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example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and later with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been heavily bombed during the war.[1][22][27][28][29][30] Similarly, in 1947, Bristol Corporation (later Bristol City Council) sent five 'leading citizens' on a good w i l l m i s s i o n t o H a n o v e r . [ 6 ] [ 2 2 ] W i t h i n E u r o p e , t o w n t w i n n i n g i s s u p p o r t e d b y t h e E u r o p e a n U n i o n . [ 1 ] [ 3 ] [ 6 ] T h e s u p p o r t s c h e m e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 9 . I n 2 0 0 3 a n a n n u a l b u d g e t o f a b o u t 1 2 m i l l i o n w a s a l l o c a t e d t o a b o u t 1 , 3 0 0 p r o j e c t s . T h e C o u n c i l o f E u r o pean Municipalities and Regions also works closely with the Commission (DG Education and Culture) to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community. It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning.[31] As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving almost 10,000 European municipalities, primarily French (2837 twinnings) and German (2485 twinnings).[26] The painting of Gagny Sutton twin towns mural The painting of Minden Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London. The five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting also features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness.[32] In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting (above its main one) showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from which Carshalton Beeches in the borough derives its name.[33] Another example of the use of public art is the wall sculpture of the partner cities of Munich, Germany. A recent study has concluded that geographical distance has very little, if any, influence upon communities' selections of a twin town or sister city.[34] Twinned towns are often chosen because of similarities between them; thus about 15 towns in Wales are twinned with towns in Brittany, and Oxford is with Bonn, Leiden, Grenoble and other university cities.[1] Many former West German cities are twinned with former East German cities; these twinning links were established before the fall of the Iron Curtain. Famous examples are the partnerships of Hanover and Leipzig, both of which have important trade fair grounds, or between Hamburg and Dresden. The first U.S.-German town twinning was in 1947 between Worthington, Minnesota and Crailsheim.[1] St Petersburg in Russia holds the record for the largest number of partnership arrangements with other communities.[34] In June 2012, the Scottish village of Dull and the U.S. town of Boring, Oregon, agreed to twin their municipalities to promote tourism in both places, playing on their names.[35][36][37] Recently some towns have made novelty twinning arrangements with fictional or virtual locations. Wincanton, England is partnered with Ankh-Morpork from Terry Pratchett's Discworld books,[38] and the Scottish Isle of Skye has been 'virtually twinned' with Skylands,



a location in the video game Skylanders: Swap Force.[citation needed] Town twinning has increasingly been used to form strategic international business links. For example, in the 1990s, when the Nottingham City Council in the UK considered installing a tram network, it consulted experts from its twin city of Karlsruhe, which has one of the most extensive and efficient tram networks in Germany. With assistance from Karlsruhe's specialist engineers, Nottingham completed its second tram line in 2013.[5] More recently Bristol and New Orleans have announced their intention to form a 'tuning' partnership based on a shared musical heritage and culture offer, at the initiative of Bristol Mayor George Ferguson.[39] Annecy, France and Nerima, Tokyo have for several years shared a partnership based around their "co-existent animation industry".[40][41] North America[edit] Dull is twinned with Boring The first city in North America to establish a sister-city relationship was Toledo, Ohio, which sistered with Toledo, Spain, in 1931. Vancouver, British Columbia, entered into an intercontinental twinning arrangement in 1944 with Odessa, Ukraine, which was part of the Soviet Union at the time. The initiative was based on Canada's aid to the allied port city during the Second World War. Liberal, Kansas, was twinned with Olney, Buckinghamshire, in 1950, and the cities have run a joint Pancake Day race ever since.[42][43] Tashkent, the capital city of Uzbekistan,also formerly part of the Soviet Unionwas twinned with Seattle, Washington, in 1973. Another first for sister cities or twin cities occurred in 1967 between Rochester, Minnesota, and Knebworth, UK, both centers for primary medical research. Sister City relationships begin for a variety of reasons. Generally, partner cities share similar demographics and size. They may arise from business connections, travel, similar industries, diaspora communities, or shared history. For example, the partnership between Portland, Oregon, and Bologna, Italy, arose from shared industries in biotechnology and education, appreciation for the arts, and a 'similar attitude towards food';[44] whereas Chicago's link with Warsaw, Poland, began with Chicago's historic Polish community[45] and the twinning of Indianapolis with Monza, Italy is due to both cities' long association with auto racing. History[edit] Los Angeles City Hall with sister cities signpost. The US sister city program formally began in 1956 when President Dwight D. Eisenhower proposed a people-to-people, citizen diplomacy initiative. Originally a program of the National League of Cities, Sister Cities International (SCI) became a separate corporation in 1967 due to the growth and popularity of the U.S. program.[46] SCI is now a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between communities in the US and other countries, organizes cultural exchanges, and provides support and funding. Under its administration, more than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries.[46][47] Thessaloniki stele, in sister city Melbourne[48] According to the SCI website, these exchanges include "musical performances, art exhibits, construction of peace parks or tea gardens, international cultural festivals, and teacher exchanges".[49] Sister city cultural events include the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington, D.C., honouