenia by altering the dopaminergic system using drugs.[5] Persistent treatment of rodents with amphetamine models some symptoms of schizophrenia including hyperactivity, enduring prepulse inhibition abnormalities, and cognitive abnormalities associated with the prefrontal cortex including attention deficits. Neither negative symptoms, such as problems with social interaction, or hippocampus-related deficits are observed in amphetamine rodent models. The antipsychotics clozapine and haloperidol reverse the effects of amphetamine on attention in rats.[5] Glutamate[edit] Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrate nervous systems. Evidence for the involvement of glutamate in schizophrenia includes analogous symptoms which are produced by glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine. PCP is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist which produces hallucinations and delusions in normal subjects. In rat models, disturbed cognition, deficits in social interaction, locomotor anomalies, and prepulse inhibition deficits are seen on acute administration of PCP. Evidence that persistent PCP use and abuse in humans results in lasting deficits beyond the period of treatment has led to the suggestion that this regime in rodents may be a more accurate model of schizophrenia than acute administration. A number of protocols for chronic PCP animal models have been developed, with different effects. The effects of some, but not all protocols can be revered by treatment with antipsychotics. In a primate model, PCP was found to induce cognitive impairments which were reversed with clozapine.[5] Serotonin[edit] Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter which has been associated with schizophrenia. The psychedelic drug classes indoleamines and phenethylamines can affect serotoninergic 5-HT2A receptors. LSD, an indoleamine, affects startle habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle, which are indicators of human schizophrenia.[4] GABA[edit] ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. The GABAergic system may be involved in schizophrenia due to its interactions with the dopaminergic system. Picrotoxin, an antagonist for the GABAA receptor, produces prepulse inhibition of startle in rats. Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, reduces this effect.[4] Lesions[edit] Studies into the neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative aspects of schizophrenia have led to the use of lesion models to investigate these aspects. A lesion is damage to an area of tissue by any cause. The evidence for the neurodegenerative theory is a reduction in the volume of the cerebral cortex and an increase in the volumes of the ventricles (cavities in the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid) associated with schizophrenia. Most neurodegenerative diseases produce increased levels of glial cells such as astrocytes, this is not found in schizophrenia. The evidence in favour of the neurodevelopmental theory includes the connection of some physical abnormalities with schizophrenia.[4] Brain regions used in lesion models of schizophrenia include the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampal formation, and the thalamus. In rat models, lesions of the prefrontal cortex have produced increased and protracted response to stress and a lower prepulse inhibition of startle when treated with apomorphine.[4] Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion[edit] Neonatal lesions of the ventral part of the hippocampus in rats (NVHL rats) is a widely studied developmental animal model of schizophrenia. NVHL rats mimic many of the symptoms of schizophrenia in detail.[6] The behavioural deficits caused by NVHL are seen after puberty and include aggression and social interaction abnormalities. The precise effects of the lesion depend on the day on which it is administered.[5] Developmental models[edit] There is evidence from epidemiological studies that environmental factors during gestation or around childbirth can increase the probability of someone developing schizophrenia.[5] Methylazoxymethanol acetate[edit] Molecular model The Morris water navigation task, also known as the Morris water maze, is a behavioral procedure mostly used with rodents. It is widely used in behavioral neuroscience to study spatial learning and memory.[1] It can be a very accurate study of learning, memory, and spatial working and can also assess damage to cortical regions of the brain.[1][2] It is used largely by neuroscientists to measure the effect of neurocognitive disorders on spatial learning and possible neural treatments, to test the effect of lesions to the brain in areas focused on memory, and to study how age influences cognitive function and spatial learning.[1][3] The task is also used as a tool to study drug-abuse, neural systems, neurotransmitters, and brain development.[4][5] Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 History anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent)[1] is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds/agents. Some recreational drugs such as ethanol (alcohol) induce anxiolysis initially, however studies show that many of these drugs are anxiogenic. Anxiolytic medications have been used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Anxiolytics have been shown to be useful in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Light therapy and other interventions have also been found to have an anxiolytic effect.[2] Beta-receptor blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol, although not anxiolytics, can be used to combat the somatic symptoms of anxiety, as tachycardia and palpitations.[3] Anxiolytics are also known as minor tranquilizers.[4] The term is less common in modern texts, and was originally derived from a dichotomy with major tranquilizers, also known as neuroleptics or antipsychotics.[citation needed] Contents [hide] 1 Alternatives to medication 2 Medications 2.1 Barbiturates 2.2 Benzodiazepines 2.3 Antidepressants 2.3.1 Serotonergic antidepressants 2.3.2 Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor 2.3.3 Tricyclic antidepressant 2.3.4 Tetracyclic antidepressant 2.3.5 Monoamine oxidase inhibitors 2.4 Beta blockers 2.5 Miscellaneous 2.5.1 Alpha-adrenergic agonist 2.5.2 Mebicar 2.5.3 Fabomotizole 2.5.4 Selank 2.5.5 Bromantane 2.5.6 Emoxypine 2.5.7 Azapirones 2.5.8 Hydroxyzine 2.5.9 Pregabalin 2.5.10 Menthyl isovalerate 2.5.11 Cannabidiol 2.5.12 Tetrahydrocannabinol 2.5.13 Racetams 2.6 Herbal treatments 2.7 Supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs 2.8 Future drugs 2.9 Common drugs 2.9.1 Alcohol 2.9.2 Inhalants 3 See also 4 References Alternatives to medication[edit] Psychotherapeutic treatment can be an effective alternative to medication.[5] Exposure therapy is the recommended treatment for phobic anxiety disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective treatment for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Healthcare providers can also help by educating sufferers about anxiety disorders and referring individuals to self-help resources.[6] CBT has been shown to be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, and possibly more effective than pharmacological treatments in the long term.[7] Sometimes medication is combined with psychotherapy, but research has not found a benefit of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy versus monotherapy.[8] However, even with CBT being a viable treatment option, it can still be ineffective for many individuals. Both the Canadian and American medical associations then suggest the use of a strong but long lasting benzodiazepine such as clonazepam and alprazolam and an antidepressant, usually Prozac for its effectiveness.[9][unreliable source][original research?] Note that adolescent anxiety once the patient becomes pubescent can often turn into depression, at which time other treatments may be required.[citation needed] Medications[edit] Barbiturates[edit] Main article: Barbiturate Barbiturates exert an anxiolytic effect linked to the sedation they cause. The risk of abuse and addiction is high. Many experts consider these drugs obsolete for treating anxiety but valuable for the short-term treatment of severe insomnia, though only after benzodiazepines or non-benzodiazepines have failed. Benzodiazepines[edit] Main article: Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepines are prescribed for short-term relief of severe and disabling anxiety. Benzodiazepines may also be indicated to cover the latent periods associated with the medications prescribed to treat an underlying anxiety disorder. They are used to treat a wide variety of conditions and symptoms and are usually a first choice when short-term CNS sedation is needed. Longer-term uses include treatment for severe anxiety. If benzodiazepines are discontinued rapidly after being taken daily for two or more weeks there is a risk of benzodiazepine withdrawal and rebound syndrome, and tolerance and dependence may also occur, but may be clinically acceptable.[10] There is also the added problem of the accumulation of drug metabolites and adverse effects.[11] Benzodiazepines include: Alprazolam (Xanax) Bromazepam (Lectopam, Lexotan) Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril) Clorazepate (Tranxene) Diazepam (Valium) Flurazepam (Dalmane) Lorazepam (Ativan) Oxazepam (Serax, Serapax) Temazepam (Restoril) Triazolam (Halcion) Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic properties at moderate dosage. At higher dosage hypnotic properties occur.[12] Tofisopam (Emandaxin and Grandaxin) is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative. Like other benzodiazepines, it possesses anxiolytic properties, but, unlike other benzodiazepines, it does not have anticonvulsant, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, motor skill-impairing, or amnestic properties. Antidepressants[edit] Serotonergic antidepressants[edit] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor[13] (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. SSRIs are primarily classified as antidepressants and typically higher dosages are required to be effective against anxiety disorders than to be effective against depression; nevertheless, most SSRIs have anxiolytic properties. They can, however, be anxiogenic early on in the course of treatment due to negative feedback through the serotonergic autoreceptors. For this reason in some individuals a low dose concurrent benzodiazepine therapy might be beneficial during the early stages of serotonergic therapy to counteract the initial anxiogenic effects current serotonergics antidepressants have. Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor[edit] Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor include venlafaxine and duloxetine drugs. Venlafaxine, in extended release form, and duloxetine, are indicated for the treatment of GAD. SSNRIs are as effective as SSRIs in the treatment of anxiety disorders.[14] Tricyclic antidepressant[edit] Older tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are anxiolytic too; however, their side effects are often more severe in nature. Examples include imipramine, doxepin, amitriptyline, and the unrelated trazodone.[medical citation needed] Tetracyclic antidepressant[edit] Mirtazapine has demonstrated anxiolytic effects with a better side effect profile to all other classes of antidepressants, for example it rarely causes or exacerbates anxiety. However, it in many countries (such as USA and Australia) it is not specifically approved for anxiety disorders and is only used off label. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors[edit] Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are very effective for anxiety, but due to drug dangers, are rarely prescribed. Examples include: phenelzine, isocarboxazid and tranylcypromine. A reversible MAOI, which has none of the dietary restrictions associated with classic MAOI's, moclobemide is used in Canada and the UK as 'Manerix' and in Australia as 'Aurorix' which have none of the more severe SSRI's and SNRI's caused SSRI discontinuation syndrome, an often overlooked and damaging syndrome which is objectively and subjectively as bad or, for some, even worse than Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.[medical citation needed] Beta blockers[edit] Although not officially approved for this purpose, Beta blockers also can have an antianxiety effect.[15][16] Miscellaneous[edit] Alpha-adrenergic agonist[edit] Alpha 2A receptor agonists Clonidine and Guanfacine has demonstrated both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects. Mebicar[edit] Mebicar (mebicarum) is an anxiolytic produced in Latvia and used in Eastern Europe. Mebicar has an effect on the structure of limbic-reticular activity, particularly on hypothalamus emotional zone, as well as on all 4 basic neuromediator systems – ? aminobutyric acid (GABA), choline, serotonin and adrenergic activity.[17] Mebicar decreases the brain noradrenaline level, exerts no effect on the dopaminergic systems, and increases the brain serotonin level.[18] Fabomotizole[edit] Fabomotizole[19] (brand name Afobazole) is an anxiolytic drug launched in Russia in the early 2000s. Its mechanism of action remains poorly defined, with GABAergic, NGF and BDNF release promoting, MT1 receptor antagonism, MT3 receptor antagonism, and sigma agonism all thought to have some involvement.[20][21][22][23][24] It has yet to find clinical use outside of Russia. Selank[edit] Selank is an anxiolytic peptide based drug developed by the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian academy of sciences. Selank is a heptapeptide with the sequence Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro. It is a synthetic analog of a human tetrapeptide tuftsin. As such, it mimics many of its effects. It has been shown to modulate the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and affect the balance of T helper cell cytokines. There is evidence that it may also modulate the expression of brain-derived neurotropic factor in rats.[medical citation needed] Bromantane[edit] Bromantane is a stimulant drug with anxiolytic properties developed in Russia during the late 1980s, which acts mainly by inhibiting the reuptake of both dopamine and serotonin in the brain, although it also has anticholinergic effects at very high doses. Study results suggest that the combination of psychostimulant and anxiolytic actions in the spectrum of psychotropic activity of bromantane is effective in treating asthenic disorders compared to placebo. Emoxypine[edit] Emoxypine is an antioxidant that is also an anxiolytic. Its chemical structure resembles that of pyridoxine, a type of vitamin B6. Azapirones[edit] Azapirones are a class of 5-HT1A receptor agonists. Currently approved azapirones include buspirone (Buspar) and tandospirone (Sediel). Hydroxyzine[edit] Hydroxyzine (Atarax) is an old antihistamine originally approved for clinical use by the FDA in 1956. It possesses anxiolytic properties in addition to its antihistamine properties and is also licensed for the treatment of anxiety and tension. It is also used for its sedative properties as a premed before anesthesia or to induce sedation after anesthesia.[25] It has been shown to be as effective as benzodiazepines in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, while producing fewer side-effects.[26] Pregabalin[edit] Pregabalin's therapeutic effect appears after 1 week of use and is similar in effectiveness to lorazepam, alprazolam, and venlafaxine, but pregabalin has demonstrated superiority by producing more consistent therapeutic effects for psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms. Long-term trials have shown continued effectiveness without the development of tolerance, and, in addition, unlike benzodiazepines, it does not disrupt sleep architecture and produces less severe cognitive and psychomotor impairment; it also has a low potential for abuse and dependence and may be preferred over the benzodiazepines for these reasons.[27][28] Menthyl isovalerate[edit] Menthyl isovalerate is a flavoring food additive which is marketed as a sedative and anxiolytic drug in Russia under the name Validol. Sublingual administration of Validol produces a sedative effect, and has moderate reflex and vascular dilative action caused by stimulation of sensory nerve receptors of the oral mucosa followed by the release of endorphins. Validol is typically administered as needed for symptom relief.[29][30][31] Cannabidiol[edit] Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid produced by Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica, and in marginal quantities by Cannabis ruderalis. It is available in the United States in states where cannabis has been legalized for medical and general use. No lethal dose (or LD50) has been established from cannabidiol. In feral strains of cannabis, cannabidiol is produced in large quantities alongside the psychoactive cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol. Special strains of cannabis have been bred to yield high amounts of cannabidiol with significantly lowered synthesis of THC. Specific formulations for anxiety with a CBD to THC ratio of 18:1 are available in the US markets. Tetrahydrocannabinol[edit] Tetrahydrocannabinol appears to be capable of both, having anxiolytic effect(s) and having anxiogenic effect(s). Racetams[edit] Some racetam based drugs such as aniracetam can have an antianxiety effect.[32] Herbal treatments[edit] Certain natural substances are reputed to have anxiolytic properties, including the following: The short-term effects of alcohol (ethanol) consumption range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills at lower doses to unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, and central nervous system depression at higher doses. Cell membranes are highly permeable to alcohol, so once alcohol is in the bloodstream it can diffuse into nearly every cell in the body. The concentration of alcohol in blood is measured via blood alcohol content (BAC). The amount and circumstances of consumption play a large part in determining the extent of intoxication; for example, eating a heavy meal before alcohol consumption causes alcohol to absorb more slowly.[1] Hydration also plays a role, especially in determining the extent of hangovers. After excessive drinking, unconsciousness can occur and extreme levels of consumption can lead to alcohol poisoning and death (a concentration in the blood stream of 0.40% will kill half of those affected[2][3]). Alcohol may also cause death indirectly, by asphyxiation from vomit. Alcohol can greatly exacerbate sleep problems. During abstinence, residual disruptions in sleep regularity and sleep patterns[clarification needed] are the greatest predictors of relapse.[4] Contents [hide] 1 Effects by dosage 1.1 Moderate doses 1.2 Excessive doses 2 Allergic reaction-like symptoms 3 Sleep 3.1 Moderate alcohol consumption and sleep disruptions 3.2 Alcohol consumption and sleep improvements 3.3 Alcohol consumption and fatigue 3.4 Alcohol abstinence and sleep disruptions 4 Alcohol consumption and balance 5 Pathophysiology 6 Research 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Effects by dosage[edit] Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on the subject. The following lists the common effects of alcohol on the body, depending on the blood alcohol concentration (BAC). However, tolerance varies considerably between individuals, as does individual response to a given dosage; the effects of alcohol differ widely between people. Hence, BAC percentages are just estimates used for illustrative purposes. Euphoria (BAC = 0.03% to 0.12%) Overall improvement in mood and possible euphoria Increased self-confidence Increased sociability Decreased anxiety Shortened attention span Flushed appearance Impaired judgment Impaired fine muscle coordination Lethargy (BAC = 0.09% to 0.25%) Sedation Impaired memory and comprehension Delayed reactions Ataxia; balance difficulty; unbalanced walk Blurred vision; other senses may be impaired Confusion (BAC = 0.18% to 0.30%) Profound confusion Impaired senses Analgesia Increased ataxia; impaired speech; staggering Dizziness often associated with nausea ("the spins") Vomiting (emesis) Stupor (BAC = 0.25% to 0.40%) Severe ataxia Lapses in and out of consciousness Unconsciousness Anterograde amnesia Vomiting (death may occur due to inhalation of vomit (pulmonary aspiration) while unconscious) Respiratory depression (potentially life-threatening) Decreased heart rate (usually results in coldness and/or numbness of the limbs) Urinary incontinence Coma (BAC = 0.35% to 0.80%) Unconsciousness (coma) Depressed reflexes (i.e., pupils do not respond appropriately to changes in light) Marked and life-threatening respiratory depression Markedly decreased heart rate Most deaths from alcohol poisoning are caused by dosage levels in this range. Moderate doses[edit] Ethanol inhibits the ability of glutamate to open the cation channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Stimulated areas include the cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, which are responsible for thinking and pleasure seeking. Another one of alcohol's agreeable effects is body relaxation, possibly caused by neurons transmitting electrical signals in an alpha waves-pattern; such waves are observed (with the aid of EEGs) when the body is relaxed.[citation needed] Short-term effects of alcohol include the risk of injuries, violence and fetal damage.[5] Alcohol has also been linked with lowered inhibitions, though it is unclear to what degree this is chemical versus psychological as studies with placebos can often duplicate the social effects of alcohol at low to moderate doses. Some studies have suggested that intoxicated people have much greater control over their behavior than is generally recognized, though they have a reduced ability to evaluate the consequences of their behavior.[6] Behavioral changes associated with drunkenness are, to some degree, contextual.[7][8] Areas of the brain responsible for planning and motor learning are sharpened. A related effect, caused by even low levels of alcohol, is the tendency for people to become more animated in speech and movement. This is due to increased metabolism in areas of the brain associated with movement, such as the nigrostriatal pathway. This causes reward systems in the brain to become more active, which may induce certain individuals to behave in an uncharacteristically loud and cheerful manner. Alcohol has been known to mitigate the production of antidiuretic hormone, which is a hormone that acts on the kidney to favour water reabsorption in the kidneys during filtration. This occurs because alcohol confuses osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus, which relay osmotic pressure information to the posterior pituitary, the site of antidiuretic hormone release. Alcohol causes the osmoreceptors to signal that there is low osmotic pressure in the blood, which triggers an inhibition of the antidiuretic hormone. As a consequence, one's kidneys are no longer able to reabsorb as much water as they should be absorbing, leading to creation of excessive volumes of urine and the subsequent overall dehydration.[citation needed] Excessive doses[edit] Acute alcohol intoxication through excessive doses in general causes short- or long-term health effects. NMDA receptors start to become unresponsive, slowing areas of the brain for which they are responsible. Contributing to this effect is the activity that alcohol induces in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. The GABA system is known to inhibit activity in the brain. GABA could also be responsible for the memory impairment that many people experience. It has been asserted that GABA signals interfere with the registration and consolidation stages of memory formation. As the GABA system is found in the hippocampus (among other areas in the CNS), which is thought to play a large role in memory formation, this is thought to be possible. Anterograde amnesia, colloquially referred to as "blacking out", is another symptom of heavy drinking. This is the loss of memory during and after an episode of drinking. When alcohol is consumed at a rapid rate, the point at which most healthy people's long-term memory creation starts to fail usually occurs at approximately 0.20% BAC, but can be reached as low as 0.14% BAC for inexperienced drinkers. Another classic finding of alcohol intoxication is ataxia, in its appendicular, gait, and truncal forms. Appendicular ataxia results in jerky, uncoordinated movements of the limbs, as though each muscle were working independently from the others. Truncal ataxia results in postural instability; gait instability is manifested as a disorderly, wide-based gait with inconsistent foot positioning. Ataxia is responsible for the observation that drunk people are clumsy, sway back and forth, and often fall down. It is presumed to be due to alcohol's effect on the cerebellum. Allergic reaction-like symptoms[edit] Main article: Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions Main article: Alcohol flush reaction Humans metabolize ethanol primarily through NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) class I enzymes (i.e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C) to acetaldehyde and then metabolize acetaldehyde primarily by NAD2-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) to acetic acid.[9][10] Eastern Asians reportedly have a deficiency in acetaldehyde metabolism in a surprisingly high percentage (approaching 50%) of their populations. The issue has been most thoroughly investigated in native Japanese where persons with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant allele of the ALDH2 gene were found; the variant allele, encodes lysine (lys) instead of glutamic acid (glu) at amino acid 487; this renders the enzyme essentially inactive in metabolizing acetaldehyde to acetic acid.[11][12] The variant allele is variously termed glu487lys, ALDH2*2, and ALDH2*504lys. In the overall Japanese population, about 57% of individuals are homozygous for the normal allele (sometimes termed ALDH2*1), 40% are heterozygous for glu487lys, and 3% are homozygous for glu487lys.[13] Since ALDH2 assembles and functions as a tetramer and since ALDH2 tetramers containing one or more glu487lys proteins are also essentially inactive (i.e. the variant allele behaves as a dominant negative), homozygote individuals for glu487lys have undetectable while heterozygote individuals for glu487lys have little ALDH2 activity.[14] In consequence, Japanese individuals homozygous or, to only a slightly lesser extent, homozygous for glu487lys metabolize ethanol to acetaldehyde normally but metabolize acetaldehyde poorly and are susceptible to a set of adverse responses to the ingestion of, and sometimes even the fumes from, ethanol and ethanol-containing beverages; these responses include the transient accumulation of acetaldehyde in blood and tissues; facial flushing (i.e. the "oriental flushing syndrome" or Alcohol flush reaction), urticaria, systemic dermatitis, and alcohol-induced respiratory reactions (i.e. rhinitis and, primarily in patients with a history of asthma, mild to moderately bronchoconstriction exacerbations of their asthmatic disease.[15] These allergic reaction-like symptoms, which typically occur within 30–60 minutes of ingesting alcoholic beverages, do not appear to reflect the operation of classical IgE- or T cell-related allergen-induced reactions but rather are due, at least in large part, to the action of acetaldehyde in stimulating tissues to release histamine, the probable evoker these symptoms.[15][16] The percentages of glu487lys heterozygous plus homozygous genotypes are about 35% in native Caboclo of Brazil, 30% in Chinese, 28% in Koreans, 11% in Thai people, 7% in Malaysians, 3% in natives of India, 3% in Hungarians, and 1% in Filipinos; percentages are essentially 0 in individuals of Native African descent, Caucasians of Western European descent, Turks, Australian Aborigines, Australians of Western European descent, Swedish Lapps, and Alaskan Eskimos.[17][18] The prevalence of ethanol-induced allergic symptoms in 0 or low levels of glu487lys genotypes commonly ranges above 5%. These "ethanol reactors" may have other gene-based abnormalities that cause the accumulation of acetaldehyde following the ingestion of ethanol or ethanol-containing beverages. For example, the surveyed incidence of self-reported ethanol-induced flushing reactions in Scandinavians living in Copenhagen as well as Australians of European descent is about ~16% in individuals homozygous for the "normal" ADH1B gene but runs to ~23% in individuals with the ADH1-Arg48His SNP variant; in vitro, this variant metabolizes ethanol rapidly and in humans, it is proposed, may form acetaldehyde at levels that exceed the capacity of ALDH2 to metabolize the acetaldehyde.[19][20] Notwithstanding such considerations, experts suggest that the large proportion of alcoholic beverage -induced allergic-like symptoms in populations with a low incidence the glu487lys genotype reflect true allergic reactions to the natural and/or contaminating allergens particularly those in wines and to a lesser extent beers.[15] Sleep[edit] Main article: Alcohol use and sleep Moderate alcohol consumption and sleep disruptions[edit] Moderate alcohol consumption 30–60 minutes before sleep, although decreasing, disrupts sleep architecture. Rebound effects occur once the alcohol has been largely metabolized, causing late night disruptions in sleep maintenance. Under conditions of moderate alcohol consumption where blood alcohol levels average 0.06–0.08 percent and decrease 0.01–0.02 percent per hour, an alcohol clearance rate of 4–5 hours would coincide with disruptions in sleep maintenance in the second half of an 8-hour sleep episode. In terms of sleep architecture, moderate doses of alcohol facilitate "rebounds" in rapid eye movement (REM) following suppression in REM and stage 1 sleep in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode, REM and stage 1 sleep increase well beyond baseline in the second half. Moderate doses of alcohol also very quickly increase (SWS) in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode. Enhancements in REM sleep and SWS following moderate alcohol consumption are mediated by reductions in glutamatergic activity by adenosine in the central nervous system. In addition, tolerance to changes in sleep maintenance and sleep architecture develops within 3 days of alcohol consumption before bedtime. Alcohol consumption and sleep improvements[edit] Low doses of alcohol (one 360 ml (13 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) beer) appear to increase total sleep time and reduce awakening during the night. The sleep-promoting benefits of alcohol dissipate at moderate and higher doses of alcohol.[21] Previous experience with alcohol also influences the extent to which alcohol positively or negatively affects sleep. Under free-choice conditions, in which subjects chose between drinking alcohol or water, inexperienced drinkers were sedated while experienced drinkers were stimulated following alcohol consumption.[22] In insomniacs, moderate doses of alcohol improve sleep maintenance.[23] Alcohol consumption and fatigue[edit] Conditions of fatigue correlate positively with increased alcohol consumption. In Northern climates, increased alcohol consumption during the winter is attributed to escalations in fatigue. Alcohol abstinence and sleep disruptions[edit] Hormonal imbalance and sleep disruption following withdrawal from chronic alcohol consumption are strong predictors of relapse. During abstinence, recovering alcoholics have attenuated melatonin secretion at onset of a sleep episode, resulting in prolonged sleep onset latencies. Psychiatry and core body temperatures during the sleep period contribute to poor sleep maintenance. The effect of alcohol consumption on the circadian control of human core body temperature is time dependent. Alcohol consumption and balance[edit] Alcohol can affect balance by altering the viscosity of the endolymph within the otolithic membrane, the fluid inside the semicircular canals inside the ear. The endolymph surrounds the ampullary cupula which contains hair cells within the semicircular canals. When the head is tilted, the endolymph flows and moves the cupula. The hair cells then bend and send signals to the brain indicating the direction in which the head is tilted. By changing the viscosity of the endolymph to become less dense when alcohol enters the system, the hair cells can move more easily within the ear, which sends the signal to the brain and results in exaggerated and overcompensated movements of body. This can also result in vertigo, or "the spins."[24] Pathophysiology[edit] Epidemiology: Disability-adjusted life year for alcohol use disorders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol consumption include changes in the metabolism of the liver and brain and alcoholism. Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds up glucose metabolism and can result in low blood sugar, causing irritability and, possibly death for diabetics.[1][medical citation needed] Severe alcohol poisoning is almost always fatal.[2][medical citation needed] A 2014 World Health Organization report found that harmful alcohol consumption caused about 3.3 million deaths annually worldwide.[3] However, some effects of alcohol consumption are beneficial. Although even moderate alcohol consumption increased the risk of death in younger people, it has been shown to decrease the risk of death for individuals ages 55+ (due to decreased risk of ischemic heart disease).[4] The median lethal dose of alcohol in test animals is a blood alcohol content of 0.45%. This is about six times the level of ordinary intoxication (0.08%), but vomiting or unconsciousness may occur much sooner in people who have a low tolerance for alcohol.[5] The high tolerance of chronic heavy drinkers may allow some of them to remain conscious at levels above 0.40%, although serious health hazards are incurred at this level. Alcohol also limits the production of vasopressin (ADH) from the hypothalamus and the secretion of this hormone from the posterior pituitary gland. This is what causes severe dehydration when alcohol is consumed in large amounts. It also causes a high concentration of water in the urine and vomit and the intense thirst that goes along with a hangover. Stress, hangovers and the oral contraceptive pill may increase the desire for alcohol because these things will lower the level of testosterone and alcohol will acutely elevate it.[6] Tobacco has the same effect of increasing the craving for alcohol.[7] Contents [hide] 1 Short-term effects 2 Long-term effects 2.1 Cardiovascular disease 3 Pregnancy 4 Breastfeeding 5 Alcohol expectations 5.1 Drug treatment programs 6 Alcohol abuse 6.1 Alcohol abuse prevention programs 6.2 Recommended maximum intake 6.3 Sobriety 7 Injury 8 Genetic differences 8.1 Alcohol flush and respiratory reactions 8.2 American Indian alcoholism 8.3 Genetics and amount of consumption 9 Gender differences 9.1 Alcoholism 9.2 Sensitivity 9.3 Metabolism 9.4 Depression 10 Comparison with other drugs 11 See also 12 References Short-term effects[edit] Main article: Short-term effects of alcohol The short-term effects of alcohol consumption range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills at lower doses to unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, and central nervous system depression at higher doses. Cell membranes are highly permeable to alcohol, so once alcohol is in the bloodstream it can diffuse into nearly every cell in the body. The concentration of alcohol in blood is measured via blood alcohol content (BAC). The amount and circumstances of consumption play a large part in determining the extent of intoxication; for example, eating a heavy meal before alcohol consumption causes alcohol to absorb more slowly.[8] Hydration also plays a role, especially in determining the extent of hangovers. After excessive drinking, unconsciousness can occur and extreme levels of consumption can lead to alcohol poisoning and death (a concentration in the blood stream of 0.40% will kill half of those affected[9][medical citation needed]). Alcohol may also cause death indirectly, by asphyxiation from vomit. Alcohol can greatly exacerbate sleep problems. During abstinence, residual disruptions in sleep regularity and sleep patterns[clarification needed] are the greatest predictors of relapse.[10] Long-term effects[edit] Main article: Long-term effects of alcohol Possible long-term effects of ethanol.svg In a 2011 survey of 292 clinical experts in Scotland, alcohol ranked 3rd in personal harm and 2nd in social harm out of 19 common recreational drugs.[11] The long-term effects of alcohol consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular disease[12][13] to severe detrimental effects in cases of chronic alcohol abuse.[14] Health effects associated with large levels of alcohol intake include an increased risk of alcoholism, malnutrition, chronic pancreatitis, alcoholic liver disease and cancer. In addition, damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from chronic alcohol abuse.[15][16] The long-term use of alcohol is capable of damaging nearly every organ and system in the body.[17] The developing adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol.[18] In addition, the developing fetal brain is also vulnerable, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) may result if pregnant mothers consume alcohol. Cardiovascular disease[edit] Main article: Alcohol and cardiovascular disease A study published in the British Medical Journal on 10 July 2014 investigated the correlation between human variants of the ADH1B gene, which codes for the ADH1B enzyme (Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B), and cardiovascular health. The study concluded that carriers of one specific variant of this gene (A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984), which is associated with lower alcohol consumption, '...had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant.' The study's authors extrapolated from this finding to suggest that '...reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial to health.' [19] This study contradicts previous findings on the causal relationship between light alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health, and has been criticized on its methodology by members of the International Scientific Forum on Alcohol Research, which stated in its analysis that '...[there are] questions about making generalized statements about the effects of alcohol on disease based on results from the analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism of a gene.' [20] Moreover, the study fails to explain or discount previous findings that show a causal link between alcohol intake and cardiovascular health that can not be accounted for by genetic predisposition alone.[21] Pregnancy[edit] Heavier consumption of alcohol is strongly associated with the occurrence of a developmental disorder known as fetal alcohol syndrome. The risk of problems depends on the amount, frequency, and when during pregnancy alcohol is consumed.[22] While small amounts of alcohol do not cause an abnormal appearance it may cause behavioral issues.[23] Medical organizations recommend no alcohol during pregnancy for this reason.[24][25][26] Breastfeeding[edit] NHS estimates that 1-2 units of alcohol 1-2 times a week does not make breastfeeding dangerous. However, it can be better to wait for a couple of hours before breastfeeding or express the milk [into a bottle] before drinking.[27] Alcohol expectations[edit] Alcohol expectations are beliefs and attitudes that people have about the effects they will experience when drinking alcoholic beverages. They are just largely beliefs about alcohol's effects on a person’s behaviors, abilities, and emotions. Some people believe that if alcohol expectations can be changed, then alcohol abuse might be reduced. Men tend to become more aggressive in laboratory studies in which they are drinking only tonic water but believe that it contains alcohol. They also become less aggressive when they believe they are drinking only tonic water, but are actually drinking tonic water that contains alcohol.[28] The phenomenon of alcohol expectations recognizes that intoxication has real physiological consequences that alter a drinker's perception of space and time, reduce psychomotor skills, and disrupt equilibrium.[29] The manner and degree to which alcohol expectations interact with the physiological short-term effects of alcohol, resulting in specific behaviors, is unclear. A single study found that if a society believes that intoxication leads to sexual behavior, rowdy behavior, or aggression, then people tend to act that way when intoxicated. But if a society believes that intoxication leads to relaxation and tranquil behavior, then it usually leads to those outcomes. Alcohol expectations vary within a society, so these outcomes are not certain.[30] People tend to conform to social expectations, and some societies expect that drinking alcohol will cause disinhibition. However, in societies in which the people do not expect that alcohol will disinhibit, intoxication seldom leads to disinhibition and bad behavior.[29] Alcohol expectations can operate in the absence of actual consumption of alcohol. Research in the United States over a period of decades has shown that men tend to become more sexually aroused when they think they have been drinking alcohol, — even when they have not been drinking it. Women report feeling more sexually aroused when they falsely believe the beverages they have been drinking contained alcohol (although one measure of their physiological arousal shows that they became less aroused).[citation needed] Drug treatment programs[edit] Most addiction treatment programs encourage people with drinking problems to see themselves as having a chronic, relapsing disease that requires a lifetime of attendance at 12-step meetings to keep in check. However, some people do not develop lifelong problems.[31] Alcohol abuse[edit] See also: Substance abuse prevention Alcohol abuse prevention programs[edit] The Army at Fort Drum has taken the "0-0-1-3" and exchanged it for the new "0-1-2-3" described in the Prime-For-Life Program, which highlights the ill effects of alcohol abuse as more than just an individual’s "driving while intoxicated." The Prime-For-Life program identifies alcohol abuse to be a health and impairment problem, leading to adverse legal as well as health outcomes associated with misuse. The 0-1-2-3 now represents low-risk guidelines: 0 – Zero drinks for those driving a vehicle. 1 – One drink per hour 2 – No more than two drinking sessions per week 3 – Not to exceed three drinks on any one day Recommended maximum intake[edit] Main article: Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages Binge drinking is becoming a major problem in the UK. Advice on weekly consumption is avoided in United Kingdom.[32] Since 1995 the UK government has advised that regular consumption of three to four units a day for men and or two to three units for women, would not pose significant health risks. However, consistently drinking more than four units a day (for men) and three units (women), is not advisable.[33] Previously (from 1992 until 1995), the advice was that men should drink no more than 21 units per week, and women no more than 14.[34] (The difference between the sexes was due to the typically lower weight and water-to-body-mass ratio of women.) This was changed because a government study showed that many people were in effect "saving up" their units and using them at the end of the week, a phenomenon referred to as binge drinking.[citation needed] The Times reported in October 2007 that these limits had been "plucked out of the air" and had no scientific basis.[35] Sobriety[edit] See also: Sobriety A midshipman is subjected to a random breathalyzer test to determine sobriety. Sobriety is the condition of not having any measurable levels, or effects from mood-altering drugs. According to WHO "Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms..." sobriety is continued abstinence from psychoactive drug use.[36] Sobriety is also considered to be the natural state of a human being given at a birth. In a treatment setting, sobriety is the achieved goal of independence from consuming or craving mind-altering substances. As such, sustained abstinence is a prerequisite for sobriety. Early in abstinence, residual effects of mind-altering substances can preclude sobriety. These effects are labeled "PAWS", or "post acute withdrawal syndrome". Someone who abstains, but has a latent desire to resume use, is not considered truly sober. An abstainer may be subconsciously motivated to resume drug use, but for a variety of reasons, abstains (e.g. such as a medical or legal concern precluding use).[37] Sobriety has more specific meanings within specific contexts, such as the culture of Alcoholics Anonymous, other 12 step programs, law enforcement, and some schools of psychology. In some cases, sobriety implies achieving "life balance".[38] Injury[edit] Injury is defined as damage or harm that is done or sustained.[39] The potential of injuring yourself or others can be increased after consuming alcohol due to the certain short term effects related to the substance such as lack of coordination, blurred vision, and slower reflexes to name a few.[40] Due to these effects the most common injuries include head, fall, and vehicle related injuries. These include a range of soft tissue damage and fractures. A study was conducted between November 1, 2001 and June 30, 2002 of patients admitted to The Ulster Hospital in Northern Ireland with fall related injuries. They found that 113 of those patients admitted to that hospital during that had consumed alcohol recently and that the injury severity was higher for those that had consumed alcohol compared to those that hadn't.[41] Another study showed that 21% of patients admitted to the Emergency Department of the Bristol Royal Infirmary had either direct or indirect alcohol related injuries. If these figures are extrapolated it shows that the estimated number of patients with alcohol related injuries are over 7000 during the year at this ED alone.[42] Genetic differences[edit] Alcohol flush and respiratory reactions[edit] See also: Alcohol flush reaction and Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions Alcohol flush reaction is a condition in which an individual's face or body experiences flushes or blotches as a result of an accumulation of acetaldehyde, a metabolic byproduct of the catabolic metabolism of alcohol. It is best known as a condition that is experienced by people of Asian descent. According to the analysis by HapMap Project, the rs671 allele of the ALDH2 gene responsible for the flush reaction is rare among Europeans and Africans, and it is very rare among Mexican-Americans. 30% to 50% of people of Chinese and Japanese ancestry have at least one ALDH*2 allele.[43] The rs671 form of ALDH2, which accounts for most incidents of alcohol flush reaction worldwide, is native to East Asia and most common in southeastern China. It most likely originated among Han Chinese in central China,[44] and it appears to have been positively selected in the past. Another analysis correlates the rise and spread of rice cultivation in Southern China with the spread of the allele.[45] The reasons for this positive selection aren't known, but it's been hypothesized that elevated concentrations of acetaldehyde may have conferred protection against certain parasitic infections, such as Entamoeba histolytica.[46] The same SNP allele of ALDH2, also termed glu487lys, and the abnormal accumulation of acetaldehyde following the drinking of alcohol, is associated with the alcohol-induced respiratory reactions of rhinitis and asthma that occur in Eastern Asian populations.[47] \begin{smallmatrix} &\text{H}& &\text{H}& & & &\text{H}& &\text{H}& & &\text{H}& & & \\ & | & & | & &\mathsf{ADH} & & | & & | &\mathsf{ALDH} & & | & & & \\ \text{H}\,-\!&\text{C}&\!-\!&\text{C}&\!-\,\text{O}\,-\,\text{H}&\xrightarrow{\qquad}&\text{H}\,-\!&\text{C}&\!-\!&\text{C}&\xrightarrow{\qquad\ }&\text{H}\,-\!&\text{C}&\!-\!&\text{C}&\!-\,\text{O}\,-\,\text{H}\\ & | & & | & & & & | & & \| & & & | & & \| & \\ &\text{H}& &\text{H}& & & &\text{H}& &\text{O}& An alcoholic beverage is a drink which contains a substantial amount of the psychoactive drug ethanol (informally called alcohol). Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Alcohol has potential for abuse and physical dependence. Almost all countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption,[1] and some countries ban such activities entirely. However, alcoholic beverages are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic beverages industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.[2] It is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world. In the United States 89% of adults have drunk alcohol at some point in time, 70% have drunk in the last year and 56% in the last month.[3] Alcoholic beverages are typically divided into three classes—beers, wines, and spirits—and typically contain between 3% and 40% alcohol by volume. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented beverages existed at least as early as the Neolithic period (cir. 10,000 BC).[4] Many nonhuman animals also consume alcohol when given the opportunity and are affected in much the same way as humans, although humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic beverages intentionally.[5] Contents [hide] 1 Fermented beverages 1.1 Wine 1.2 Beer 1.3 Cider 1.4 Mead 2 Distilled beverages 3 Health effects 4 Apéritifs and digestifs 5 Flavoring 6 Congeners 7 Rectified spirit 8 Alcohol concentration 9 Serving measures 9.1 Shot sizes 9.2 Standard drinks 10 Food energy 11 Laws 12 History 13 See also 13.1 Beverage-related articles 13.2 Social and health 14 References 15 External links Fermented beverages[edit] Wine[edit] See also: Wine and health Wine is a fermented beverage produced from grapes. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and also a long aging process (months or years), resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. Sparkling wine can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. "Fruit wines" are made from fruits such as plums, cherries, or apples. "Rice wines" like sake are made from rice. Beer[edit] See also: Beer styles and List of beer styles Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash. It is made from barley or a blend of several grains. If the fermented mash is distilled, then the beverage is a spirit. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world.[6] Cider[edit] Cider or cyder (/'sa?d?r/ sy-d?r) is a fermented alcoholic beverage made from any fruit juice; apple juice (traditional and most common), peaches, pears ("Perry" cider) or other fruit. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".[7] Mead[edit] Mead (/'mi?d/) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%. The defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the beverage's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. Distilled beverages[edit] Main article: Distilled beverage These flaming cocktails illustrate that high-proof alcohol will readily catch fire and burn. A distilled beverage or liquor is an alcoholic beverage produced by distilling (i.e., concentrating by distillation) ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.[8] Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits.[9] For the most common distilled beverages, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%. The term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker). Vodka, gin, baijiu, tequila, whiskey, brandy, and soju are examples of distilled beverages. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with methanol and fusel alcohols (fermentation by-products partially removed by distillation) in applejack. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, which is derived from an Arabic word that means “finely divided” (a reference to distillation). Fortified wine is wine, such as port or sherry, to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added.[10] Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, sherry, madeira, marsala, commandaria, and the aromatized wine vermouth.[11] Health effects[edit] Main article: Alcohol and health Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic red wine may boost heart health.[12] Alcoholic beverages are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen (carcinogenic to humans). IARC classifies alcoholic beverage consumption as a cause of female breast, colorectum, larynx, liver, esophagus, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers; and as a probable cause of pancreatic cancer.[13] Alcohol in carbonated beverages is absorbed faster than alcohol in non-carbonated drinks.[14] Apéritifs and digestifs[edit] An apéritif is any alcoholic beverage usually served before a meal to stimulate the appetite,[15] while a digestif is any alcoholic beverage served after a meal for the purpose of improving digestion. Fortified wine, liqueurs, and dry champagne are common apéritifs. Because apéritifs are served before dining, they are usually dry rather than sweet. Flavoring[edit] Pure ethanol tastes bitter to humans; some people also describe it as sweet.[16] However, ethanol is also a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. This facilitates the use of flavoring and coloring compounds in alcoholic beverages as a taste mask, especially in distilled beverages. Some flavors may be naturally present in the beverage’s raw material. Beer and wine may also be flavored before fermentation, and spirits may be flavored before, during, or after distillation. Sometimes flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in oak barrels, usually made of American or French oak. A few brands of spirits may also have fruit or herbs inserted into the bottle at the time of bottling. Congeners[edit] See also: Congener (alcohol), Wine chemistry and Hangover In the alcoholic beverages industry, congeners are substances produced during fermentation. These substances include small amounts of chemicals such as occasionally desired other alcohols, like propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, but also compounds that are never desired such as acetone, acetaldehyde, esters, glycols, and ethyl acetate. Congeners are responsible for most of the taste and aroma of distilled alcoholic beverages, and contribute to the taste of non-distilled drinks.[17] It has been suggested that these substances contribute to the symptoms of a hangover.[18] Tannins are congeners found in wine in the presence of phenolic compounds. Wine tannins add bitterness, have a drying sensation, taste herbaceous and are often described as astringent. Wine tannins adds balance, complexity, structure and makes a wine last longer, so they play an important role in the aging of wine.[19] Rectified spirit[edit] Rectified spirit, also called "neutral grain spirit," is alcohol which has been purified by means of "rectification" (i.e., repeated distillation). The term "neutral" refers to the spirit's lacking the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity. Rectified spirit also lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation (as is done, for example, with gin). Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage in order to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV. It is often used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants. It is used in mixed drinks, liqueurs, and tinctures, but also as a household solvent. Alcohol concentration[edit] Typical ABV ranges[20] Beers 3–15% Wines 8–17% Fortified wines 15–22% Spirits 15–98% Fruit juices < 0.1% Cider, wine coolers 4–8% Main article: Alcohol by volume The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the number of ml of pure ethanol in 100 ml of beverage) or as proof. In the United States, proof is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e.g. 80 proof = 40% ABV). Degrees proof were formerly used in the United Kingdom, where 100 degrees proof was equivalent to 57.1% ABV. Historically, this was the most dilute spirit that would sustain the combustion of gunpowder. Ordinary distillation cannot produce alcohol of more than 95.6% ABV (191.2 proof) because at that point alcohol is an azeotrope with water. A spirit which contains a very high level of alcohol and does not contain any added flavoring is commonly called a neutral spirit. Generally, any distilled alcoholic beverage of 170 proof or higher is considered to be a neutral spirit.[21] Most yeasts cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%, so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake. However, some strains of yeast have been developed that can reproduce in solutions of up to 25% ABV.[citation needed] Serving measures[edit] See also: Alcohol equivalence Shot sizes[edit] Shot sizes varies significantly from country to country. In the United Kingdom, serving size in licensed premises is regulated under the Weights and Measures Act (1985). A single serving size of spirits (gin, whisky, rum, and vodka) are sold in 25 ml or 35 ml quantities or multiples thereof.[22] Beer is typically served in pints (568 ml), but is also served in half-pints or third-pints. In Israel, a single serving size of spirits is about twice as much, 50 or 60 mL. The shape of a glass can have a significant effect on how much one pours. A Cornell University study of students and bartenders' pouring showed both groups pour more into short, wide glasses than into tall, slender glasses.[23] Aiming to pour one shot of alcohol (1.5 ounces or 44.3 ml), students on average poured 45.5 ml & 59.6 ml (30% more) respectively into the tall and short glasses. The bartenders scored similarly, on average pouring 20.5% more into the short glasses. More experienced bartenders were more accurate, pouring 10.3% less alcohol than less experienced bartenders. Practice reduced the tendency of both groups to over pour for tall, slender glasses but not for short, wide glasses. These misperceptions are attributed to two perceptual biases: (1) Estimating that tall, slender glasses have more volume than shorter, wider glasses; and (2) Over focusing on the height of the liquid and disregarding the width. Standard drinks[edit] This is a list of alcoholic beverages. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits (or distilled beverage). They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption.[1] In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Beverages by raw material 2 Fermented beverages 3 Distilled beverages 4 See also 5 References Beverages by raw material[edit] For micro-organisms, see List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation and yeast in winemaking. The names of some alcoholic beverages are determined by their raw material. Grains Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage barley beer, ale, barley wine Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, shochu (mugijochu) (Japan) rye rye beer, kvass rye whiskey, vodka (Poland), Korn (Germany) corn chicha, corn beer, tesguino Bourbon whiskey, moonshine, also vodka (rare) sorghum burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), merisa (southern Sudan), bilibili (Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon) maotai, gaoliang, certain other types of baijiu (China). wheat wheat beer horilka (Ukraine), vodka, wheat whiskey, weizenkorn (Germany) rice beer, brem (Bali), huangjiu and choujiu (China), Ruou gao (Vietnam), sake (Japan), sonti (India), makgeolli and chungju (Korea), tuak (Borneo Island), thwon (Nepal) aila (Nepal), rice baijiu (China), shochu (komejochu) and awamori (Japan), soju (Korea) millet millet beer (Sub-Saharan Africa), tongba (Nepal, Tibet), boza (the Balkans, Turkey) buckwheat shochu (sobajochu) (Japan) Fruit juice Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage grapes wine brandy, Cognac (France), Vermouth, Armagnac (France), Branntwein (Germany), pisco (Peru, Chile), (Grozdova) Rakia (The Balkans, Turkey), singani (Bolivia), Arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan), törkölypálinka (Hungary) apples cider (U.S.: "hard cider"), Apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), calvados, cider pears perry, or pear cider; poiré (France) Poire Williams, pear brandy, Eau-de-vie (France), pálinka (Hungary), Krushova rakia / Krushevitsa (Bulgaria) plums plum wine slivovitz, ?uica, umeshu, pálinka, Slivova rakia / Slivovitsa (Bulgaria) apricots Kaisieva rakia (Bulgaria), pálinka (Hungary) pineapples tepache (Mexico), Pineapple Wine (Hawaii) juniper berries gin, borovicka (Slovakia) bananas or plantains Chuoi hot (Vietnam), Cauim (Kuna Indians of Panama), urgwagwa (Uganda, Rwanda), mbege (with millet malt; Tanzania), kasikisi (with sorghum malt; Democratic Republic of the Congo) gouqi gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China) coconut Toddy (Sri Lanka, India) arrack, lambanog (Sri Lanka, India, Philippines) ginger with sugar, ginger with raisins ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger wine Myrica rubra yangmei jiu (China) yangmei jiu (China) pomace pomace wine Raki/Ouzo/Pastis/Sambuca (Turkey/Greece/France/Italy), tsipouro/tsikoudia (Greece), grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France), orujo (Spain), zivania (Cyprus), Bagaço (Portugal), tescovina (Romania), Arak (Iraq) Vegetables Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage cassava Saliva-fermented beverages: Cauim chicha: Throughout the Amazon Basin, including the interiors of Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, chicha is made most often with cassava). in Peruvian Amazonia chichia is known as masato. kasiri (Sub-Saharan Africa) nihamanchi (South America) aka nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru) Parakari (Guyana) Sakurá (Brazil, Surinam) tiquira (Brazil) ginger root juice ginger beer (Botswana) potato potato beer horilka (Ukraine), vodka (Poland and Germany), akvavit (Scandinavia), poitín (poteen) (Ireland), tuzemák (Czech Republic) sweet potato shochu (imojochu) (Japan), soju (Korea) sugarcane juice, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum (Caribbean), Venezuela, Colombia, Nicaragua, pinga or cachaça (Brasil), aguardiente, guaro, Gongo, Konyagi (Tanzania); rhum agricole (Haiti, Martinique, Guadeloupe and the rest of the French Caribbean), clairin (Haiti) agave juice pulque tequila, mezcal, raicilla Other raw materials Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage sap of palm coyol wine (Central America), tembo (Sub-Saharan Africa), toddy (Indian subcontinent) sap of Arenga pinnata, Coconut, Borassus flabellifer Tuak (Indonesia), tuba (Philippines) Arrack honey mead, horilka (Ukraine), tej (Ethiopia) distilled mead, honey-flavored liqueur milk kumis, kefir, blaand arkhi (Mongolia) sugar kilju and mead or sima (Finland) shochu (kokuto shochu): made from brown sugar (Japan) Fermented beverages[edit] Founders Old Curmudgeon old ale A hard cider produced in Michigan state, U.S. Palm wine is collected, fermented and stored in calabashes in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo Desi daru from India Beer Ale Barleywine Bitter ale Brown ale Mild ale Old ale Pale ale Scotch ale Porter (dark beer made from brown malt) Stout (strong Porter) Cask ale Stock ale Fruit Beer Lager Pale lager (also "Dry beer", made with a slow acting yeast that ferments at a low temperature while being stored) Bock (strong lager) Maerzen/Oktoberfest Beer Pilsener (lighter lager brewed with partially malted barley) Schwarzbier (dark lager) Sahti (Finnish) Small beer (very low alcohol) Wheat beer (or "Hefeweizen", made with wheat in addition to malted barley) Witbier ("White Beer", made with herbs or fruit instead of or in addition to hops) Cauim (made from cassava or maize) Chicha (made from cassava, maize root, grape, apple or other fruits) Cider (made from apple juice or other fruit juice) Perry (pear cider) Plum jerkum (made from plums) Desi daru, made by fermenting molasses or high sugar containing fruits Huangjiu (Chinese, made from rice, millet, or wheat using a special starter culture of yeast, mold, and bacteria) Icariine Liquor Kasiri (made from cassava) Kilju (Finnish, made from sugar) Kumis (Central Asia, traditionally made from horse milk but now primarily cow milk) Mead (made from honey) Nihamanchi (South America) aka nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru) (made from cassava) Palm wine (made from the sap of various palm trees) Pulque (originally made by the natives of Mexico, made from the sap of the maguey plant) Parakari (made from cassava) Sakurá (made from cassava) Sake (made from rice) Sonti Mustafa Karasu Mustafa Yamulki Murat Karayilan Nadhim Zahawi Nado Makhmudov Najm ad Din Ayyub Najmadin Shukr Rauf Najmiddin Karim Nalin Pekgul Narmin Othman Nawshirwan Mustafa Nechervan Idris Barzani Nizamettin Tas Nursel Aydogan Nusrat Bhutto Orhan Dogan Orhan Miroglu Osman Baydemir Osman Öcalan Özlem Cekic Pervin Buldan Qazi Muhammad Rassul Mamand Rowsch Shaways Riya Qahtan Roya Toloui Sadegh Sharafkandi Sadet Karabulut Saladin Saleh Yousefi Salih Muslim Muhammad Sedigh Kamangar Selim Sadak Sevahir Bayindir Shahab Sheikh Nuri Sharaf Khan Bidlisi Shaikh Mahmood Barzenji Sheikh Ubeydullah Shibal Ibrahim Shirkuh Simko Shikak Soraya Serajeddini Sulaiman Shah Tamar Fattah Ramadhan Kuchar Taha Muhie eldin Marouf Taha Yassin Ramadan Theophobos Walid Jumblatt Widad Akrawi Yitzhak Mordechai Zübeyir Aydar Film directors and actors edit Bahman Ghobadi Behrouz Gharibpour Dilsa Demirbag Sten Dilshad Meriwani Ghotbeddin Sadeghi Hisham Zaman Huner Saleem Jamil Rostami Jano Rosebiani Kadir Talabani Mahmoud el Meliguy Mano Khalil Nisti Stęrk Shahram Alidi Shero Rauf Yilmaz Güney Yilmaz Erdogan Yüksel Yavuz Zeynel Dogan Hulya Avsar Rojda Demirer Belçim Bilgin Sport edit Aziz Yildirim Ahmad Al Salih Ahmad Karzan Amar Suloev Aram Khalili Avar Raza Aziz Shavershian Bovar Karim Celal Ibrahim Dara Mohammed Deniz Naki Ahmad Meshari Al Adwani Dr Abdul Razzak Al Adwani Thuraya Al Baqsami Abdullah Al Buloushi Jaber Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah Abdulaziz Al Anberi Fahad AlSharekh Abdul Rahman Al Sumait Faisal Al Dakhil Fehaid Al Deehani Mohammed al Ghareeb Wael Sulaiman Al Habashi Zaid Al Harb Jassem Al Houwaidi Ibrahim Khraibut Faiza Al Kharafi Jassem Al Kharafi Nasser Al Kharafi Abdullah III Al Salim Al Sabah Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah Nasser Al Mohammed Al Ahmed Al Sabah Bader Al Nashi Nawaf Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah Saad Al Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah Abdallah Saleh Ali Al Ajmi Jamal Mubarak Ibrahim Al Mudhaf Bader Al Mutwa Abu Obeida Tawari al Obeidi Abdullah Abdul Latif Al Othman Abdullah Al Refai Ahmed al Rubei Sabah III Al Salim Al Sabah Salem Al Ali A Sabah Salem Sabah Al Salem Al Sabah Salim Al Mubarak Al Sabah Nawaf Al Mutairi Fahad Al Rashidi Ahmed Al Sadoun Fawzi Al Shammari Anouvong Boua Bounkhong Bouasone Bouphavanh Laasaenthai Bouvanaat General Cheng Fa Khai Fa Ngum Fay Na Huy of Champasak Sisavath Keobounphanh Kham Nai Kham Souk of Champasak Kham Oun I Khamphoui Khamtum Khun Lo Lan Kham Deng Somsavat Lengsavad Manoi Meunsai Nang Keo Phimpha Nark of Champasak No Muong Nokasad Ong Keo Ong Kommandam Chamleunesouk Ao Oudomphonh Boun Oum Oun Kham Mam Manivan Phanivong Phia Sing Phommathat Kaysone Phomvihane Photisarath Souvanna Phouma Nouhak Phoumsavanh Phetsarath Rattanavongsa Ouane Rattikone Ratsadanay Samsenethai Thayavong Savang Vong Savang A edit Augusts Vilis Abakuks – – a leader of the British Latvian community in exile Valerians Abakovskis – – inventor of a propeller powered railcar the aerowagon Rutanya Alda Rutanya Alda Skrastina born – actress Mommy Dearest Deer Hunter Viktors Alksnis born – Soviet military officer and Russian communist politician known as "the Black Colonel" Juris Alunans writer and philologist Ingrida Andrina – actress Iveta Apkalna born – organist Fricis Apšenieks – – chess player Vija Artmane – – actress Aspazija pen name of Elza Pliekšane poet and playwright Gunars Astra – – dissident fighter for human rights Auseklis see Mikelis Krogzems B edit Ainars Bagatskis born – basketball player Helmuts Balderis born – ice hockey player forward Janis Balodis – – army officer and politician Janis Balodis born – Latvian Australian playwright Karlis Balodis – – notable economist financist statistician and demographist Krišjanis Barons – – "the father of Latvian folk songs" who compiled and edited the first publication of Latvian folk song texts "Latvju Dainas" – Mihails Barišnikovs born – ballet dancer Karlis Baumanis – – composer author of the national anthem of the Republic of Latvia "Dievs sveti Latviju " God bless Latvia Vizma Belševica – – author candidate for Nobel Prize in Literature Eduards Berklavs – – politician leader of Latvian national communists Krišjanis Berkis – – general Dairis Bertans born – basketball player Isaiah Berlin Jesaja Berlins – – philosopher Eduards Berzinš – – soldier in the Red Army later Head of Dalstroy the Kolyma forced labour camps in North Eastern Siberia Kaspars Berzinš born – basketball player Karlis Betinš – – chess player Andris Biedrinš born – basketball player Gunars Birkerts born – architect Miervaldis Birze – – writer Ernests Blanks – – Latvian publicist writer historian the first to publicly advocate for Latvia s independence Rudolfs Blaumanis – – writer and playwright Himans Blums – – painter Janis Blums born – basketball player Arons Bogolubovs born – Olympic medalist judoka Baiba Broka born – actress Inguna Butane – fashion model C edit Valters Caps – – designed first Minox x photocameras Aleksandrs Cauna born – footballer Gustavs Celminš – – fascist politician leader of Perkonkrusts movement Vija Celmins born – American painter born in Latvia C edit Maris Caklais – poet Aleksandrs Caks – – poet Janis Cakste – – first Latvian president Tanhum Cohen Mintz Latvian born Israeli basketball player D edit Roberts Dambitis – – general and politician Janis Dalinš – – athlete race walker Emils Darzinš – – composer Kaspars Daugavinš born – ice hockey player Jacob Davis – – inventor of denim Johans Aleksandrs Heinrihs Klapje de Kolongs – – naval engineer Eliass Eliezers Desslers – – Orthodox rabbi Talmudic scholar and Jewish philosopher Leor Dimant born – the DJ for the rap metal group Limp Bizkit Anatols Dinbergs – – diplomat Aleksis Dreimanis born – geologist Inga Drozdova born – model and actress Olgerts Dunkers – – actor and film director E edit Mihails Eizenšteins – – architect Sergejs Eizenšteins – – film director Modris Eksteins born – Canadian historian and writer Andrievs Ezergailis born – historian of the Holocaust F edit Movša Feigins – – chess player Gregors Fitelbergs – – conductor composer and violinist Vesels fon Freitags Loringhofens – – colonel and member of the German resistance against German dictator Adolf Hitler Laila Freivalds born – former Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs G edit Inese Galante born – opera singer soprano Gints Gabrans born – artist Elina Garanca born – opera singer mezzo soprano Karlis Goppers – – general founder of Latvian Boy Scouts Andrejs Grants born – photographer Ernests Gulbis born – tennis player Natalija Gulbis born – Latvian descent LPGA golfer G edit Uldis Germanis – – historian under the alias of Ulafs Jansons a social commentator Aivars Gipslis – – chess player H edit Moriss Halle born – linguist Filips Halsmans – – Latvian American photographer Juris Hartmanis born – computer scientist Turing Award winner Uvis Helmanis – basketball player I edit Arturs Irbe born – ice hockey player goalkeeper Karlis Irbitis – – aviation inventor engineer designer J edit Gatis Jahovics – basketball player Mariss Jansons born – conductor Inese Jaunzeme born – athlete Rashida Jones born Latvian American actress K edit Aivars Kalejs born organist composer Sandra Kalniete born – politician diplomat former Latvia s EU commissioner Bruno Kalninš – – Saeima member Red Army General Imants Kalninš born – composer politician Oskars Kalpaks – – colonel first Commander of Latvian National Armed Forces Kaspars Kambala born – basketball player Martinš Karsums born – ice hockey player Reinis Kaudzite writer and journalist Renars Kaupers – musician Jekabs Ketlers – – Duke of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia Gustavs Klucis – – painter and graphic designer Aleksandrs Koblencs – – chess player Abrams Izaks Kuks – – chief rabbi Jewish thinker statesman diplomat mediator and a renowned scholar Aleksandrs Kovalevskis – – zoologist Gidons Kremers born – violinist and conductor Mikelis Krogzems – – poet author and translator of German poets Juris Kronbergs born – poet writer free lance journalist translator Atis Kronvalds – – teacher and journalist reformed the Latvian language organized the first Latvian Song and Dance Festival Dainis Kula born – athlete Olympic gold medal in javelin Alberts Kviesis – – president of Latvia L edit Aleksandrs Laime – – explorer Vilis Lacis – – author and politician Ginta Lapina born – fashion model Natalija Lašenova – gymnastics Olympic champion team Ed Leedskalnin Edvards Liedskalninš – – builder of Coral Castle in Florida claimed to have discovered the ancient magnetic levitation secrets used to construct the Egyptian pyramids Jekabs Mihaels Reinholds Lencs – – author Marija Leiko – – actress Aleksandrs Liepa – – inventor artist Maris Liepa – – ballet dancer Maksims Lihacovs born – professional football player Peggy Lipton born Latvian American actress Nikolajs Loskis – – philosopher Janis Lusis born – athlete Olympic champion L edit Jevgenija Lisicina born – organist M edit Maris Martinsons born film director producer screenwriter and film editor Hermanis Matisons – – chess player Zenta Maurina – – writer literary scholar culture philosopher Juris Maters – – author lawyer and journalist translated laws to Latvian and created the foundation for Latvian law Janis Medenis poet Arnis Mednis singer Zigfrids Anna Meierovics – – first Latvian Minister of Foreign Affairs Leo Mihelsons – – artist Arnolds Mikelsons – – artist Jevgenijs Millers – – czarist Russian general Karlis Milenbahs – – linguist N edit Arkadijs Naidics born – chess player now resident in Germany Andris Nelsons born – conductor of The Boston Symphony Orchestra Andrievs Niedra – – pastor writer prime minister of German puppet government Arons Nimcovics – – influential chess player Reinis Nitišs born World Rallycross driver Fred Norris born – Radio personality The Howard Stern Show O edit Stanislavs Olijars born – athlete European champion in m Hurdles Vilhelms Ostvalds – – received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his work on catalysis chemical equilibria and reaction velocities Elvira Ozolina born – athlete Olympic gold medal in javelin Sandis Ozolinš born – ice hockey player defense Valdemars Ozolinš – – composer conductor P edit Artis Pabriks born – Minister of Foreign Affairs – Karlis Padegs – – Graphic artist painter Marians Pahars born – soccer player Raimonds Pauls born – popular composer widely known in Russia Lucija Peka – – Artist of the Latvian Diaspora Jekabs Peterss – – revolutionary and Soviet Cheka leader Brita Petersone – American model Kaspars Petrovs born – serial killer Vladimirs Petrovs – – chess player Oskars Perro – Latvian soldier and writer Andris Piebalgs born – politician diplomat European Commissioner for Energy Janis Pliekšans – – distinguished Latvian writer author of a number of poetry collections Juris Podnieks – – film director producer Nikolajs Polakovs – – Coco the Clown Janis Poruks writer Rosa von Praunheim born – film director author painter and gay rights activist Sandis Prusis born – athlete bobsleigh Uldis Pucitis actor director Janis Pujats born – Roman Catholic cardinal Andrejs Pumpurs – – poet author of Latvian national epic Lacplesis R edit Rainis pseudonym of Janis Pliekšans poet and playwright Dans Rapoports American financier and philanthropist Lauris Reiniks – singer songwriter actor and TV personality Einars Repše born – politician Lolita Ritmanis born – orchestrator composer Ilja Ripss born inventor of the Bible Code Fricis Rokpelnis – – author Marks Rotko – – abstract expressionist painter Elza Rozenberga – – poet playwright married to Janis Pliekšans Juris Rubenis born – famous Lutheran pastor Martinš Rubenis born – athlete bronze medalist at the Winter Olympics in Turin Brunis Rubess born – businessman Inta Ruka born – photographer Tana Rusova born – pornographic actress S edit Rudolfs Saule born ballet master performer with the Latvian National Ballet Uljana Semjonova born – basketball player Haralds Silovs – short track and long track speed skater Karlis Skalbe – – poet Karlis Skrastinš – – ice hockey player Baiba Skride born – violinist Konstantins Sokolskis – – romance and tango singer Ksenia Solo born Latvian Canadian actress Serge Sorokko born art dealer and publisher Raimonds Staprans born – Latvian American painter Janis Šteinhauers – – Latvian industrialist entrepreneur and civil rights activist Gotthard Friedrich Stender – the first Latvian grammarian Lina Šterna – – biologist and social activist Roze Stiebra born animator Henrijs Stolovs – – stamp dealer Janis Streics born – film director screenwriter actor Janis Strelnieks born – basketball player Peteris Stucka – – author translator editor jurist and educator Janis Sudrabkalns poet and journalist Jevgenijs Svešnikovs born – prominent chess player Stanislavs Svjanevics – – economist and historian Š edit Viktors Šcerbatihs born – athlete weightlifter Pauls Šimanis – – Baltic German journalist politician activist defending and preserving European minority cultures Vestards Šimkus born – pianist Aleksejs Širovs born – chess player Andris Škele born – politician Prime Minister of Latvia Armands Škele – basketball player Ksenia Solo born – actress Ernests Štalbergs – – architect ensemble of the Freedom Monument Izaks Nahmans Šteinbergs – – politician lawyer and author Maris Štrombergs – BMX cyclist gold medal winner at and Olympics T edit Esther Takeuchi born – materials scientist and chemical engineer Mihails Tals – – the th World Chess Champion Janis Roberts Tilbergs – – painter sculptor U edit Guntis Ulmanis born – president of Latvia Karlis Ulmanis – – prime minister and president of Latvia


abby-lane abby-rode abigail-clayton ada-tauler addie-juniper addison-cain adele-wiesenthal adeline-lange adeline-pollicina adriana-amante adrianna-laurenti adrianna-russo agnes agnes-ardant agnes-zalontai aimee-addison aisha-sun aja aleena-ferari alessandra-schiavo aletta-ocean alexandra-nice alexandria-cass alexa-parks alex-dane alex-foxe alexia-knight alexis-devell alexis-firestone alexis-greco alexis-payne alexis-x alex-storm alex-white aliana-love alice-springs alicia-alighatti alicia-monet alicia-rio alicyn-sterling alighiera-olena ali-moore aline-santos alissa-ashley allysin-chaynes alysin-embers alyssa-love alyssa-reece amanda-addams amanda-blake amanda-blue amanda-jane-adams amanda-rae amanda-stone amanda-tyler amber-hunt amberlina-lynn amber-lynn amber-michaels amber-peach amber-wild amber-woods ambrosia-fox amia-miley ami-rodgers amy-allison amy-brooke amy-rose amy-starz anastasia-christ anastasia-sands andrea-adams andrea-brittian andrea-lange andrea-true andy angel angela-baron angela-summers angel-barrett angel-cash angel-cruz angel-cummings angel-ducharme angelica-sin angelika-reschner angelina-brasini angelina-korrs angelina-valentine angel-kelly angel-long angel-west angie-knight anita-andic anita-blond anita-cannibal anita-dark anna-belle anna-malle anna-nikova anna-pierce anna-ventura anna-veruska anne-bie-warburg anne-libert anne-magle anne-sand annette-haven annie-sprinkle ann-kiray ann-marie-michelle antonia-dorian april-flowers april-may april-west arcadia-lake ariana-bali ariana-jollee arlana-blue ashley-anne ashley-brooks ashley-coda ashley-fires ashley-lauren ashley-long ashley-marie ashley-nicole ashley-perk ashley-renee ashley-robbins ashley-welles ashley-wells ashley-winger ashlyn-gere astrid-bone athena-star aubrey-nichols aurora aurora-snow autumn-bliss autumn-rayne ava-devine ava-lauren avalon ava-marteens avy-lee-roth bailey-monroe bambi-allen barbara-bourbon barbara-boutet barbara-dare barbara-doll barbara-moose barbarella barbie-angel barbie-doll barett-moore bea-fiedler beata beatrice-poggi beatrice-valle becky-savage becky-sunshine belinda-butterfield bella-donna bethany-sweet beverly-bliss beverly-glen biggi-stenzhorn bionca black-widow blond-cat blondi blue-angel bobbi-bliss bobbi-dean bobbie-burns bonnie-holiday brandee brandi-edwards brandy-alexandre brandy-dean brandy-lee brandy-smile brandy-wine bree-anthony breezy-lane brenda-basse briana-blair bridgette-belle bridgette-monet bridgette-monroe bridget-waters brigitte-lahaie brigitte-monnin brigitte-verbecq brittany brittany-stryker britt-corvin britt-morgan bronze brooke-bennett brooke-fields brooke-haven brooke-west brook-van-buuren buffy-davis bunnie-blake bunny-bleu bunny-hatton busty-belle cali-caramel calisyn-heart cameo cameron-love camila-sampaio camilla-rhodes camille-morgan camrie-foxxx candace-daley candi candida-royalle candie-evens candi-summers candy-apples candy-barr candy-hill candy-samples candy-stanton cara-lott caressa-savage carmel-nougat carmen-blonde carmen-de-la-torre carmen-moore carmen-rose carol-connors carol-cross carol-cummings carole-dubois carole-gire carole-pierac carol-titian carolyn-connoly carolyn-monroe carrie-cruise cassandra-leigh cassidy cassie-courtland cataline-bullock catherine-count catherine-crystal catherine-ringer catherine-tailleferre cathy-delorme cathy-menard cathy-stewart celeste-fox celine-gallone chanel-preston chanel-price chantal-virapin chanta-rose chantelle-stevens charisma charisma-cole charlie-latour charlie-waters charlotte-de-castille charmane-star chasey-lain chayse-manhattan chaz-vincent chelsea-sinclaire chennin-blanc cheri-janvier cheri-taylor cherry-hill chessie-moore cheyenne-hunter cheyenne-silver china-lee china-leigh china-moon chloe-cruize chloe-dior chloe-kez chloe-stevens chris-collins chris-jordan chris-petersen chrissie-beauchamp christa-abel christa-ludwig christie-ford christi-lake christina-berg christina-blond christina-evol christina-skye christine-black christine-chavert christine-neona christine-rigoler christy-canyon cicciolina cindi-stephens cindy-carver cindy-crawford cindy-more cindy-shepard cindy-wong cinthya-marinho clair-dia claire-robbins claude-janna claudia-jackson claudia-jamsson claudia-mehringer claudia-nero claudia-van-statt claudia-zante claudine-beccarie clea-carson cleo-nichole cleo-patra cody-lane cody-love cody-nicole coffee-brown colleen-brennan connie-bennett connie-peterson constance-money copper-penny coreena corey-everson corinne-lemoine corneliah cory-everson cory-wolf courtney courtney-cummz courtney-james cris-cassidy crissy-moran cris-taliana crystal-breeze crystal-dawn crystal-holland crystal-knight crystal-lake crystal-lovin crystal-sync csilla-kalnay cuban-bee cynara-fox cyndee-summers cynthia-black cynthia-brooks cynthia-hammers cynthia-lavigne dagmar-lost daisy-layne dallas-miko dana-dylan dana-lynn danica-rhea daniela-nanou daniela-schiffer daniele-troeger daniella daniella-schiffer danielle danielle-foxxx danielle-rodgers danny-ricci danyel-cheeks daphne daphne-rosen darby-lloyd-rains darla-crane darla-delovely davia-ardell dayton-rain debbie-northrup debbie-revenge debbie-van-gils debi-diamond debi-jointed debra-lynn deidra-hopkins deidre-holland delania-raffino delia-moore delphine-thail delta-force delta-white demi-moor denice-klarskov denise-derringer denise-dior denise-sloan desiree-cousteau desiree-foxx desiree-lane desiree-west deva-station devin-devasquez devinn-lane devon-shire dia diana-holt diana-kisabonyi diana-siefert diana-stevenson diane-dubois diane-richards diane-sloan diane-suresne dido-angel dillan-lauren dina-deville dina-jewel dina-pearl ditty-blue diva divinity-love djiana dolly-darkley dominique dominique-dewitt dominique-saint-claire donna-hart donna-marie dorle-buchner dorothy-lemay dorothy-onan drea drimla dru-berrymore dusty-rose dyanna-lauren ebony-ayes edina-blond edita-ungerova edwige-faillel eileen-wells elaine-southern elena-berkova elena-maria-ricci eleonore-melzer elisabeth-bure elis-black elise elise-di-medici elle-devyne elle-rio elodie-delage elsa-maroussia elza-brown emili-doll emily-evermoore emily-george emily-jewel emmanuelle-pareze envy-mi erica-boyer erica-eaton erica-havens erica-idol erica-lauren erika-bella erika-cool erika-heaven erika-lockett esme-monroe eva-allen eva-angel eva-dionisio eva-gross eva-kleber eva-lux eva-uettori eve-laurence evelyne-lang evie-delatosso fabiana-venturi faith-stevens fallon fanny-garreau fanny-steel faye-runaway flame flick-shagwell flore-soller flower france-lomay france-quenie francoise frankie-leigh gabriella gabriella-mirelba gabriella-vincze gail-force gail-palmer gail-sterling georgette-saunders georgia-peach georgina-spelvin gia-givanna gianna-lynn gili-sky gina-carrera gina-gianetti gina-janssen gina-lee gina-martell gina-valentino ginger-jay ginger-lee ginger-lynn ginny-noack giovanna gisela-schwarz giselle-monet gladys-laroche gloria-leonard gloria-todd golden-jade greta-carlson greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade hazel-young heather-deeley heather-ellis heather-hart heather-lere heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray isabella-dior isabella-soprano isabelle-allay isabelle-brell isabelle-marchall isobel-wren iveta ivette-blanche jackie-right jacqueline-lorians jacy-allen jada-stevens jade-east jade-hsu jade-marcela jade-summers jade-wong jahn-gold jamie-brooks jamie-james jamie-summers jana-irrova jana-mrazkova jane-baker jane-darling jane-iwanoff jane-lindsay jane-lixx janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold jean-afrique jeanette-littledove jeanie-marie-sullivan jean-jennings jeanna-fine jeannie-pepper jenna-jameson jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante jennifer-noxt jennifer-stewart jennifer-welles jennifer-west jenny jenny-feeling jenny-fields jenny-wings jersey-jaxin jesie-st-james jesse-capelli jessica-bangkok jessica-bogart jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde jessi-foster jill-ferari jill-kelly joana-redgrave joan-devlon joanna-storm joanna-sweet jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black jordana-james jordan-green jordan-nevaeh jordan-star josephine-carrington joslyn-james julia-chanel julia-dal-fuoco juliana-grandi julia-paes julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde kristina-king kristina-klevits kristina-soderszk kristine-heller kristin-steen krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie lacy-rose lady-amanda-wyldefyre lady-stephanie laetitia-bisset lana-burner lana-cox lana-wood lara-amour lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya laura-clair laura-lazare laura-lion laura-may laura-orsolya laura-paouck laura-zanzibar lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith lauryl-canyon lauryn-may leah-wilde lea-magic lea-martini leanna-foxxx lee-caroll leigh-livingston leilani lenora-bruce leslie-winston lesllie-bovee letizia-bruni lexi-lane lexi-matthews lezley-zen lia-fire liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau lily-rodgers lily-valentine linda-shaw linda-vale linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring lisa-lake lisa-melendez lisa-sue-corey lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz maryanne-fisher mary-hubay mary-ramunno mary-stuart mascha-mouton maud-kennedy mauvais-denoir maxine-tyler maya-black maya-france megan-leigh megan-martinez megan-reece mei-ling melanie-hotlips melanie-scott melba-cruz melinda-russell melissa-bonsardo melissa-del-prado melissa-golden melissa-martinez melissa-melendez melissa-monet mercedes-dragon mercedes-lynn merle-michaels mesha-lynn mia-beck mia-lina mia-smiles michele-raven michelle-aston michelle-ferrari michelle-greco michelle-maren michelle-maylene michelle-monroe micki-lynn mika-barthel mika-tan mikki-taylor mimi-morgan mindy-rae ming-toy miranda-stevens miss-bunny miss-meadow miss-pomodoro missy missy-graham missy-stone missy-vega misti-jane mistress-candice misty-anderson misty-dawn misty-rain misty-regan mona-lisa mona-page moni monica-baal monica-swinn monika-peta monika-sandmayr monika-unco monique-bruno monique-cardin monique-charell monique-demoan monique-gabrielle monique-la-belle morgan-fairlane morrigan-hel moxxie-maddron mulani-rivera mysti-may nadege-arnaud nadia-styles nadine-bronx nadine-proutnal nadine-roussial nadi-phuket nanci-suiter nancy-hoffman nancy-vee natacha-delyro natalia-wood natalli-diangelo natascha-throat natasha-skyler naudia-nyce nessa-devil nessy-grant nesty nicki-hunter nicky-reed nicole-berg nicole-bernard nicole-black nicole-grey nicole-london nicole-parks nicole-scott nicole-taylor nicolette-fauludi nicole-west nika-blond nika-mamic niki-cole nikita-love nikita-rush nikki-charm nikki-grand nikki-king nikki-knight nikki-randall nikki-rhodes nikki-santana nikki-steele nikki-wilde niko nina-cherry nina-deponca nina-hartley nina-preta oana-efria obaya-roberts olesja-derevko olga-cabaeva olga-conti olga-pechova olga-petrova olivia-alize olivia-del-rio olivia-flores olivia-la-roche olivia-outre ophelia-tozzi orchidea-keresztes orsolya-blonde paige-turner paisley-hunter pamela-bocchi pamela-jennings pamela-mann pamela-stanford pamela-stealt pandora paola-albini pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn sabrina-jade sabrina-johnson sabrina-love-cox sabrina-mastrolorenzi sabrina-rose sabrina-scott sabrina-summers sacha-davril sahara sahara-sands sai-tai-tiger samantha-fox samantha-ryan samantha-sterlyng samantha-strong samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco sandra-kalermen sandra-russo sandy-lee sandy-pinney sandy-reed sandy-samuel sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills sarah-shine sara-sloane sasha sasha-hollander sasha-ligaya sasha-rose satine-phoenix satin-summer savannah-stern savanna-jane scarlet-scarleau scarlet-windsor seka selena serena serena-south severine-amoux shana-evans shanna-mccullough shannon-kelly shannon-rush shantell-day sharon-da-vale sharon-kane sharon-mitchell shaun-michelle shawna-sexton shawnee-cates shay-hendrix shayne-ryder sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin shelly-lyons sheri-st-clair sheyla-cats shonna-lynn shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white tammy tammy-lee tammy-reynolds tania-lorenzo tantala-ray tanya-danielle tanya-fox tanya-foxx tanya-lawson tanya-valis tara-aire tasha-voux tatjana-belousova tatjana-skomorokhova tawnee-lee tawny-pearl tayla-rox taylor-wane teddi-austin teddi-barrett tera-bond tera-heart tera-joy teresa-may teresa-orlowski teri-diver teri-weigel terri-dolan terri-hall tess-ferre tess-newheart thais-vieira tia-cherry tianna tiara tiffany-blake tiffany-clark tiffany-duponte tiffany-rayne tiffany-rousso tiffany-storm tiffany-towers tiffany-tyler tiger-lily tigr timea-vagvoelgyi tina-blair tina-burner tina-evil tina-gabriel tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose tonisha-mills topsy-curvey tori-secrets tori-sinclair tori-welles tracey-adams traci-lords traci-topps traci-winn tracy-duzit tracy-love tracy-williams tricia-devereaux tricia-yen trinity-loren trisha-rey trista-post trixie-tyler ultramax ursula-gaussmann ursula-moore uschi-karnat valentina valerie-leveau valery-hilton vanessa-chase vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville velvet-summers veri-knotty veronica-dol veronica-hart veronica-hill veronica-rayne veronica-sage veronika-vanoza via-paxton vicky-lindsay vicky-vicci victoria-evans victoria-gold victoria-knight victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok viper virginie-caprice vivian-valentine vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears whitney-wonders wonder-tracey wow-nikki xanthia-berstein yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies





Tepache Tonto Tiswin (made from corn or saguaro, a large cactus) Wine Fruit wine Table wine Sangria Sparkling wine Champagne Fortified wine Port Madeira Marsala Sherry Vermouth Vinsanto Distilled beverages[edit] A reservoir glass filled with a naturally colored verte absinthe, next to an absinthe spoon Various views of a bottle of mezcal. The "worm", which is actually the larval form of the moth Hypopta agavis that lives on the agave plant, can be seen in the middle image, at the bottom of the bottle. Various bottles and containers of Russian vodka A distilled beverage, spirit, or liquor is an alcoholic beverage containing ethanol that is produced by distilling (i.e., concentrating by distillation) ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.[2] This excludes undistilled fermented beverages such as beer, wine, and cider. Vodka, gin, baijiu, tequila, rum, whisky, brandy, Singani[3] and soju are examples of distilled beverages. Hard liquor is used in North America and India to distinguish distilled beverages from undistilled ones (implicitly weaker). Spirits Absinthe Akvavit Applejack Arak Arrack Awamori Baijiu Borovicka Cachaça Gin Damson gin Sloe gin Horilka Kaoliang Maotai Metaxa Mezcal Neutral grain spirit Ogogoro Ouzo Palinka Pisco Poitín are alcoholic beverages that are bottled with added sugar and have added flavors that are usually derived from fruits, herbs, or nuts. Liqueurs are distinct from eaux-de-vie, fruit brandy, and flavored liquors, which contain no added sugar. Most liqueurs range between 15% and 55% alcohol by volume. Contents [hide] 1 Berry liqueurs 2 Chocolate liqueurs 3 Coffee liqueurs 4 Cream liqueurs 5 Crčme liqueurs 6 Flower liqueurs 7 Fruit liqueurs 8 Herbal liqueurs 8.1 Anise-flavored liqueurs 8.2 Other herbal liqueurs 9 Honey liqueurs 10 Nut-flavored liqueurs 11 Whisky liqueurs 12 Other liqueurs 13 See also 14 References Berry liqueurs[edit] Pochteca Blackberry Liqueur 99 Berries Afinata (bilberry) Arrabidine Chambord (raspberry) Crčme de cassis (blackcurrant) FAIR. Goji Liqueur Guavaberry (guavaberry) Hideous (potato neutral spirit, with added natural flavors derived from berries grown in the state of Washington [including raspberries and other berries] and citrus fruits) Lakka (cloudberry) Lillehammer (lingonberry) Zurawinówka (cranberry) Murtado (ugniberry) Polar Cranberry Prunelle (sloe) Razzmatazz (raspberry) Sloe gin (sloe) VeeV (açaí) Whidbeys (loganberry) XUXU (strawberry) Chocolate liqueurs[edit] Pochteca Chocolate Liqueur Main article: Chocolate liqueur Coffee liqueurs[edit] Allen's Coffee Brandy Arakú Aruba Arehucas Bahia Coffee Liqueur Bicabagaço - Coffee Liqueur and Pomace Brandy Bols Coffee Liqueur Café Aztec Café Britt Coffee Liqueur Café Oriental Café Marakesh Café Rica Cafecito (Revolution Spirits) Caffč Borghetti Caffe Del Fuego Coloma Copa De Oro DARK, American-made, all natural coffee liqueur from Prairie Wolf Spirits Distillery Duchalet Café Liqueur Dwersteg's Organic Coffee Liqueur Espresso Bohęme The Evil Monk[1] FAIR. Café Liqueur Fruko-Schulz Coffee Liqueur Galliano Ristretto illy Espresso Liqueur Jamaica Blue Mountain Mist from J. Wray & Nephew Kahlúa Kaloré Kamora Kapali Keuck Türkisch Mokka Kona Gold Kosaken Kaffee De Kuyper Crčme de Café Lauterer Luft Leroux Coffee-Flavored Brandy. Mokatika Mr. Boston Coffee-Flavored Brandy. Onyx Liqueur Patron XO CAFE Pochteca Coffee Liqueur Sabra Sabroso Sheridan's Starbucks Coffee Liqueur - Discontinued 2010 St. George Spirits NOLA Coffee Liqueur Tia Maria Toussaint Coffee Liqueur Trader Vic's Kona Vibe Robusta Coffee Liqueur Vok Coffee Liqueur Walders Scotch and Coffee Creamy Liqueur Cream liqueurs[edit] Main article: Cream liqueur A bottle and glass of Carolans Advocaat Amarula (sugar, cream, and the fruit of the African marula tree) Baileys Irish Cream Baja Rosa Cape Velvet Carolans Creme de la Creme Maple Cream Liqueur Cruzan Rum Cream Dooley's Drumgray Highland Cream Liqueur Dulce de Leche Liqueur (Caribbean rum, caramel and cream) Dwersteg's Organic Coffee Cream Liqueur Emmets Classic Cream: Irelands Cream Liqueur Fruko-Schulz Cream Liqueur Hare Turkish Coffee Cream Liqueur Heather Cream (A Scottish Cream Liqueur) Keke Beach Key Lime Cream Liqueur Kerrygold Irish Cream Liqueur McCormick's Irish Cream Merlyn Cream Liqueur Mozart Gold Chocolate Cream Mozart White Chocolate Cream O'Leary's Irish Cream Ponche Caribe Ponche crema Ponche Diva Ponche Kuba Rompope RumChata Sangster's Saint Brendan's Irish Cream Liqueur SomruS - Nectar of Gods (The Original Indian Cream Liqueur) Staibano Amalfi Smooth (Lemon liqueur from Amalfi, carrying Limone Costa d'Amalfi I.G.P. .) Starbucks Cream Liqueur Tequila Rose Vana Tallinn Cream Vermeer Dutch Chocolate Cream Liqueur VOODOO Cream Liqueur Voyant Chai Cream (a chai-flavoured liqueur containing oak-aged rum, cream, black tea, vanilla, and spices) Walders Scotch and Coffee Creamy Liqueur Walders Vodka and Vanilla Creamy Liqueur Wray & Nephew Rum Cream Crčme liqueurs[edit] Main article: Crčme liqueur A bottle and glass of Crčme de cassis Crčme de banane Crčme de cacao Crčme de cassis Crčme de Cerise Crema di Fragole Crčme de menthe Crčme de műre Crčme de Noyaux Crčme de Rose Creme de violette Parfait d'Amour Flower liqueurs[edit] A bottle of Crčme de Violette Bulgarian rose liqueur—from the Valley of the Roses Crčme de Rose (rose) Crčme de violette (violet) Crčme Yvette (violet, vanilla) Fior d'Alpi (alpine flowers, herbs) Hpnotiq Harmonie (violet, lavender, berries) Lavender Liqueur (lavender) Liqueur de Rose (rose) Meikueilu Chiew (Mey Kwei Loo Liqueur) (rose) My Rose (rose, with a whole rose in the bottle) (Christian di Marco My Rose Liqueur) Rosolio (rose) St-Germain (elderflower) Shan Hibiscus (hibiscus, coconut) Shan Lotus (lotus, passion fruit) Shan Rose (rose, lychee) Xaica (Hibiscus) Fruit liqueurs[edit] Note: Kirsch and Slivovitz are fruit brandies rather than liqueurs. A bottle of homemade limoncello 99 bananas (banana-flavored schnapps that is 99-proof) Amabilli (banana) Amarula—African liqueur (marula fruit) Aurum (rum, tea, and tangerines) Bajtra—Maltese liqueur (prickly pear) Cherry Heering (cherry) Cosa Gialla (citrus fruits)[citation needed] Cointreau (orange) Combier (orange) Cuarenta Y Tres/Licor 43 (citrus, vanilla) Curaçao (bitter orange) Damson gin (damson) DeKuyper Pomegranate (pomegranate) Destinee (tropical fruit) Dwersteg's Organic Orange Liqueur Espiritu del Ecuador (20 Ecuadoran fruits, including peach, chocolate, cherry, and almond) Fruko-Schulz (Mango Liqueur) Ginjinha (cherry) Grand Marnier (orange) GranGala (orange) Grapčro (pink grapefruit) Guignolet (wild cherry) Hare Visne (sour cherry) Hesperidina (bitter orange) with mint and other herbs Hideous (potato neutral spirit, with added natural flavors derived from berries grown in the state of Washington [including raspberries and other berries] and citrus fruits) Hpnotiq (tropical fruit) Jabuticaba liqueur KeKe Beach (lime cream) Kruškovac (pear) Kwai Feh (lychee) Lichido (vodka, cognac, lychee and guava essences, and white peach juice) Limoncello (lemon liqueur) Ly Shan (lychee) Mandarine Napoleon (mandarin) Manzana verde (green apple) Maraschino (cherry) Medronho (strawberry tree/arbutus) Midori (melon) NUVO (fruit nectars and sparkling chardonnay and pinot noir wines) Noyau de Poissy (apricot) PAMA (pomegranate) Passoă (passion fruit; also comes in mango, pineapple, and coconut flavors) Pisang Ambon (banana) Pochteca Lime Liqueur Pochteca Mango Liqueur Pochteca Pomegranate Liqueur Pucker (apple) Rhythm Sombai (Infused Cambodian Liqueur) Son Tinh (liquor) (Vietnamese Rose apples, apricots, plums, passionfruits) TY KU (yuzu, honeydew, mangosteen, ginseng, green tea, goji berry) Triple sec (orange) Umeshu Van der Hum (naartjie tangerines, herbs, spices, seeds and barks) Vi?inata (sour cherry) Vok Banana Liqueur Vok Melon Liqueur Wisniówka (cherry) X-Rated Fusion Liqueur (blood orange, mango and passion fruit) Herbal liqueurs[edit] Note: the exact recipes of many herbal liqueurs (which may contain up to 50 or more different herbs) are often closely guarded trade secrets. The primary herbal ingredients are listed where known. Anise-flavored liqueurs[edit] A bottle of ouzo Note: Absinthe, Arak, Raki, Ouzo and similar anise-flavored beverages contain no sugar and thus are flavored liquors rather than liqueurs. Aguardiente/Aguardente—Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Portugal Anís—Spain, Argentina Alomo Kasaprenco-Ghana Anisetta—Italy Anisette—France Alpestre—Italy Arquebuse de l'Hermitage—France Centerba—Italy (infusion of 100 high mountain herbs) Cosa Nera—Italy [1] Dimmi—Italy (infusion of Italian Absinthe, Anise, Vanilla, Ginseng, Rhubarb, Bitter Orange, Apricot and Peach Blossom) Dómuz—Portugal (with dry, sweet and "ladies honey" varieties) Galliano—Italy Hierbas de Mallorca—Majorca Herbsaint—United States Mistrŕ—Italy Ogidiga—Nigeria Osomo-Nigeria Pastis—France Passione Nera—Italy Patxaran—Spain Pernod Fils Pernod Ricard Pochteca Anisette Liqueur Sambuca—Italy Tsipouro (anise-flavored version) —Greece Vespetrň—Italy Xtabentún—Mexico See also Category:Anise liqueurs and spirits Other herbal liqueurs[edit] "Altvater" by Gessler, originally from Austrian Silesia Demänovka (33 %) - produced in Slovakia Agwa de Bolivia (37 Herbs) Altvater Amaro Angelika Bitter (11 herbs, especially Angelica archangelica) Appenzeller (42 herbs) Becherovka (anise seeds, cinnamon, and other herbs) Beirăo (seeds and herbs from around the world) Bénédictine (27 plants and spices) Black Forest Devil, called Schwarzwald-Teufel in Germany, uses over 42 herbs including St.John's wort 102 proof Boilo, a homemade Christmas liqueur from the Pennsylvania coal region. Calisaya (liqueur) (cinchona calisaya bark, Seville orange extract and other botanicals) Canton (spirits, brandy, six varieties of ginger, ginseng, and honey) Chartreuse (130 herbal extracts) Crčme de menthe (mint) Demänovka (14 herbs and honey, produced in Slovakia) Everglo (tequila, vodka, caffeine, and ginseng) Fernet (myrrh, rhubarb, chamomile, cardamom, aloe, and saffron) Fruko-Schulz Bitter Galliano (30 herbs) Danzig Goldwasser (gold leaf, roots, and herbs) Goldschläger (cinnamon, with gold leaf) Jaan Paan Liqueur (sweet paan flavored) Jägermeister (56 herbs) Killepitsch (combination of 90 fruits, berries, herbs, and spices) Krupnik (honey and up to 50 different herbs) Kümmel (caraway seed, cumin, and fennel) Lřiten Aquavit Likřr (matured aquavit with herbs) Marburger Nachtwächter, 38 herbs, made since 1799 in Marburg, Germany Mastica (mastic resin) Fläminger Jagd (38 herbs) Mastichato (mastic resin) Menta (peppermint liqueur) Metaxa Paan (betel leaf, betel nuts, saffron, cardamom, sandalwood, and other herbs and spices) Riga Black Balsam (Rigas Melnais Balzams) Rossbacher (Herbs, Roots and Berries from around the world) Son Tinh (liquor) (Vietnamese traditional and contemporary herbal recipes infused in aged rice spirit) Strega (70 herbs, including mint, fennel, and saffron) St. Hubertus (liqueur) (several herbs, caramel and citric acid) Underberg a German digestif bitter Underground (liqueur) America's Herbal Spirit made from an undisclosed number of herbs from around world. Unicum (more than 40 herbs) Zen (matcha green tea from Kyoto, Japan, with lemon grass and other herbs. Manufactured by Suntory) Honey liqueurs[edit] Bärenjäger Brandymel Drambuie Evan Williams Honey Reserve — Evan Williams Irish Mist Tennessee Honey—Jack Daniel's Krupnik Mead Miodówka Ron Miel Yukon Jack Nut-flavored liqueurs[edit] Amaretto (almonds, or the almond-like kernels from apricots, peaches, cherries, or similar stone fruits) Bellota (acorns) Disaronno (Apricot Kernel oil) Dumante (pistachio) Dwersteg's Organic Amaretto Liqueur (organic liqueur with distillate from almond kernels) Frangelico (hazelnuts and herbs) Kahana Royale (macadamia nut) Nocello (walnut and hazelnut) Nocino (unripe green walnuts) Castries Peanut Rum Creme (peanut) Peanut liqueur Peanut Lolita (peanut) Pochteca Almond Liqueur Ratafia (brandy flavored with almonds, fruit, or fruit kernels—also a flavored biscuit) Rivulet (Pecan) Whisky liqueurs[edit] Atholl Brose (Scotch whisky, Benromach single malt spirit, honey, secret spice recipe, from Gordon & Macphail) Bruadar (Scotch whisky, honey, sloe) Cock o' the North (single malt, blaeberry) Drambuie (Scotch, heather honey, herbs, and spices) Eblana (Irish whiskey, coffee, honey, almond, peanut) Famous Grouse liqueur (Scotch, bourbon, citrus, spices) Fireball Cinnamon Whisky (Canadian whisky, cinnamon, spices) Forty Creek Premium Cream Liqueur (Canadian whisky, vanilla, chocolate, caramel) Glayva (Scotch, Seville oranges, spices, herbs, and honey) Glenfiddich Malt liqueur (Scotch, citrus, pear, brown sugar) Glenturret Malt liqueur (Glenturret single malt, honey, spices) Heaven Hill Evan Williams cherry, honey and apple orchard variations Irish Mist (aged Irish whiskey, heather and clover honey, aromatic herbs, and other spirits) Jack Daniel's Tennessee Honey Jim Beam Honey (Jim Beam bourbon, honey) Jim Beam Red Stag (Jim Beam bourbon with other flavorings – variations include black cherry, honey tea, and cinnamon spiced) Jeremiah Weed (Bourbon whiskey, orange, vanilla) Lochan Ora (Chivas, honey, herbs and spices) Murray Scottish Highland Liqueur (Scotch, honey, sloe) Mystic Bourbon Liqueur (Bourbon, honey, spices) Old Pulteney liqueur (Old Pulteney single malt, prune, spices) Orangerie (Scotch, oranges, spices) Rock and Rye (American rye whiskey, citrus, rock candy) Sortilčge Maple Whiskey Liqueur (Canadian whisky, maple syrup) Stag's Breath (Speyside malts and fermented comb honey) Wallace Liqueur (Deanston single malt, Scottish berries, French herbs) Wild Turkey American Honey (Wild Turkey (bourbon), honey, spices) Yukon Jack (Canadian whisky, honey) Other liqueurs[edit] Advocaat (egg yolks and vanilla) After Shock (several varieties, the most popular of which is cinnamon) Agnes (orange peels, apples, vanilla and caraway seeds) Armada (spices and fruit) Aurum (rum, tea, and tangerines) Baczewski Bärenfang (honey) One export version is named Bärenjäger Bloody Oath (vodka, herbs and spices) Campari (bitter and aromatic herbs, plants, and fruit) Cynar (artichoke and other herbs and plants) Damiana (herb of the same name) Gabriel (cinnamon, apple, black pepper and peppermint) Génépi (alpine flower of the same name) Izarra (numerous herbs and other flavorings) This is a list of cocktails. A cocktail is a mixed drink typically made with a distilled beverage (such as, gin, brandy, vodka, whiskey, tequila, or rum) that is mixed with other ingredients. If beer is one of the ingredients, the drink is called a beer cocktail. Cocktails contain one or more types of liqueur, juice, fruit, sauce, honey, milk or cream, spices, or other flavorings. Cocktails may vary in their ingredients from bartender to bartender, and from region to region. Two creations may have the same name but taste very different because of differences in how the drinks are prepared. This article is organized by the primary type of alcohol (by volume) contained in the beverage. Further organization details about the article are as follows: Cocktails marked with " IBA " are designated as "IBA Official Cocktails" by the International Bartenders Association, and are some of the most popular cocktails worldwide. Expanded articles are linked. Cocktails without separate articles are listed below, along with their primary ingredients and notable facts.[1] This article is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all cocktails or every variation thereof, and cocktails for which sufficient information is not available are not included. Contents [hide] 1 Absinthe 2 Beer 3 Brandy or cognac 4 Cachaça 5 Champagne 6 Gin 7 Ouzo 8 Rum 9 Sake 10 Tequila 11 Vodka 12 Whisky 13 Wines 13.1 Cocktails with fortified wines 13.2 Wine cocktails 13.2.1 Wine variation cocktails 13.2.2 Sparkling wine cocktails 13.2.2.1 Champagne cocktails 13.2.3 Red wine cocktails 13.2.4 White wine cocktails 14 Cocktails with a liqueur as the primary ingredient 14.1 Chocolate liqueur 14.2 Coffee liqueurs 14.3 Cream liqueurs 14.4 Fruit liqueurs 14.4.1 Orange-flavored 14.4.2 Apple-flavored 14.4.3 Other fruit flavors 14.5 Berry liqueurs 14.6 Flower liqueurs 14.7 Herbal liqueurs 14.7.1 Anise-flavored liqueurs 14.7.2 Other herbal liqueurs 14.8 Nut-flavored liqueurs 14.9 Whisky liqueurs 14.10 Other liqueurs 15 Less common spirits 15.1 Bitters (as a primary ingredient) 15.2 Schnapps 15.3 Pisco 16 Other 17 Historical classes of cocktails 18 See also 19 References 20 External links Absinthe[edit] See also: Absinthe and Category:Cocktails with absinthe Green Russians Corpse Reviver #2 Death in the Afternoon Earthquake Green Vesper The Modernista Moloko Plus The Monkey Gland IBA Sazerac IBA Beer[edit] See also: Beer, Beer cocktail and Boilermaker (beer cocktail) Cocktails made with beer are classified as beer cocktails. Black and Tan Black Velvet Boilermaker Gose Hangman's Blood Irish Car Bomb Michelada Porchcrawler Sake Bomb Snakebite (drink) Shandy Brass Monkey U-Boot Brandy or cognac[edit] See also: Brandy, Cognac (drink), Pisco and Category:Cocktails with brandy or cognac B & B Brandy Alexander IBA Brandy Manhattan Brandy Sour (Cyprus) Brandy Sour/Brandy Daisy Chicago Cocktail Curacao Punch Four Score French Connection IBA Hennchata Horse's Neck IBA Incredible Hulk Jack Rose Nikolaschka Orgasm Panama Paradise IBA Pisco Sour IBA Piscola Porto flip IBA Savoy Affair Savoy Corpse Reviver Sazerac IBA Sidecar IBA Singapore Sling IBA Stinger IBA The Blenheim Tom and Jerry Zombie Cachaça[edit] See also: Cachaça and Cocktails with cachaça A caipirinha Batida Caipirinha IBA Caju Amigo Leite de Onça Quentăo Rabo-de-galo Royce Champagne[edit] See also: Champagne and Category:Cocktails with champagne Black Velvet Buck's Fizz French 75 IBA Mimosa IBA Kir Royal (cocktail) Gin[edit] A martini is a classic gin-based cocktail See also: Gin and Category:Cocktails with gin 20th Century Alexander Aviation IBA Angel Face IBA Bijou Bloodhound Bronx Casino IBA French 75 IBA Gibson Gimlet Gin Fizz IBA Gin buck (a Buck variant) Gin and tonic Gin pahit Gin Sour Hanky-Panky John Collins IBA The Last Word Lime Rickey Long Island Iced Tea IBA Joker Lorraine Marjorama Martini IBA Mickey Slim My Fair Lady Negroni IBA Old Etonian Pall Mall Paradise Pegu Pimm's Cup (incl. Nos. 1, 3, 6, and variants) Pink Gin Pink Lady Ramos Gin Fizz IBA Royal Arrival Salty Dog Shirley Temple Black Singapore Sling IBA Tom Collins Vesper Martini IBA White Lady or Delilah Wolfram Ouzo[edit] See also: Ouzo and Category:Cocktails with ouzo Ouzini Rum[edit] See also: Rum and Category:Cocktails with rum This fruity, blended Pińa Colada is typical of many rum-based cocktails. A mojito served in Slovakia. Bacardi IBA Between the Sheets IBA Blue Hawaii Brass Monkey Bumbo (also called a Bombo or Bumboo) Bushwacker Caribou Lou Cojito Corn N' Oil Cuba Libre IBA Culto A La Vida Dark and Stormy IBA [2] Daiquiri IBA El Presidente Fish House Punch Flaming Dr Pepper Flaming Volcano Fluffy Critter The Goldeneye Grog Gunfire Havana Cooler Hurricane Jagertee Jack's Shadow Long Island Iced Tea IBA Macuá Mai-Tai IBA Mojito IBA Painkiller Pińa Colada IBA Planter's Punch IBA Royal Bermuda Cocktail Rum Swizzle Staten Island Ferry Sundowner Ti' Punch Tom and Jerry Tschunk Yellow Bird Zombie Sake[edit] See also: Sake and Category:Cocktails with sake Ginza Mary Sake Bomb Tamagozake Tequila[edit] See also: Tequila and Category:Cocktails with tequila Margaritas are commonly served cocktails at many Tex-Mex restaurants. Bananarita Bloody Aztec Chimayó Cocktail El Toro Loco Patron and Redbull Long Island Iced Tea IBA Margarita IBA Matador Paloma – a Margarita made with white grapefruit juice (jugo de toronja), standard in Mexico Slammer Royale or Tequila Slammer The T.J. Tequila Mockingbird Tequila Sour Tequila Sunrise IBA Tonic And Tequila Torito Tequila Cocktail Two kids in A Cup Vodka[edit] See also: Vodka and Category:Cocktails with vodka A Bloody Mary garnished with lemon, carrot, celery, and pitted manzanilla olives Agent Orange Apple Martini or Appletini Astro pop Batida (traditionally made with cachaça) Bay Breeze Black Russian IBA Bloody Mary IBA BLT cocktail Bull Shot Blue Lagoon Caesar Caipivodka or Caipiroska Cape Cod Chi-Chi Colombia Cosmopolitan IBA Fizzy apple cocktail Flirtini Gimlet The Goldeneye Godmother IBA Greyhound Harvey Wallbanger IBA Harrogate Nights Ice Pick Hi-fi Kamikaze IBA Kensington Court Special Kremlin Colonel Lime Rickey Link Up Long Island Iced Tea IBA Moscow Mule IBA Mudslide Orange Tundra Paralyzer Red Lotus Red Russian (cocktail) Rose Kennedy Cocktail Salmiakki Koskenkorva Salty Dog Screwdriver IBA Sea Breeze IBA Sex on the Beach IBA Vesper IBA Vodka Gimlet Vodka Martini or Kangaroo. Vodka McGovern Vodka Sundowner Vodka Sunrise Wassa World White Russian Woo Woo Yorsh Whisky[edit] See also: Whisky, Irish whiskey, Scotch whisky, Tennessee whiskey, Bourbon whiskey, Canadian whisky and Category:Cocktails with whisky A classic 2:1 Manhattan, made with Canadian whisky, sweet vermouth, bitters, and a cherry Amber Moon Blue Blazer Bobby Burns Bourbon Lancer Brooklyn Churchill Farnell Four Horsemen Irish Coffee IBA Jack and Coke Jungle Juice Lynchburg Lemonade Manhattan IBA Mint Julep IBA Missouri Mule Nixon Old Fashioned IBA Rob Roy Rusty Nail IBA Sazerac IBA Seven and Seven or 7 & 7 Three Wise Men Ward 8 Whiskey sour IBA Whisky Mac Wines[edit] Cocktails with fortified wines[edit] The following drinks are technically cocktails because fortified wines are mixture of distilled spirits and wine. Port wine: Cheeky Vimto Port wine: Portbuka Wine cocktails[edit] See also: Category:Cocktails with wine, Wine cocktail § List of wine cocktails and Wine cooler A Champagne cocktail with a Raspberry garnish Wine variation cocktails[edit] The following drinks are technically cocktails unless wine is secondary by volume to a distilled beverage, since wine is a fermented beverage not a distilled one. Agua de Valencia Black Velvet Death in the Afternoon Flirtini Prince of Wales Sangria Sparkling wine cocktails[edit] Aperol Spritz Bellini IBA Rossini Champagne cocktails[edit] See also: Champagne Cocktail Buck's Fizz Mimosa IBA Kir Royal Ruby Dutchess Red wine cocktails[edit] Mulled wine steeping (Swedish glögg) Kalimotxo or Calimocho or Rioja Libre Tinto de Verano Mulled wine (Glögg) Old Spanish Zurracapote White wine cocktails[edit] Kir IBA Spritzer Cocktails with a liqueur as the primary ingredient[edit] Chocolate liqueur[edit] Chocolate Martini Duo and trio cocktails#List of Duos and Trios Coffee liqueurs[edit] A B-52 Coffee-flavored drinks B-52 IBA (and related B-50 series cocktails) Baby Guinness Black Russian Blow Job Bushwacker Dirty Mother Dirty White Mother Duck Fart Jamaican Coffee Oatmeal Cookie Orgasm Terry White Russian Cream liqueurs[edit] A liqueur containing cream, imparting a milkshake-like flavor B-52 IBA (and related B-50 series cocktails) Baby Guinness Buttery Nipple Golden Cadillac Grasshopper IBA Irish Car Bomb Irish Coffee IBA Oatmeal Cookie Orgasm Pink Squirrel Quick Fuck Slippery Nipple Screaming Orgasm Springbokkie 1921 Tequila Cream White Russian Crčme de menthe – Green An intensely green, mint-flavored liqueur A grasshopper Grasshopper IBA Springbokkie Crčme de menthe – White A colorless mint-flavored liqueur Stinger Fruit liqueurs[edit] Orange-flavored[edit] A cosmopolitan One of several orange-flavored liqueurs, like Grand Marnier or Triple Sec Cosmopolitan Golden Dream Golden Doublet Kamikaze Long Island Iced Tea Margarita Moonwalk Skittle Bomb Zombie Curaçao – Blue A clear, blue-colored, orange-flavored liqueur Apple-flavored[edit] Apple-Kneel Manzana verde A clear apple-flavored liqueur Other fruit flavors[edit] Midori liqueur A clear, bright-green, melon-flavored liqueur Japanese Slipper Midori Sour Nuclear Iced Tea (aka Tokyo Tea) Berry liqueurs[edit] Flower liqueurs[edit] An Aviation Creme de Violette Aviation Creme Yvette St. Germain (liqueur) Parfait d'Amour Herbal liqueurs[edit] Anise-flavored liqueurs[edit] A Harvey Wallbanger Ouzo Licorice-flavored liqueurs Sambuca Galliano Harvey Wallbanger Herbsaint Herbsaint Frappé Pastis Mauresque Perroquet Tomate Rourou Other herbal liqueurs[edit] Nut-flavored liqueurs[edit] Almond-flavored liqueurs Alabama Slammer Blueberry Tea French Connection Godfather Godmother Orgasm Screaming Orgasm Whisky liqueurs[edit] Rusty Nail Other liqueurs[edit] Backdraft (also a Pepperdraft variation) Carrot Cake Common Market Flaming Sambuca Grasshopper IBA Jägerbomb Orange Safari Pucker Up Snowball – Advocaat and soda lemonade Less common spirits[edit] See also: Category:Cocktails and Category:Mixed drinks A Pisco Sour Enoch Dogolea Abdullah Dukuly Momolu Dukuly Cheryl Dunye E K edit James D Pratt Ernest Eastman Henry Boimah Fahnbulleh Michael Kpakala Francis Comfort Freeman James Edward Greene Joseph Rudolph Grimes Tamba Hali Musue Noha Haddad Sumowood Harris Joseph Jenkins Roberts Collins John Dulee Johnson Wesley Momo Johnson Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Bhawoh Jue Francis Kateh Dr George Klay Kieh McKevin King Olubanke King Akerele Sheikh Kafumba Konneh David Kpormakor Al Haji G V Kromah L R edit Rev Benjamin Dorme Lartey Gabriel Baccus Matthews Dr Harry Fumba Moniba Bai T J Moore Lafayette K Morgan Samuel C Morrison Jr Dawn Padmore Ruth Perry Chief Justice James A A Pierre Prof Roland Tombekai Dempster S Z edit Elias Saleeby Professor Wilton Sankawulo Dr Amos Sawyer Dr Antoinette Sayeh Ophelia Hoff Saytumah Momolu Sirleaf Charles Ghankay Taylor Togba Nah Tipoteh William Richard Tolbert William Vacanarat Shadrach Tubman Winston Tubman Sultan Tucker Jerome Verdier George Wallace Educators and teachers edit Mohammed Shegewi died Zuhra Ramdan Agha Al Awji Extrajudicial prisoners of the United States edit Abdel Hamid Ibn Abdussalem Ibn Mifta Al Ghazzawi Omar Khalifa Mohammed Abu Bakr Muhammad Abd Allah Mansur Al Futuri Abdul Rauf Omar Mohammed Abu Al Qusin Omar Deghayes Abu Yahia al Libi Salem Abdul Salem Ghereby Ashraf Salim Abd Al Salam Sultan Ibrahim Mahdy Achmed Zeidan Lawyers edit Kamel Maghur – Linguists edit Ibn al Ajdabi died after c scholar and linguist Kalifa Tillisi historian translator and linguist Musicians edit Ahmed Fakroun Libyan singer composer and producer Nasser el Mizdawi born Libyan singer guitarist and composer Ayman El Aatar born Libyan singer Nadia Ali born August Singer Song Writer Nobility edit House of Shennib Bayt Shennib Libyan nobility Royal Courtiers Omar Faiek Shennib Head of the Royal Court Royal Diwan Wanis al Qaddafi Libyan nobility unrelated to Muammar Gaddafi House of Al Mukhtar Libyan nobility descendents of Omar Mukhtar Politicians edit List of Libyan politicians by position Foreign ministers and ambassadors edit Wahbi al Bouri Foreign minister Abdul Salam al Buseiri Foreign minister Mohieddin Fikini Foreign minister Abdul Majid Kubar Foreign minister Hussein Maziq Foreign minister Mahmud al Muntasir Foreign minister Dr Ali Abdulsalam Treki foreign minister Umar Mustafa al Muntasir Foreign minister Muhammad Sakizli Foreign minister Abdel Rahman Shalgham Foreign minister Jadallah Azzuz at Talhi Foreign minister Hassan Tatanaki Foreign minister Defence ministers edit Omar Faiek Shennib Minister of Defence death Prime ministers edit Abdul Ati al Obeidi Abdul Qadir al Badri Prime minister of Libya from July to October Abdul Hamid al Bakkoush Mustafa Ben Halim Abuzed Omar Dorda Mohieddin Fikini Abdessalam Jalloud Mahmud Sulayman al Maghribi Hussein Maziq Muhammad Ahmad al Mangoush Mahmud al Muntasir Umar Mustafa al Muntasir Abdul Majid al Qa'ud Wanis al Qaddafi Muhammad az Zaruq Rajab Muhammad Osman Said Muhammad Sakizli Embarek shamekh Imbarek Shamekh Jadallah Azzuz at Talhi Baghdadi Mahmudi Mahmoud Jibril Physicians edit Ehtuish Ehtuish Religious figures edit Abd As Salam Al Asmar Ahmad Zarruq Simon of Cyrene Sharif El Gariani Resistance leaders edit Sulaiman al Barouni – resistance leader against Italian colonization Omar al Mukhtar – Libyan hero and resistance leader under against Italian colonization Sayyid Ahmed Sharif es Senussi Libyan resistance leader and chief of the Senussi order Royalty edit Idris I of Libya King of Libya to and the Chief of the Senussi Muslim order Sayyid Ahmed Sharif es Senussi Chief of the Senussi Muslim order Queen Fatima – Former queen of Libya Sayyid Hassan ar Rida Muhammad as Senussi born Sayyid Muhammad bin Ali as Senussi Omar Faiek Shennib Head of the Royal Diwan Royal Court Rulers edit Idris I of Libya – King of Libya – Muammar Gaddafi – Libyan leader – Ahmed Karamanli – Pasha ruler of Tripolitania – Yusuf Karamanli died Pasha ruler of Tripolitania – Shoshenq I Libyan king of Egypt c – c BCE and founder of the Twenty second Egyptian dynasty Septimius Severus – Roman Emperor – born in Libya Battaros legendary Libyan king Zentani Muhammad az Zentani Umar Mihayshi died Libyan army officer Mustafa Abdul Jalil born Anti Gaddafi resistance leader Former Minister of Justice and President of the National Transitional Council Present Scientists and mathematicians edit Eratosthenes BC – BC Hellenistic mathematician geographer and astronomer born in Libya Adam Nass Has a Master s degree Sportspeople edit Basketball edit Suleiman Ali Nashnush died Footballers edit Samir Aboud Osama Al Hamady Muhammed Alsnany Akram Ayyad Mansour Al Borki Ehab Al Bousefi Omar Daoud Luis de Agustini Ahmed Faraj El Masli Tarik El Taib Meftah Ghazalla Khaled Hussein Abdesalam Kames Nader Kara Abdusalam Khames Mohmoud Maklouf Shafter Princely family edit Franz Joseph II Prince of Liechtenstein longest reigning monarch – in Europe from to Prince Hans Adam II current Head of State one of the world s richest royals Prince Alois of Liechtenstein regent since Sophie Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein See also List of Princes of Liechtenstein Princely Family of Liechtenstein Politicians edit Otmar Hasler is the former Prime Minister Mario Frick was in the Guinness Book of Records as the world s youngest Prime Minister when he was elected Ernst Joseph Walch former Secretary of State Klaus Tschütscher is the current Prime Minister See also List of Liechtenstein Heads of Government Category Liechtenstein politicians Sports edit Skiers Marco Büchel born Paul Frommelt born Willi Frommelt born Ursula Konzett born Tina Weirather born Andreas Wenzel born won one bronze and one silver Olympic medal and respectively for Alpine skiing Hanni Wenzel born won two gold medals and one silver medal in the Winter Olympics and a bronze one for Alpine skiing Football players Mario Frick born not to be confused with the politician Peter Jehle born Arts edit Josef Rheinberger composer Other edit Wolfgang Haas born Archbishop of Vaduz former Bishop of Chur Peter Kaiser October February Historian statesman John Latenser Sr Architect Waled Mhadeb Rabe Al Msellati Jehad Muntasser Arafa Nakuaa Walid Ali Osman Ali Rahuma Marei Al Ramly Arts edit Architecture and sculpture edit Laurynas Gucevicius considered to be the first professional Lithuanian architectMain article List of Lithuanian architects Robertas Antinis Jr – sculptor and artist Gediminas Baravykas – one of the best known Soviet architects Vytautas Bredikis – lt Vytautas Bredikis planner of Antakalnis and Lazdynai microdistricts in Vilnius Algimantas Bublys lt Algimantas Bublys well known for his modern architecture both in Lithuania and the U S Vincas Grybas – one of the influential early monumental sculptors Laurynas Gucevicius – architect of Vilnius Cathedral Juozas Kalinauskas professional sculptor and medalist Gintaras Karosas – sculptor founder of Europos Parkas Vytautas Landsbergis Žemkalnis – lt Vytautas Landsbergis Žemkalnis one of the famous architects in the interwar Lithuania Juozas Mikenas – lt Juozas Mikenas sculptor Algimantas Nasvytis – architect Minister of Construction and Urbanism Kestutis Pempe – lt Kestutis Pempe architect chairman of the Architects Association of Lithuania Bronius Pundzius – lt Bronius Pundzius sculptor citation needed Petras Rimša – one of the first professional sculptors in Lithuania Juozas Zikaras – sculptor and designer the interwar years Lithuanian litas Literature edit First Lithuanian book The Simple Words of Catechism published in by Martynas Mažvydas Portrait of Salomeja Neris one of the best known Lithuanian female writersMain article List of Lithuanian authors Jurgis Baltrušaitis – poet and diplomat the first Symbolist poet Antanas Baranauskas – priest and poet author of The Pine Groove of Anykšciai Lithuanian Anykšciu šilelis Kazys Binkis – poet and playwright leader of Lithuanian Futurism movement Bernardas Brazdžionis – influential romantic poet Petras Cvirka – short story writer and active supporter of communism Kristijonas Donelaitis – Lithuanian Lutheran pastor and poet author of The Seasons Lithuanian Metai Juozas Glinskis – writer playwright pioneer of Lithuanian "theatre of cruelty" Leah Goldberg – Israeli poet Romualdas Granauskas – writer about the identity crisis during the Soviet times Juozas Grušas – one of the most productive writers and playwrights under the Soviet rule Jurga Ivanauskaite – the best known modern female writer Vincas Kudirka – writer and poet author of the national anthem of Lithuania Vytautas V Landsbergis – lt Vytautas V Landsbergis writer published many children s books Maironis real name Jonas Maciulis – priest and poet best known patriotic poet Justinas Marcinkevicius – one of the most prominent poets during the Soviet rule Marcelijus Martinaitis – lt Marcelijus Martinaitis writer famous for The Ballads of Kukutis a mock epic Martynas Mažvydas – author of the first book in Lithuanian language Icchokas Meras – Lithuanian Jewish writer about the Holocaust Vincas Kreve Mickevicius – writer and playwright author of major interwar plays Oskaras Milašius – French Lithuanian writer and diplomat Czeslaw Milosz – recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature was born in Šeteniai Imperial Russia now Lithuania Vincas Mykolaitis Putinas – writer and poet one of the best known Symbolist poets author of the novel In the Shadows of the Altars Lithuanian Altoriu šešely Salomeja Neris real name Salomeja Bacinskaite Buciene – the best known female poet during the interwar period Alfonsas Nyka Niliunas – lt Alfonsas Nyka Niliunas poet living in the United States Henrikas Radauskas – poet one of the major figures of Lithuanian literature in exile Šatrijos Ragana real name Marija Peckauskaite – female writer Balys Sruoga – writer poet playwright author of the novel The Forest of Gods Lithuanian Dievu miškas about his experience in the Stutthof concentration camp Antanas Strazdas – priest and poet signed in Polish as Antoni Drozdowski the best known work was Pulkim ant Keliu Let Us Fall On Our Knees and the poem The Thrush Antanas Škema – writer in exile author of surrealistic novel The White Cloth Lithuanian Balta drobule Yemima Tchernovitz Avidar – Israeli author Judita Vaiciunaite – lt Judita Vaiciunaite modern female poet exploring urban settings Juozas Tumas Vaižgantas real name Juozas Tumas – writer Indre Valantinaite born poet Tomas Venclova – poet political activist Antanas Vienuolis real name Žukauskas – writer a major figure in Lithuanian prose Vydunas real name Vilius Storostas – Lithuanian writer and philosopher leader of Lithuanian cultural movement in the Lithuania Minor at the beginning of the th century Žemaite real name Julija Beniuševiciute Žymantiene – one of the best known female writers Theater and cinema edit See also List of Lithuanian actors Regimantas Adomaitis – theatre and film actor successful both in Lithuania and Russia Donatas Banionis – actor and star of Tarkovsky s Solaris Arturas Barysas – "counter culture" actor singer photographer and filmmaker known as the father of modern Lithuanian avant garde Šarunas Bartas – modern film director Ingeborga Dapkunaite – internationally successful actress Gediminas Girdvainis – lt Gediminas Girdvainis prolific theatre and movie actor Rolandas Kazlas – well known comedy actor Oskaras Koršunovas – best known modern theater director Jurgis Maciunas – initiator of Fluxus movement Vaiva Mainelyte – lt Vaiva Mainelyte popular actress remembered for the leading role in Bride of the Devil Lithuanian Velnio nuotaka Arunas Matelis – acclaimed documentary director Adolfas Mekas film director writer editor actor educator Jonas Mekas – filmmaker the godfather of American avant garde cinema Aurelija Mikušauskaite – television and theatre actress Juozas Miltinis – theater director from Panevežys Nijole Narmontaite – lt Nijole Narmontaite actress Eimuntas Nekrošius – theater director Algimantas Puipa – lt Algimantas Puipa film director Kostas Smoriginas – lt Kostas Smoriginas popular actor and singer Jonas Vaitkus – theater director director of Utterly Alone Adolfas Vecerskis – theatre and film actor director of theatre Arunas Žebriunas – lt Arunas Žebriunas one of the most prominent film directors during the Soviet rule Vytautas Šapranauskas – lt Vytautas Šapranauskas theater and film actor television presenter humorist Žilvinas Tratas actor and model Džiugas Siaurusaitis lt Džiugas Siaurusaitis actor television presenter humorist Sakalas Uždavinys lt Sakalas Uždavinys theater and film actor director Marius Jampolskis actor and TV host Ballet and Dance edit Egle Špokaite soloist of Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre – Actress art director Edita Daniute Professional Ballroom Dancer and World DanceSport Champion Iveta Lukosiute Professional Ballroom Dancer and World Dance Champion Music edit Soprano vocalist Violeta Urmanaviciute Urmana Pop singer Violeta RiaubiškyteSee also List of Lithuanian singers Linas Adomaitis – pop singer participant in the Eurovision Song Contest Ilja Aksionovas lt Ilja Aksionovas pop and opera singer boy soprano Osvaldas Balakauskas – ambassador and classical composer Alanas Chošnau – singer member of former music group Naktines Personos Egidijus Dragunas – lt Egidijus Dragunas leader of Sel one of the first hip hop bands in Lithuania Justas Dvarionas – lt Justas Dvarionas pianist educator Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis – painter and composer Balys Dvarionas – composer conductor pianist professor Gintare Jautakaite pop artist signed with EMI and Sony Music Entertainment in Gintaras Januševicius internationally acclaimed pianist Algirdas Kaušpedas architect and lead singer of Antis Nomeda Kazlauskaite Kazlaus opera singer dramatic soprano appearing internationally Vytautas Kernagis – one of the most popular bards Algis Kizys – long time bass player of post punk no wave band Swans Andrius Mamontovas – rock singer co founder of Foje and LT United Marijonas Mikutavicius – singer author of Trys Milijonai the unofficial sports anthem in Lithuania Vincas Niekus – lt Vincas Niekus composer Virgilijus Noreika – one of the most successful opera singers tenor Mykolas Kleopas Oginskis – one of the best composer of the late th century Kipras Petrauskas – lt Kipras Petrauskas popular early opera singer tenor Stasys Povilaitis – one of the popular singers during the Soviet period Violeta Riaubiškyte – pop singer TV show host Mindaugas Rojus opera singer tenor baritone Ceslovas Sasnauskas – composer Rasa Serra – lt Rasa Serra real name Rasa Veretenceviene singer Traditional folk A cappella jazz POP Audrone Simonaityte Gaižiuniene – lt Audrone Gaižiuniene Simonaityte one of the more popular female opera singers soprano Virgis Stakenas – lt Virgis Stakenas singer of country folk music Antanas Šabaniauskas – lt Antanas Šabaniauskas singer tenor Jurga Šeduikyte – art rock musician won the Best Female Act and the Best Album of in the Lithuanian Bravo Awards and the Best Baltic Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards Jonas Švedas – composer Michael Tchaban composer singer and songwriter Violeta Urmanaviciute Urmana opera singer soprano mezzosoprano appearing internationally Painters and graphic artists edit See also List of Lithuanian artists Robertas Antinis – sculptor Vytautas Ciplijauskas lt Vytautas Ciplijauskas painter Jonas Ceponis – lt Jonas Ceponis painter Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis – painter and composer Asteroid Ciurlionis is named for him Kostas Dereškevicius lt Kostas Dereškevicius painter Vladimiras Dubeneckis painter architect Stasys Eidrigevicius graphic artist Pranas Gailius lt Pranas Gailius painter Paulius Galaune Petronele Gerlikiene – self taught Lithuanian American artist Algirdas Griškevicius lt Algirdas Griškevicius Vincas Grybas – sculptor Leonardas Gutauskas lt Leonardas Gutauskas painter writer Vytautas Kairiukštis – lt Vytautas Kairiukštis painter art critic Vytautas Kasiulis – lt Vytautas Kasiulis painter graphic artist stage designer Petras Kalpokas painter Rimtas Kalpokas – lt Rimtas Kalpokas painter graphic artist Leonas Katinas – lt Leonas Katinas painter Povilas Kaupas – lt Povilas Kaupas Algimantas Kezys Lithuanian American photographer Vincas Kisarauskas – lt Vincas Kisarauskas painter graphic artist stage designer Saulute Stanislava Kisarauskiene – lt Saulute Stanislava Kisarauskiene graphic artist painter Stasys Krasauskas – lt Stasys Krasauskas graphic artist Stanislovas Kuzma – lt Stanislovas Kuzma sculptor Antanas Martinaitis – lt Antanas Martinaitis painter Jonas Rimša – lt Jonas Rimša painter Jan Rustem painter Antanas Samuolis – lt Antanas Samuolis painter Šarunas Sauka painter Boris Schatz – sculptor and founder of the Bezalel Academy Irena Sibley née Pauliukonis – Children s book author and illustrator Algis Skackauskas – painter Antanas Žmuidzinavicius – painter Franciszek Smuglewicz – painter Yehezkel Streichman Israeli painter Kazys Šimonis – painter Algimantas Švegžda – lt Algimantas Švegžda painter Otis Tamašauskas Lithographer Print Maker Graphic Artist Adolfas Valeška – painter and graphic artist Adomas Varnas – painter Kazys Varnelis – artist Vladas Vildžiunas lt Vladas Vildžiunas sculptor Mikalojus Povilas Vilutis lt Mikalojus Povilas Vilutis graphic artist Viktoras Vizgirda – painter William Zorach – Modern artist who died in Bath Maine Antanas Žmuidzinavicius – painter Kazimieras Leonardas Žoromskis – painter Politics edit President Valdas Adamkus right chatting with Vice President Dick Cheney left See also List of Lithuanian rulers Mindaugas – the first and only King of Lithuania – Gediminas – the ruler of Lithuania – Algirdas – the ruler together with Kestutis of Lithuania – Kestutis – the ruler together with Algirdas of Lithuania – Vytautas – the ruler of Lithuania – together with Jogaila Jogaila – the ruler of Lithuania – from to together with Vytautas the king of Poland – Jonušas Radvila – the field hetman of Grand Duchy of Lithuania – Dalia Grybauskaite – current President of Lithuania since Valdas Adamkus – President of Lithuania till Jonas Basanavicius – "father" of the Act of Independence of Algirdas Brazauskas – the former First secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party of Lithuanian SSR the former president of Lithuania after and former Prime Minister of Lithuania Joe Fine – mayor of Marquette Michigan – Kazys Grinius – politician third President of Lithuania Mykolas Krupavicius – priest behind the land reform in interwar Lithuania Vytautas Landsbergis – politician professor leader of Sajudis the independence movement former speaker of Seimas member of European Parliament Stasys Lozoraitis – diplomat and leader of Lithuanian government in exile – Stasys Lozoraitis junior – politician diplomat succeeded his father as leader of Lithuanian government in exile – Antanas Merkys – the last Prime Minister of interwar Lithuania Rolandas Paksas – former President removed from the office after impeachment Justas Paleckis – journalist and politician puppet Prime Minister after Soviet occupation Kazimiera Prunskiene – the first female Prime Minister Mykolas Sleževicius – three times Prime Minister organized

Bitters (as a primary ingredient)[edit] Americano IBA Brut Cocktail Schnapps[edit] Appletini Fuzzy Navel Polar Bear Redheaded slut Pisco[edit] This list of glassware[1] includes drinking vessels (drinkware) and tableware used to set a table for eating a meal, general glass items such as vases, and glasses used in the catering industry, whether made of glass or plastics (such as polystyrene and polycarbonate). It does not include laboratory glassware. Contents [hide] 1 Drinkware 2 Tumblers 3 Beer glassware 3.1 New Zealand beer glasses 3.2 Australian beer glasses 4 Stemware 5 Other 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Drinkware[edit] Drinkware, beverageware (colloquially referred to as cups) is a general term for a vessel intended to contain beverages or liquid foods for drinking or consumption.[2] Beaker Beer glassware Coffee cup Cup Jar Mug Paper cup Pythagorean cup Quaich [3] Sake cup (ochoko) Stemware Teacup Tumblers The word cup comes from Middle English cuppe, from Old English, from Late Latin cuppa, drinking vessel, perhaps variant of Latin cupa, tub, cask.[2] The first known use of the word cup is before the 12th century.[4] Tumblers[edit] A classic 20-facet Soviet table-glass, produced in the city of Gus-Khrustalny since 1943. Main article: Tumbler (glass) Tumblers are flat-bottomed drinking glasses. Collins glass, for a tall mixed drink[5] Dizzy Cocktail glass, a glass with a wide, shallow bowl, comparable to a normal Cocktail glass but without the stem Highball glass, for mixed drinks [6] Iced tea glass Juice glass, for fruit juices and vegetable juices. Old Fashioned glass, traditionally, for a simple cocktail or liquor "on the rocks". Contemporary American "rocks" glasses may be much larger, and used for a variety of beverages over ice Shot glass, a small glass for up to four ounces of liquor. The modern shot glass has a thicker base and sides than the older whiskey glass Table-glass or stakan granyonyi Water glass Whiskey tumbler, a small, thin-walled glass for a straight shot of liquor Beer glassware[edit] Whisky tasting glass Main article: Beer glassware Beer stein – large mug traditionally with a hinged lid Pilsner glass, for pale lager Pint glass, for an Imperial pint of beer or cider Pony glass, for a 140ml of beer, a "short" or "small" beer Tankard Wheat beer glass, for wheat beer (Weizenbier) Yard glass, a very tall, conical beer glass, with a round ball base, usually hung on a wall when empty New Zealand beer glasses[edit] Latin (Listeni/'lćt?n/; Latin: lingua latina, IPA: ['l??g?a la'ti?na]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in Latium, Italy.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Romanian. Latin and French have contributed many words to the English language. Latin and Greek roots are used in theology, biology, and medicine. By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardized into Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence.[4] Late Latin is the written language beginning in the 3rd century AD and Medieval Latin the language used from the ninth century until the Renaissance which used Renaissance Latin. Later, Early Modern Latin and Modern Latin evolved. Latin was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the official language of the Holy See and the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars, and members of the Christian clergy speak Latin fluently. It is taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary educational institutions around the world.[5][6] Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun cases, four verb conjugations, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects, and two numbers. Contents [hide] 1 Legacy 1.1 Inscriptions 1.2 Literature 1.3 Linguistics 1.4 Education 1.5 Official status 2 History of Latin 2.1 Old Latin 2.2 Classical Latin 2.3 Vulgar Latin 2.4 Medieval Latin 2.5 Renaissance Latin 2.6 Early modern Latin 2.7 Modern Latin 3 Phonology 3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels 3.2.1 Simple vowels 3.2.2 Diphthongs 4 Orthography 4.1 Alternate scripts 5 Grammar 5.1 Nouns 5.2 Adjectives 5.2.1 First and second declension adjectives 5.2.2 Third declension adjectives 5.2.3 Participles 5.3 Prepositions 5.4 Verbs 5.4.1 Deponent verbs 6 Vocabulary 7 Phrases 8 Numbers 9 Example text 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links 13.1 Language tools 13.2 Courses 13.3 Grammar and study 13.4 Phonetics 13.5 Latin language news and audio 13.6 Latin language online communities Legacy The Latin language has been passed down through various forms. Inscriptions Some inscriptions have been published in an internationally agreed-upon, monumental, multivolume series termed the "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL)". Authors and publishers vary, but the format is about the same: volumes detailing inscriptions with a critical apparatus stating the provenance and relevant information. The reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject matter of the field of epigraphy. About 270,000 inscriptions are known. Literature Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico is one of the most famous classical Latin texts of the Golden Age of Latin. The unvarnished, journalistic style of this patrician general has long been taught as a model of the urbane Latin officially spoken and written in the floruit of the Roman republic. The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have survived in whole or in part, in substantial works or in fragments to be analyzed in philology. They are in part the subject matter of the field of Classics. Their works were published in manuscript form before the invention of printing and now exist in carefully annotated printed editions such as the Loeb Classical Library, published by Harvard University Press, or the Oxford Classical Texts, published by Oxford University Press. Latin translations of modern literature such as The Hobbit, Treasure Island, Robinson Crusoe, Paddington Bear, Winnie the Pooh, The Adventures of Tintin, Asterix, Harry Potter, Walter the Farting Dog, Le Petit Prince, Max und Moritz, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, The Cat in the Hat, and a book of fairy tales, "fabulae mirabiles," are intended to garner popular interest in the language. Additional resources include phrasebooks and resources for rendering everyday phrases and concepts into Latin, such as Meissner's Latin Phrasebook. Linguistics Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. In the medieval period, much borrowing from Latin occurred through ecclesiastical usage established by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the sixth century or indirectly after the Norman Conquest through the Anglo-Norman language. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words. These were dubbed "inkhorn terms", as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten. Some useful ones, though, survived, such as 'imbibe' and 'extrapolate'. Many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin through the medium of Old French. Due to the influence of Roman governance and Roman technology on the less developed nations under Roman dominion, those nations adopted Latin phraseology in some specialized areas, such as science, technology, medicine, and law. For example, the Linnaean system of plant and animal classification was heavily influenced by Historia Naturalis, an encyclopedia of people, places, plants, animals, and things published by Pliny the Elder. Roman medicine, recorded in the works of such physicians as Galen, established that today's medical terminology would be primarily derived from Latin and Greek words, the Greek being filtered through the Latin. Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole. Latin law principles have survived partly in a long list of legal Latin terms. A few international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin. Interlingua is sometimes considered a simplified, modern version of the language. Latino sine Flexione, popular in the early 20th century, is Latin with its inflections stripped away, among other grammatical changes. Education A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz Throughout European history, an education in the Classics was considered crucial for those who wished to join literate circles. Instruction in Latin is an essential aspect of Classics. In today's world, a large number of Latin students in America learn from Wheelock's Latin: The Classic Introductory Latin Course, Based on Ancient Authors. This book, first published in 1956,[7] was written by Frederic M. Wheelock, who received a PhD from Harvard University. Wheelock's Latin has become the standard text for many American introductory Latin courses. The Living Latin movement attempts to teach Latin in the same way that living languages are taught, i.e., as a means of both spoken and written communication. It is available at the Vatican and at some institutions in the U.S., such as the University of Kentucky and Iowa State University. The British Cambridge University Press is a major supplier of Latin textbooks for all levels, such as the Cambridge Latin Course series. It has also published a subseries of children's texts in Latin by Bell & Forte, which recounts the adventures of a mouse called Minimus. Latin and Ancient Greek Language - Culture - Linguistics at Duke University in 2014. In the United Kingdom, the Classical Association encourages the study of antiquity through various means, such as publications and grants. The University of Cambridge,[8] the Open University (OU),[9] a number of prestigious independent schools, for example Eton and Harrow, and Via Facilis,[10] a London-based charity, do still run Latin courses. In the United States and Canada, the American Classical League supports every effort to further the study of classics. Its subsidiaries include the National Junior Classical League (with more than 50,000 members), which encourages high school students to pursue the study of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League, which encourages students to continue their study of the classics into college. The league also sponsors the National Latin Exam. Classicist Mary Beard wrote in The Times Literary Supplement in 2006 that the reason for learning Latin is because of what was written in it.[11] Official status Latin has been or is the official language of European states. Croatia – Latin was the official language of Croatian Parliament (Sabor) from the 13th until the 19th century (1847). The oldest preserved records of the parliamentary sessions (Congregatio Regni totius Sclavonie generalis)—held in Zagreb (Zagabria), Croatia—date from 19 April 1273. An extensive Croatian Latin literature exists. Poland – officially recognized and widely used[12][13][14][15] between the 9th and 18th centuries, commonly used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility[16] Holy See – used in the diocese, with Italian being the official language of Vatican City History of Latin Main article: History of Latin According to Roman Mythology, Latin was established by a tribal people called the Latini some time before the Trojan War.[citation needed] A number of historical phases of the language have been recognized, each distinguished by subtle differences in vocabulary, usage, spelling, morphology, and syntax. There are no hard and fast rules of classification; different scholars emphasize different features. As a result, the list has variants, as well as alternative names. In addition to the historical phases, Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the styles used by the writers of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as by Protestant scholars, from Late Antiquity onward. After the Western Roman Empire fell in A.D. 476 and Germanic kingdoms took its place, the Germanic people adopted Latin as a language more suitable for legal and other formal uses.[citation needed] Old Latin Main article: Old Latin The earliest known form of Latin is Old Latin, which was spoken from the Roman Kingdom to the middle Republican period and is attested both in inscriptions and in some of the earliest extant Latin literary works, such as the comedies of Plautus and Terence. During this period, the Latin alphabet was devised from the Etruscan alphabet. The writing style later changed from an initial right-to-left or boustrophedon[17] to a left-to-right script.[18] Classical Latin Main article: Classical Latin During the late republic and into the first years of the empire, a new Classical Latin arose, a conscious creation of the orators, poets, historians and other literate men, who wrote the great works of classical literature, which were taught in grammar and rhetoric schools. Today's instructional grammars trace their roots to these schools, which served as a sort of informal language academy dedicated to maintaining and perpetuating educated speech.[19][20] Vulgar Latin Main articles: Vulgar Latin and Late Latin Philological analysis of Archaic Latin works, such as those of Plautus, which contain snippets of everyday speech, indicates that a spoken language, Vulgar Latin (sermo vulgi ("the speech of the masses") by Cicero), existed at the same time as the literate Classical Latin. This informal language was rarely written, so philologists have been left with only individual words and phrases cited by Classical authors, as well as those found as graffiti.[21] As vernacular Latin was free to develop on its own, there is no reason to suppose that the speech was uniform either diachronically or geographically. On the contrary, Romanized European populations developed their own dialects of the language.[22] The Decline of the Roman Empire meant a deterioration in educational standards that brought about Late Latin, a post-classical stage of the language seen in Christian writings of the time. This language was more in line with the everyday speech not only because of a decline in education, but also because of a desire to spread the word to the masses. Despite dialect variation (which is found in any sufficiently widespread language) the languages of Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy retained a remarkable unity in phonological forms and developments, bolstered by the stabilizing influence of their common Christian (Roman Catholic) culture. It was not until the Moorish conquest of Spain in 711 cut off communications between the major Romance regions that the languages began to diverge seriously.[23] The Vulgar Latin dialect that would later become Romanian diverged somewhat more from the other varieties due to its being largely cut off from the unifying influences in the western part of the Empire. One way to determine whether a Romance language feature was in Vulgar Latin is to compare it with its parallel in Classical Latin. If it was not preferred in classical Latin, then it most likely came from the invisible contemporaneous Vulgar Latin. For example, Romance "horse" (cavallo/cheval/caballo/cavalo) came from Latin caballus. However, classical Latin used equus. Caballus therefore was most likely the spoken form (slang).[24] Vulgar Latin began to diverge into distinct languages by the 9th century at the latest, when the earliest extant Romance writings begin to appear. They were, throughout this period, confined to everyday speech, as, subsequent to Late Latin, Medieval Latin was used for writing. Medieval Latin Main article: Medieval Latin Latin Bible from 1407 Medieval Latin is the written Latin in use during that portion of the post-classical period when no corresponding Latin vernacular existed. The spoken language had developed into the various incipient Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin continued without its natural spoken base. Moreover, this Latin spread into lands that had never spoken Latin, such as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became useful for international communication between the member states of the Holy Roman Empire and its allies. Without the institutions of the Roman empire that had supported its uniformity, medieval Latin lost its linguistic cohesion: for example, in classical Latin sum and eram are used as auxiliary verbs in the perfect and pluperfect passive, which are compound tenses. Medieval Latin might use fui and fueram instead.[25] Furthermore, the meanings of many words have been changed and new vocabularies have been introduced from the vernacular. Identifiable individual styles of classically incorrect Latin prevail.[25] Renaissance Latin Main article: Renaissance Latin Most 15th century printed books (incunabula) were in Latin, with the vernacular languages playing only a secondary role.[26] The Renaissance briefly reinforced the position of Latin as a spoken language, through its adoption by the Renaissance Humanists. Often led by members of the clergy, they were shocked by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical world and the rapid loss of its literature. They strove to preserve what they could and restore Latin to what it had been, introducing the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that remained by comparing surviving manuscripts. They corrected medieval Latin out of existence no later than the 15th century and replaced it with more formally correct versions supported by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, through scholarship, to discover what the classical language had been. Early modern Latin Main article: New Latin During the Early Modern Age, Latin still was the most important language of culture in Europe. Therefore, until the end of the 17th century the majority of books and almost all diplomatic documents were written in Latin. Afterwards, most diplomatic documents were written in French and later just native or agreed-upon languages. Modern Latin Main article: Contemporary Latin The signs at Wallsend Metro station are in English and Latin as a tribute to Wallsend's role as one of the outposts of the Roman Empire. The largest organization that retains Latin in official and quasi-official contexts is the Catholic Church. Latin remains the language of the Roman Rite; the Tridentine Mass is celebrated in Latin. Although the Mass of Paul VI is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, it can be and often is said in Latin, in part or whole, especially at multilingual gatherings. It is the official language of the Holy See, the primary language of its public journal, the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, and the working language of the Roman Rota. Vatican City is also home to the world's only ATM that gives instructions in Latin.[27] In the pontifical universities postgraduate courses of Canon law are taught in Latin and papers should be written in the same language. In the Anglican Church, after the publication of the Book of Common Prayer of 1559, a Latin edition was published in 1560 for use at universities such as Oxford and the leading "public schools" (English private academies), where the liturgy was still permitted to be conducted in Latin[28] and there have been several Latin translations since. Most recently a Latin edition of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared.[29] Some films of ancient settings, such as Sebastiane and The Passion of the Christ, have been made with dialogue in Latin for the sake of realism. Occasionally, Latin dialogue is used because of its association with religion or philosophy, in such film/TV series as The Exorcist and Lost ("Jughead"). Subtitles are usually shown for the benefit of those who do not understand Latin. There are also songs written with Latin lyrics. The libretto for the opera-oratorio Oedipus rex (opera) by Igor Stravinsky is in Latin. Switzerland adopts the country's Latin short name "Helvetia" on coins and stamps, since there is no room to use all of the nation's four official languages. For a similar reason it adopted the international vehicle and internet code CH, which stands for Confoederatio Helvetica, the country's full Latin name. The polyglot European Union has adopted Latin names in the logos of some of its institutions for the sake of linguistic compromise, an "ecumenical nationalism" common to most of the continent, and as a sign of the continent's heritage (e.g., the EU Council: Consilium) Many organizations today have Latin mottos, such as "Semper paratus" (always ready), the motto of the United States Coast Guard, and "Semper fidelis" (always faithful), the motto of the United States Marine Corps. Several of the states of the United States also have Latin mottos, such as "Qui transtulit sustinet" ("He who transplanted still sustains"), the state motto of Connecticut; "Ad astra per aspera" ("To the stars through hardships"), that of Kansas; "Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam, circumspice" ("If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you"), that of Michigan; "Salus populi suprema lex esto" ("The health of the people should be the highest law"), that of Missouri; "Esse quam videri" (To be rather than to seem), that of North Carolina; "Sic semper tyrannis" (Thus always for tyrants), that of Virginia; and "Montani semper liberi" (Mountaineers are always free), that of West Virginia. Another Latin motto is "Per ardua ad astra" (Through adversity/struggle to the stars), the motto of the Royal Air Force (RAF). Some schools adopt Latin mottos, for example Harvard University's motto is "Veritas" meaning (truth). Veritas was the goddess of truth, a daughter of Saturn, and the mother of Virtue. Similarly Canada's motto "A mari usque ad mare" (from sea to sea) and most provincial mottos are also in Latin (e.g., British Columbia's is Splendor Sine Occasu (splendor without diminishment)). Occasionally, some media outlets broadcast in Latin, which is targeted at enthusiasts. Notable examples include Radio Bremen in Germany, YLE radio in Finland, and Vatican Radio & Television, all of which broadcast news segments and other material in Latin.[30] There are many websites and forums maintained in Latin by enthusiasts. The Latin Wikipedia has more than 100,000 articles written in Latin. Latin is taught in many high schools, especially in Europe and the Americas. It is most common in British Public Schools and Grammar Schools, the Italian Liceo classico and Liceo scientifico, the German Humanistisches Gymnasium, and the Dutch gymnasium. In the United States, it is taught in Boston Latin School, English High School of Boston, Boston Latin Academy, Central High School of Philadelphia, and Baltimore City College. Phonology Main article: Latin spelling and pronunciation No inherited verbal knowledge of the ancient pronunciation of Latin exists. It must be reconstructed. Among the data used for reconstruction are explicit statements about pronunciation by ancient authors, misspellings, puns, ancient etymologies, and the spelling of Latin loanwords in other languages.[31] Consonants The consonant phonemes of Classical Latin are shown in the following table.[32] Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal plain labial Plosive voiced b d g voiceless p t k k? Fricative voiced z voiceless f s h Nasal m n Rhotic r Approximant l j w During the time of Old and Classical Latin, the Latin alphabet had no distinction between uppercase and lowercase, and the letters ?J U W? did not exist. In place of ?J U?, the letters ?I V? were used. ?I V? represented both vowels and consonants. Most of the letterforms were similar to modern uppercase, as can be seen in the inscription from the Colosseum shown at the top of the article. The spelling systems used in Latin dictionaries and modern editions of Latin texts, however, normally use ?i u? in place of Classical-era ?I V?. Some systems use ?j v? for the consonant sounds /j w/, except in the combinations ?gu su qu?, where ?v? is never used. Some notes concerning the mapping of Latin phonemes to English graphemes are given below. Notes Latin grapheme Latin phone English examples ?c?, ?k? [k] Always hard as k in sky, never soft as in central, cello, or social ?t? [t] As t in stay, never as t in nation ?s? [s] As s in say, never as s in rise or issue ?g? [g] Always hard as g in good, never soft as g in gem [?] Before ?n?, as ng in sing ?n? [n] As n in man [?] Before ?c?, ?x?, and ?g?, as ng in sing ?l? [l] When doubled ?ll? and before ?i?, as clear l in link (l exilis)[33][34] [?] In all other positions, as dark l in bowl (l pinguis) ?qu? [k?] Similar to qu in quick, never as qu in antique ?u? [w] Sometimes at the beginning of a syllable, or after ?g? and ?s?, as w in wine, never as v in vine ?i? [j] Sometimes at the beginning of a syllable, as y in yard, never as j in just [jj] Doubled between vowels, as y y in toy yacht ?x? [ks] A letter representing ?c? + ?s?: as x in English axe, never as x in example Doubled consonants in Latin are pronounced long. In English, consonants are only pronounced double between two words or morphemes, as in unnamed, which has a doubled /nn/ like the nn in Latin annus. Vowels Simple vowels Front Central Back Close i? ? ? u? Mid e? ? ? o? Open a a? In the Classical period, the letter ?U? was written as ?V?, even when used as a vowel. ?Y? was adopted to represent upsilon in loanwords from Greek, but it was pronounced like ?u? and ?i? by some speakers. Classical Latin distinguished between long and short vowels. During the Classical period, long vowels, except for ?I?, were frequently marked using the apex, which was sometimes similar to an acute accent ?Á É Ó V´ Ý?. Long /i?/ was written using a taller version of ?I?, called i longa "long I": ???. In modern texts, long vowels are often indicated by a macron ?a e i o u?, and short vowels are usually unmarked, except when necessary to distinguish between words, in which case they are marked with a breve: ?a e i o u?. Long vowels in the Classical period were pronounced with a different quality from short vowels, as well as being longer. The difference is described in table below. Pronunciation of Latin vowels Latin grapheme Latin phone modern examples ?a? [a] similar to u in cut when short [a?] similar to a in father when long ?e? [?] as e in pet when short [e?] similar to ey in they when long ?i? [?] as i in sit when short [i?] similar to i in machine when long ?o? [?] as o in sort when short [o?] similar to o in holy when long ?u? [?] similar to u in put when short [u?] similar to u in true when long ?y? [?] as in German Stück when short (or as short u or i) [y?] as in German früh when long (or as long u or i) A vowel and ?m? at the end of a word, or a vowel and ?n? before ?s? or ?f?, is long and nasal, as in monstrum /mő?stru?/. Diphthongs Classical Latin had several diphthongs. The two most common were ?ae au?. ?oe? was fairly rare, and ?ui eu ei ou? were very rare, at least in native Latin words.[35] These sequences sometimes did not represent diphthongs. ?ae? and ?oe? also represented a sequence of two vowels in different syllables in aenus [a'e?.n?s] "of bronze" and coepit [k?'e?.p?t] "began", and ?au ui eu ei ou? represented sequences of two vowels, or of a vowel and one of the semivowels /j w/, in caue ['ka.we?] "beware!", cuius ['k?j.j?s] "whose", monui ['m?n.?.i?] "I warned", solui ['s??.wi?] "I released", deleui [de?'le?.wi?] "I destroyed", eius ['?j.j?s] "his", and nouus ['n?.w?s] "new". Old Latin had more diphthongs, but most of them changed into long vowels in Classical Latin. The Old Latin diphthong ?ai? and the sequence ?ai? became Classical ?ae?. Old Latin ?oi? and ?ou? changed to Classical ?u?, except in a few words, where ?oi? became Classical ?oe?. These two developments sometimes occurred in different words from the same root: for instance, Classical poena "punishment" and punire "to punish".[35] Early Old Latin ?ei? usually changed to Classical ?i?.[36] In Vulgar Latin and the Romance languages, ?ae au oe? merged with ?e o e?. A similar pronunciation also existed during the Classical Latin period among less educated speakers.[35] Diphthongs classified by beginning sound Front Back Close ui /ui?/ Mid ei /ei?/ eu/eu?/ oe /oe?/ ou /ou?/ Open ae /ae?/ au /au?/ Orthography Main article: Latin alphabet The Duenos Inscription, from the 6th century BC, is one of the earliest known Old Latin texts. Latin was written in the Latin alphabet, derived from the Old Italic alphabet, which was in turn drawn from the Greek and ultimately the Phoenician alphabet.[37] This alphabet has continued to be used over the centuries as the script for the Romance, Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Finnic, and many Slavic languages (Polish, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian and Czech), and has been adopted by many languages around the world, including Vietnamese, the Austronesian languages, many Turkic languages, and most languages in sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Oceania, making it by far the world's single most widely used writing system. The number of letters in the Latin alphabet has varied. When it was first derived from the Etruscan alphabet, it contained only 21.[38] Later, G was added to represent /g/, which had previously been spelled C; while Z ceased to be included in the alphabet due to non-use, as the language had no voiced alveolar fricative at the time.[39] The letters Y and Z were later added to represent the Greek letters upsilon and zeta respectively in Greek loanwords.[39] W was created in the 11th century from VV. It represented /w/ in Germanic languages, not in Latin, which still uses V for the purpose. J was distinguished from the original I only during the late Middle Ages, as was the letter U from V.[39] Although some Latin dictionaries use J, it is for the most part not used for Latin text as it was not used in classical times, although many other languages use it. Classical Latin did not contain sentence punctuation, letter case,[40] or interword spacing, though apices were sometimes used to distinguish length in vowels and the interpunct was used at times to separate words. So, the first line of Catullus 3, originally written as LV´GÉTEÓVENERÉSCVP?DINÉSQVE ("Mourn, O Venuses and Cupids") or with interpunct as LV´GÉTE•Ó•VENERÉS•CVP?DINÉSQVE would be rendered in a modern edition as Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque or with macrons Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque. A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets The Roman cursive script is commonly found on the many wax tablets excavated at sites such as forts, an especially extensive set having been discovered at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall in Britain. Curiously enough, most of the Vindolanda tablets show spaces between words, though spaces were avoided in monumental inscriptions from that era. Alternate scripts Occasionally Latin has been written in other scripts: The disputed Praeneste fibula is a 7th-century BC pin with an Old Latin inscription written using the Etruscan script. The rear panel of the early eighth-century Franks Casket has an inscription that switches from Old English in Anglo-Saxon runes to Latin in Latin script and to Latin in runes. Grammar Main article: Latin grammar Latin is a synthetic, fusional language, in the terminology of linguistic typology. In more traditional terminology, it is an inflected language, although the typologists are apt to say "inflecting". Thus words include an objective semantic element, and also markers specifying the grammatical use of the word. This fusion of root meaning and markers produces very compact sentence elements. For example, amo, "I love," is produced from a semantic element, ama-, "love," to which -o, a first person singular marker, is suffixed. The grammatical function can be changed by changing the markers: the word is "inflected" to express different grammatical functions. The semantic element does not change. Inflection uses affixing and infixing. Affixing is prefixing and suffixing. Latin inflections are never prefixed. For example, amabit, "he or she will love", is formed from the same stem, ama-, to which a future tense marker, -bi-, is suffixed, and a third person singular marker, -t, is suffixed. There is an inherent ambiguity: -t may denote more than one grammatical category, in this case either masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. A major task in understanding Latin phrases and clauses is to clarify such ambiguities by an analysis of context. All natural languages contain ambiguities of one sort or another. The inflections express gender, number, and case in adjectives, nouns, and pronouns—a process called declension. Markers are also attached to fixed stems of verbs, to denote person, number, tense, voice, mood, and aspect—a process called conjugation. Some words are uninflected, not undergoing either process, such as adverbs, prepositions, and interjections. Nouns Main article: Latin declension A regular Latin noun belongs to one of five main declensions, a group of nouns with similar inflected forms. The declensions are identified by the genitive singular form of the noun. The first declension, with a predominant ending letter of a, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ae. The second declension, with a predominant ending letter of o, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -i. The third declension, with a predominant ending letter of i, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -is. The fourth declension, with a predominant ending letter of u, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -us. And the fifth declension, with a predominant ending letter of e, is signified by the genitive singular ending of -ei. There are seven Latin noun cases, which also apply to adjectives and pronouns. These mark a noun's syntactic role in the sentence by means of inflections, so word order is not as important in Latin as it is in other less inflected languages, such as English. The general structure and word order of a Latin sentence can therefore vary. The cases are as follows: Nominative – used when the noun is the subject or a predicate nominative. The thing or person acting; e.g., the girl ran: puella cucurrit, or cucurrit puella Genitive – used when the noun is the possessor of or connected with an object (e.g., "the horse of the man", or "the man's horse"—in both of these instances, the word man would be in the genitive case when translated into Latin). Also indicates the partitive, in which the material is quantified (e.g., "a group of people"; "a number of gifts"—people and gifts would be in the genitive case). Some nouns are genitive with special verbs and adjectives too (e.g., The cup is full of wine. Poculum plenum vini est. The master of the slave had beaten him. Dominus servi eum verberaverat.) Dative-- used when the noun is the indirect object of the sentence, with special verbs, with certain prepositions, and if used as agent, reference, or even possessor. (e.g., The merchant hands the stola to the woman. Mercator feminae stolam tradit.) Accusative – used when the noun is the direct object of the subject, and as object of a preposition demonstrating place to which. (e.g., The man killed the boy. Homo necavit puerum.) Ablative – used when the noun demonstrates separation or movement from a source, cause, agent, or instrument, or when the noun is used as the object of certain prepositions; adverbial. (e.g., You walked with the boy. cum puero ambulavisti.) Vocative – used when the noun is used in a direct address. The vocative form of a noun is often the same as the nominative, but exceptions include second-declension nouns ending in -us. The -us becomes an -e in the vocative singular. If it ends in -ius (such as filius) then the ending is just -i (fili) (as distinct from the nominative plural (filii)) in the vocative singular. (e.g., "Master!" shouted the slave. "Domine!" clamavit servus.) Locative – used to indicate a location (corresponding to the English "in" or "at"). This is far less common than the other six cases of Latin nouns and usually applies to cities, small towns, and islands smaller than the island of Rhodes, along with a few common nouns, such as the word domus, house. In the first and second declension singular, its form coincides with the genitive (Roma becomes Romae, "in Rome"). In the plural, and in the other declensions, it coincides with the ablative (Athenae becomes Athenis, "at Athens"). In the case of the fourth declension word domus, the locative form, domi ("at home") differs from the standard form of all the other cases. Latin lacks both definite and indefinite articles; thus puer currit can mean either "the boy is running" or "a boy is running". Adjectives Main article: Latin declension There are two types of regular Latin adjectives: first and second declension and third declension, so called because their forms are similar, if not identical to, first and second declension and third declension nouns, respectively. Latin adjectives also have comparative (more --, -er) and superlative (most --, est) forms. There are also a number of Latin participles. Latin numbers are sometimes declined. See Numbers below. First and second declension adjectives First and second declension adjectives are declined like first declension nouns for the feminine forms and like second declension nouns for the masculine and neuter forms. For example, for mortuus, mortua, mortuum(dead)', mortua is declined like a regular first declension noun (such as puella (girl)), mortuus is declined like a regular second declension masculine noun (such as dominus (lord, master)), and mortuum is declined like a regular second declension neuter noun ( such as auxilium (help)). First and second declension -er adjectives Some first and second declension adjectives have an -er as the masculine nominative singular form. These are declined like regular first and second declension adjectives. Some adjectives keep the e for all of the forms while some adjectives do not. Third declension adjectives Third declension adjectives are mostly declined like normal third declension nouns, with a few exceptions. In the plural nominative neuter, for example, the stem is -ia (ex. omnia(all, everything)); while for third declension nouns, the plural nominative neuter ending is -a (ex. capita (head)) They can either have one, two, or three forms for the masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative singular. Participles Latin participles, like English participles, are formed from a verb. There are a few main types of participles, including: Prepositions Latin sometimes uses prepositions, and sometimes does not, depending on the type of prepositional phrase being used. Prepositions can take two cases for their object: the accusative (ex. "apud puerum" (with the boy), with "puerum" being the accusative form of "puer", boy) and the ablative (ex. "sine puero" (without the boy), with "puero" being the ablative form of "puer", boy). Verbs Main article: Latin conjugation A regular verb in Latin belongs to one of four main conjugations. A conjugation is "a class of verbs with similar inflected forms."[41] The conjugations are identified by the last letter of the verb's present stem. The present stem can be found by stripping the -re (or -ri, in the case of a deponent verb) ending from the present infinitive form. The infinitive of the first conjugation ends in -a-re or -a-ri (active and passive respectively); e.g., amare, "to love," hortari, "to exhort"; of the second conjugation by -e-re or -e-ri; e.g., monere, "to warn", vereri, "to fear;" of the third conjugation by -ere, -i; e.g., ducere, "to lead," uti, "to use"; of the fourth by -i-re, -i-ri; e.g., audire, "to hear," experiri, "to attempt". Irregular verbs may not follow these types, or may be marked in a different way. The "endings" presented above are not the suffixed infinitive markers. The first letter in each case is the last of the stem, because of which the conjugations are also called the a-conjugation, e-conjugation and i-conjugation. The fused infinitive ending is -re or -ri. Third-conjugation stems end in a consonant: the consonant conjugation. Further, there is a subset of the 3rd conjugation, the i-stems, which behave somewhat like the 4th conjugation, as they are both i-stems, one short and the other long.[42] These stem categories descend from Indo-European, and can therefore be compared to similar conjugations in other Indo-European languages. There are six general tenses in Latin (present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect), three moods (indicative, imperative and subjunctive, in addition to the infinitive, participle, gerund, gerundive and supine), three persons (first, second, and third), two numbers (singular and plural), two voices (active and passive), and three aspects (perfective, imperfective, and stative). Verbs are described by four principal parts: The first principal part is the first person singular, present tense, indicative mood, active voice form of the verb. If the verb is impersonal, the first principal part will be in the third person singular. The second principal part is the present infinitive active. The third principal part is the first person singular, perfect indicative active form. Like the first principal part, if the verb is impersonal, the third principal part will be in the third person singular. The fourth principal part is the supine form, or alternatively, the nominative singular, perfect passive participle form of the verb. The fourth principal part can show either one gender of the participle, or all three genders (-us for masculine, -a for feminine, and -um for neuter), in the nominative singular. The fourth principal part will be the future participle if the verb cannot be made passive. Most modern Latin dictionaries, if only showing one gender, tend to show the masculine; however, many older dictionaries will instead show the neuter, as this coincides with the supine. The fourth principal part is sometimes omitted for intransitive verbs, although strictly in Latin these can be made passive if used impersonally, and the supine exists for these verbs. There are six tenses in the Latin language. These are divided into two tense systems: the present system, which is made up of the present, imperfect, and future tenses, and the perfect system, which is made up of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses. Each tense has a set of endings corresponding to the person and number referred to. This means that subject (nominative) pronouns are generally unnecessary for the first (I, we) and second (you) persons, unless emphasis on the subject is needed. The table below displays the common inflected endings for the indicative mood in the active voice in all six tenses. For the future tense, the first listed endings are for the first and second conjugations, while the second listed endings are for the third and fourth conjugations. Tense 1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural Present -o/m -s -t -mus -tis -nt Future -bo, -am -bis, -es -bit, -et -bimus, -emus -bitis, -etis -bunt, -ent Imperfect -bam -bas -bat -bamus -batis -bant Perfect -i -isti -it -imus -istis -erunt Future Perfect -ero -eris -erit -erimus -eritis -erint Pluperfect -eram -eras -erat -eramus -eratis -erant Note that the future perfect endings are identical to the future forms of sum (with the exception of erint) and that the pluperfect endings are identical to the imperfect forms of sum. Deponent verbs A number of Latin words are deponent, causing their forms to be in the passive mood, while retaining an active meaning, e.g. hortor, hortari, hortatus sum (to urge). Vocabulary As Latin is an Italic language, most of its vocabulary is likewise Italic, deriving ultimately from Proto-Indo European. However, because of close cultural interaction, the Romans not only adapted the Etruscan alphabet to form the Latin alphabet, but also borrowed some Etruscan words into their language, including persona (mask) and histrio (actor).[43] Latin also included vocabulary borrowed from Oscan, another Italic language. After the Fall of Tarentum (272 BC), the Romans began hellenizing, or adopting features of Greek culture, including the borrowing of Greek words, such as camera (vaulted roof), sumbolum (symbol), and balineum (bath).[43] This hellenization led to the addition of "Y" and "Z" to the alphabet to represent Greek sounds.[44] Subsequently the Romans transplanted Greek art, medicine, science and philosophy to Italy, paying almost any price to entice Greek skilled and educated persons to Rome, and sending their youth to be educated in Greece. Thus, many Latin scientific and philosophical words were Greek loanwords or had their meanings expanded by association with Greek words, as ars (craft) and t????.[45] Because of the Roman Empire's expansion and subsequent trade with outlying European tribes, the Romans borrowed some northern and central European words, such as beber (beaver), of Germanic origin, and bracae (breeches), of Celtic origin.[45] The specific dialects of Latin across Latin-speaking regions of the former Roman Empire after its fall were influenced by languages specific to the regions. These spoken Latins evolved into particular Romance languages. During and after the adoption of Christianity into Roman society, Christian vocabulary became a part of the language, formed either from Greek or Hebrew borrowings, or as Latin neologisms.[46] Continuing into the Middle Ages, Latin incorporated many more words from surrounding languages, including Old English and other Germanic languages. Over the ages, Latin-speaking populations produced new adjectives, nouns, and verbs by affixing or compounding meaningful segments.[47] For example, the compound adjective, omnipotens, "all-powerful," was produced from the adjectives omnis, "all", and potens, "powerful", by dropping the final s of omnis and concatenating. Often the concatenation changed the part of speech; i.e., nouns were produced from verb segments or verbs from nouns and adjectives.[48] Phrases Here the phrases are mentioned with accents to know where to stress.[49] In the Latin language, most of the Latin words are stressed at the second to last (penultimate) syllable, called in Latin paenultimus or syllaba paenultima.[50] Fewer words are stressed at the third to last syllable, called in Latin antepaenultimus or syllaba antepaenultima.[50] sálve to one person / salvéte to more than one person - hello áve to one person / avéte to more than one person - greetings vále to one person / valéte to more than one person - goodbye cúra ut váleas - take care exoptátus to male / exoptáta to female, optátus to male / optáta to female, grátus to male / gráta to female, accéptus to male / accépta to female - welcome quómodo váles?, ut váles? - how are you? béne - good amabo te - please béne váleo - I'm fine mále - bad mále váleo - I'm not good quáeso (['kwajso]/['kwe:so]) - please íta, íta est, íta véro, sic, sic est, étiam - yes non, minime - no grátias tíbi, grátias tíbi ágo - thank you mágnas grátias, mágnas grátias ágo - many thanks máximas grátias, máximas grátias ágo, ingéntes grátias ágo - thank you very much accípe sis to one person / accípite sítis to more than one person, libénter - you're welcome qua aetáte es? - how old are you? 25 ánnos nátus to male / 25 ánnos náta to female - 25 years old loquerísne ... - do you speak ... Latíne? - Latin? Gráece? (['grajke]/['gre:ke]) - Greek? Ánglice? (['a?like]) - English? Italiáne? - Italian? Gallice? - French? Hispánice? - Spanish? Lusitánice? - Portuguese? Theodísce? ([teo'diske]) - German? Sínice? - Chinese? Iapónice? ([ja'po:nike]) - Japanese? Coreane? - Korean? Tagale? - Tagalog? Arábice? - Arabic? Pérsice? - Persian? Indice? - Hindi? Rússice? - Russian? úbi latrína est? - where is the toilet? Gaius Julius Caesar[b] (Classical Latin: ['ga?.i.?s 'ju?.li.?s 'kae?.sar]; 13 July 100 BC [1] – 15 March 44 BC)[2] was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative ruling class within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms.[3] Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavius, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavius set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history.[4] Contents [hide] 1 Early life and career 2 Consulship and military campaigns 2.1 Conquest of Gaul 2.2 Civil war 3 Dictatorship and assassination 3.1 Dictatorship 3.1.1 Political reforms 3.2 Assassination 3.3 Aftermath of the assassination 3.4 Deification 4 Personal life 4.1 Health and physical appearance 4.2 Name and family 4.3 Rumors of homosexual practices 5 Literary works 5.1 Memoirs 6 Chronology of his life 7 Legacy 7.1 Historiography 7.2 Politics 7.3 Depictions 8 Notes 9 References 9.1 Primary sources 9.1.1 Own writings 9.1.2 Ancient historians' writings 9.2 Secondary sources 10 External links Early life and career Main article: Early life and career of Julius Caesar Gaius Marius, Caesar's uncle Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus.[5] The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedere, caes-).[6] The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle.[7] Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC.[8] Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia,[9] and his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.[10] His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood.[11] In 85 BC, Caesar's father died suddenly,[12] so at 16, Caesar was the head of the family. His coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle, Gaius Marius, and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides, whenever they were in the ascendancy, carried out bloody purges of their political opponents. While Marius and his ally, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, were in control of the city, Caesar was nominated to be the new high priest of Jupiter,[13] and married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia.[14][15] Following Sulla's final victory, though, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding.[16] The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins. Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.[11] Feeling it much safer to be far away from Sulla should the Dictator change his mind, Caesar quit Rome and joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia. He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the Siege of Mytilene. On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumors of an affair with the king arose, which Caesar would vehemently deny for the rest of his Françoise Groben born cellist Ernie Hammes born trumpeter Georges Hausemer born writer Guy Helminger born writer Nico Helminger born writer Max Jacoby born filmmaker Pierre Joris born poet Gustave Kahnt – composer Jean Pierre Kemmer – composer conductor choir master Mariette Kemmer born opera singer Théo Kerg – artist Camille Kerger born composer opera singer Will Kesseler – painter Emile Kirscht – painter Nico Klopp – painter Anise Koltz born poet Jean Krier born poet Leon Krier born architect Edouard Kutter – photographer Edouard Kutter born photographer Joseph Kutter – painter Paul Kutter – photographer Yvon Lambert born photographer Dominique Lang – painter Claude Lenners born composer Georges Lentz born composer Michel Lentz – poet Nicolas Liez – lithographer painter Marianne Majerus born photographer Michel Majerus born – artist Laurent Menager – composer Antoine Meyer – poet and mathematician Bady Minck born artist & filmmaker Alexander Mullenbach born composer Jean Muller born pianist Joseph Alexandre Müller – composer Désirée Nosbusch born actress Joseph Probst – artist Harry Rabinger – painter Pierre Joseph Redouté – painter Michel Reis born jazz pianist Business edit George Atanasoski John Bitove John Bitove Sr Andy Peykoff Mike Ilitch Founder of Little Caesars and owner of Detroit Red Wings and Detroit Tigers Mike Zafirovski President and C E O of Nortel Networks Steve Stavro Sport edit Soccer players edit Zoran Baldovaliev ????? ??????????? Boško Gjurovski ????? ???????? Mario Gjurovski ????? ???????? Milko Gjurovski ????? ???????? Dragi Setinov ????? ??????? ?or?i Hristov ????? ??????? Cedomir Janevski ??????? ???????? Marek Jankulovski ????? ??????????? Jovan Kirovski Goran Maznov ????? ?????? Igor Mitreski ???? ???????? Ilco Naumoski ???? ???????? Oka Nikolov ??? ??????? Jane Nikolovski J??? ?????????? Darko Pancev ????? ?????? Goran Pandev ????? ?????? Saško P?ndev ????? ?????? Robert Petrov ?????? ?????? Goran Popov ????? ????? Robert Popov ?????? ????? Stevica Ristic ??????? ?????? Goce Sedloski ???? ???????? Goran Slavkovski ????? ?????????? Vujadin Stanojkovic ??????? ??????????? Mile Šterjovski ???? ?????????? Velice Šumulikoski ?????? ??????????? Goce Toleski ???? ??????? Vanco Trajanov ????? ???????? Jovica Trajcev ?????? ??????? Ivan Trickovski ???? ?????????? Aleksandar Vasoski ?????????? ??????? Blagoja Vidinic ??????? ??????? Peter Daicos Handball edit Kiril Lazarov ????? ??????? Swimming edit Atina Bojadži Hockey edit Steve Staios Ed Jovanovski Dan Jancevski Steven Stamkos José Théodore Christopher Tanev Boxing edit Ace Rusevski ??? ???????? Redžep Redžepovski ????? ?????????? Basketball edit Petar Naumoski ????? ???????? Todor Gecevski ????? ???????? Vrbica Stefanov ?????? ???????? Vlado Ilievski ????? ???????? Pero Antic ???? ????? Baseball edit Kevin Kouzmanoff Football edit Pete Stoyanovich Art edit Architects edit Miroslav Grcev ???????? ????? Painters edit Dimitar Avramovski–Pandilov ??????? ?????????? ???????? Nikola Martinovski ?????? ??????????? Dimitar Kondovski ??????? ????????? Lazar Licenoski ????? ????????? Petar Mazev ????? ????? Tomo Vladimirski ???? ??????????? Vangel Kodžoman ?????? ??????? Rahim Blak Gavril Atanasov ?????? ???????? Maja Hill Sculptors edit Gligor Stefanov ?????? ???????? Film edit Actors edit Touriya Haoud Meto Jovanovski ???? ?????????? Labina Mitevska ?????? ???????? Tony Naumovski ???? ????????? Naum Panovski ???? ???????? Igor Džambazov ???? ???????? Petre Prlicko ????? ??????? Vlado Jovanovski ????? ?????????? ?or?i Kolozov ????? ??????? Toni Mihajlovski ???? ??????????? Editors edit Filmmakers edit Petar Gligorovski ????? ??????????? Milco Mancevski ????? ????????? Apostol Trpeski ??????? ??????? Stole Popov ????? ????? Showbiz edit Ziya Tong television producer TV host Academia edit Scientists edit Georgi Efremov ?????? ??????? Ratko Janev ????? ????? Zoran T Popovski ????? ? ???????? Social academics edit Dimitrija Cupovski ????????? ???????? Gjorgji Pulevski ????? ???????? Mihail Petruševski ?????? ??????????? State edit Politicians edit Metodija Andonov Cento ???????? ??????? ????? Stojan Andov ?????? ????? Strašo Angelovski ?????? ?????????? Ljupco Arsov ????? ????? Ljube Boškoski ???? ???????? Vlado Buckovski ????? ????????? Branko Crvenkovski ?????? ??????????? Ljubco Georgievski ????? ??????????? Kiro Gligorov ???? ???????? Nikola Gruevski ?????? ???????? Gjorge Ivanov ????? ?????? Gordana Jankuloska ??????? ?????????? Zoran Jolevski ????? ???????? Srgjan Kerim ????? ????? Lazar Koliševski ????? ?????????? Hari Kostov ???? ?????? Trifun Kostovski ?????? ????????? Ilinka Mitreva ?????? ??????? Lazar Mojsov ????? ?????? Tito Petkovski ???? ????????? Lui Temelkovski ??? ??????????? Boris Trajkovski ????? ?????????? Vasil Tupurkovski ????? ??????????? Zoran Zaev ????? ???? Partisans World War II freedom fighters edit Mirce Acev ????? ???? Mihajlo Apostolski ????j?? ?????????? Cede Filipovski Dame ???? ?????????? ???? Blagoj Jankov Muceto ?????? ?????? ?????? Orce Nikolov ???? ??????? Strašo Pindžur ?????? ?????? Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš ????????? ?????????? ?????? Revolutionaries edit Yordan Piperkata ?????? ???????? ????????? Goce Delcev ???? ????? Petar Pop Arsov ????? ??? ????? Dame Gruev ???? ????? Jane Sandanski ???? ????????? Dimitar Pop Georgiev Berovski ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? Ilyo Voyvoda ???? ??? ?????????? Pere Tošev ???? ????? Pitu Guli ???? ???? Dimo Hadži Dimov ???? ???? ????? Hristo Uzunov ?????? ?????? Literature edit Gjorgji Abadžiev ????? ??????? Petre M Andreevski ????? ? ?????????? Maja Apostoloska ???? ??????????? Dimitrija Cupovski ????????? ???????? Jordan Hadži Konstantinov Džinot ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? Vasil Iljoski ????? ?????? Slavko Janevski ?????? ???????? Blaže Koneski ????? ??????? Risto Krle ????? ???? Vlado Maleski ????? ??????? Mateja Matevski ?????? ???????? Krste Misirkov ????? ????????? Kole Nedelkovski ???? ??????????? Olivera Nikolova Anton Panov ????? ????? Gjorche Petrov ????? ?????? Vidoe Podgorec ????? ???????? Aleksandar Prokopiev ?????????? ????????? Koco Racin ???? ????? Jovica Tasevski Eternijan ?????? ???????? ????????? Gane Todorovski ???? ?????????? Stevan Ognenovski ?????? ?????????? Music edit Classical music edit Composers edit Atanas Badev ?????? ????? Dimitrije Bužarovski ????????? ?????????? Kiril Makedonski ????? ?????????? Toma Prošev ???? ?????? Todor Skalovski ????? ????????? Stojan Stojkov ?????? ??????? Aleksandar Džambazov ?????????? ???????? Conductors edit Borjan Canev ?????? ????? Instrumentalists edit Pianists Simon Trpceski ????? ???????? Opera singers edit Blagoj Nacoski ?????? ??????? Boris Trajanov ????? ???????? Popular and folk music edit Composers edit Darko Dimitrov ????? ???????? Slave Dimitrov ????? ???????? Jovan Jovanov ????? ??????? Ilija Pejovski ????? ???????? Musicians edit Bodan Arsovski ????? ???????? Goran Trajkoski ????? ????????? Ratko Dautovski ????? ????????? Kiril Džajkovski ????? ????????? Tale Ognenovski ???? ?????????? Vlatko Stefanovski ?????? ??????????? Stevo Teodosievski ????? ???????????? Aleksandra Popovska ?????????? ???????? Singers and Bands edit Lambe Alabakoski ????? ?????????? Anastasia ????????? Arhangel ???????? Kristina Arnaudova ???????? ????????? Kaliopi Bukle ??????? Dani Dimitrovska ???? ??????????? Riste Tevdoski ????? ???????? Karolina Goceva ???????? ?????? Vaska Ilieva ????? ?????? Andrijana Janevska ????????? ???????? Vlado Janevski ????? ???????? Jovan Jovanov ????? ??????? Leb i sol ??? ? ??? Aleksandar Makedonski ?????????? ?????????? Elvir Mekic ????? ????? Mizar ????? Jasmina Mukaetova ??????? ????e???? The Malagasy French Malgache are the ethnic group that forms nearly the entire population of Madagascar They are divided into two subgroups the "Highlander" Merina Sihanaka and Betsileo of the central plateau around Antananarivo Alaotra Ambatondrazaka and Fianarantsoa and the "coastal dwellers" elsewhere in the country This division has its roots in historical patterns of settlement The original Austronesian settlers from Borneo arrived between the third and tenth centuries and established a network of principalities in the Central Highlands region conducive to growing the rice they had carried with them on their outrigger canoes Sometime later a large number of settlers arrived from East Africa and established kingdoms along the relatively unpopulated coastlines The difference in ethnic origins remains somewhat evident between the highland and coastal regions In addition to the ethnic distinction between highland and coastal Malagasy one may speak of a political distinction as well Merina monarchs in the late th and early th century united the Merina principalities and brought the neighboring Betsileo people under their administration first They later extended Merina control over the majority of the coastal areas as well The military resistance and eventual defeat of most of the coastal communities assured their subordinate position vis ŕ vis the Merina Betsileo alliance During the th and th centuries the French colonial administration capitalized on and further exacerbated these political inequities by appropriating existing Merina governmental infrastructure to run their colony This legacy of political inequity dogged the people of Madagascar after gaining independence in candidates ethnic and regional identities have often served to help or hinder their success in democratic elections Within these two broad ethnic and political groupings the Malagasy were historically subdivided into specifically named ethnic groups who were primarily distinguished from one another on the basis of cultural practices These were namely agricultural hunting or fishing practices construction style of dwellings music hair and clothing styles and local customs or taboos the latter known in the Malagasy language as fady citation needed The number of such ethnic groups in Madagascar has been debated The practices that distinguished many of these groups are less prevalent in the st century than they were in the past But many Malagasy are proud to proclaim their association with one or several of these groups as part of their own cultural identity "Highlander" ethnic groups Merina Sihanaka Betsileo Zafimaniry Coastal ethnic groups Antaifasy or Antefasy Antaimoro or Temoro or Antemoro Antaisaka or Antesaka Antambahoaka Antandroy or Tandroy Antankarana Antanosy or Tanosy Academia edit Afifi al Akiti Khasnor Johan historian Khoo Kay Kim Jomo Kwame Sundaram Danny Quah Harith Ahmad Architects edit Main article List of Malaysian architects Artists edit Main article List of Malaysian artists Business edit Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Al Bukhary born Tan Sri Dato Loh Boon Siew – Tan Sri Jeffrey Cheah Tan Sri William Cheng Dato Choong Chin Liang born Tan Sri Dato Tony Fernandes born Lim Goh Tong – Tan Sri Tiong Hiew King Tan Sri Teh Hong Piow born Chung Keng Quee – Tan Sri Ananda Krishnan born Robert Kuok born Tan Sri Quek Leng Chan born Shoba Purushothaman Shah Hakim Zain Halim Saad Tan Sri Mohd Saleh Sulong Tan Sri Vincent Tan born Lillian Too born Tan Sri Dr Francis Yeoh Tun Daim Zainuddin born Tan Sri Kong Hon Kong Designers edit Bernard Chandran fashion designer Jimmy Choo born shoe designer Poesy Liang born artist writer philanthropist jewellery designer industrial designer interior architect music composer Inventors edit Yi Ren Ng inventor of the Lytro Entertainers edit Yasmin Ahmad – film director Stacy Angie Francissca Peter born Jamal Abdillah born Sudirman Arshad – Loganathan Arumugam died Datuk David Arumugam Alleycats Awal Ashaari Alvin Anthons born Asmawi bin Ani born Ahmad Azhar born Ning Baizura born Kasma Booty died Marion Caunter host of One In A Million and the TV Quickie Ella born Erra Fazira born Sean Ghazi born Fauziah Latiff born Angelica Lee born Daniel Lee Chee Hun born Fish Leong born Sheila Majid born Amy Mastura born Mohamad Nasir Mohamad born Shathiyah Kristian born Meor Aziddin Yusof born Ah Niu born Dayang Nurfaizah born Shanon Shah born Siti Nurhaliza born Misha Omar born Hani Mohsin – Aziz M Osman born Azmyl Yunor born P Ramlee born Aziz Sattar born Fasha Sandha born Ku Nazhatul Shima Ku Kamarazzaman born Nicholas Teo born Pete Teo Penny Tai born Hannah Tan born Jaclyn Victor born Chef Wan Adira Suhaimi Michael Wong born Victor Wong born Dato Michelle Yeoh Hollywood actress born James Wan director of Hollywood films like several Saw films Insidious The Conjuring Fast and Furious born Ziana Zain born Zee Avi Shila Amzah Yunalis Zarai Zamil Idris born Military edit Leftenan Adnan – Warrior from mainland Malaya Antanum Warrior from Sabah Borneo Rentap Warrior from Sarawak Syarif Masahor Warrior from Sarawak Monsopiad Warrior from Sabah Borneo Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong Warrior from Telemong Terengganu Mat Salleh Warrior from Sabah Borneo Rosli Dhobi Warrior from Sarawak Politicians edit Parameswara founder of Sultanate of Malacca Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj st Prime Minister of independent Malaya Tun Abdul Razak nd Prime Minister V T Sambanthan Founding Fathers of Malaysia along with Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tan Cheng Lock Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock Founder of MCA Tun Hussein Onn rd Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad th Prime Minister Father of Modernisation Abdullah Ahmad Badawi th Prime Minister since Najib Tun Razak Current Prime Minister since Dato Seri Ong Ka Ting Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim Dato Wan Hisham Wan Salleh Nik Aziz Nik Mat Raja Nong Chik Zainal Abidin Federal Territory and Urban Wellbeing Minister Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Karpal Singh Lim Kit Siang Lim Guan Eng Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah Religious edit Antony Selvanayagam Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Penang Anthony Soter Fernandez Archbishop Emeritus of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur and Bishop Emeritus of the Diocese of Penang Gregory Yong – Second Roman Catholic Archbishop of Singapore Tan Sri Datuk Murphy Nicholas Xavier Pakiam Metropolitan archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of Malaysia Singapore and Brunei and publisher of the Catholic weekly newspaper The Herald Datuk Ng Moon Hing the fourth and current Anglican Bishop of West Malaysia Sportspeople edit Squash edit Datuk Nicol Ann David Ong Beng Hee Azlan Iskandar Low Wee Wern Badminton edit Chan Chong Ming men s doubles Dato Lee Chong Wei Chew Choon Eng men s doubles Wong Choong Hann Chin Eei Hui women s doubles Hafiz Hashim Roslin Hashim Wong Pei Tty women s doubles Choong Tan Fook men s doubles Lee Wan Wah men s doubles Koo Kien Keat men s doubles Tan Boon Heong men s doubles Retired edit Tan Aik Huang Eddy Choong Punch Gunalan Yap Kim Hock Foo Kok Keong Jalani Sidek Misbun Sidek Rashid Sidek Razif Sidek Cheah Soon Kit Lee Wan Wah Football soccer edit Brendan Gan Sydney FC Shaun Maloney Wigan Athletic Akmal Rizal Perak FA Kedah FA RC Strasbourg FCSR Haguenau Norshahrul Idlan Talaha Kelantan FA Khairul Fahmi Che Mat Kelantan FA Mohd Safiq Rahim Selangor FA Mohd Fadzli Saari Selangor FA PBDKT T Team FC SV Wehen Rudie Ramli Selangor FA PKNS F C SV Wehen Mohd Safee Mohd Sali Selangor FA Pelita Jaya Baddrol Bakhtiar Kedah FA Mohd Khyril Muhymeen Zambri Kedah FA Mohd Azmi Muslim Kedah FA Mohd Fadhli Mohd Shas Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlaté Moravce Mohd Irfan Fazail Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlaté Moravce Wan Zack Haikal Wan Noor Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlaté Moravce F C Ryukyu Nazirul Naim Che Hashim Harimau Muda A F C Ryukyu Khairul Izuan Abdullah Sarawak FA Persibo Bojonegoro PDRM FA Stanley Bernard Stephen Samuel Sabah FA Sporting Clube de Goa Nazmi Faiz Harimau Muda A SC Beira Mar Ahmad Fakri Saarani Perlis FA Atlético S C Chun Keng Hong Penang FA Chanthaburi F C Retired edit Serbegeth Singh owner founder of MyTeam Blackburn Rovers F C Global dvisor Mokhtar Dahari former Selangor FA and Malaysian player Lim Teong Kim former Hertha BSC player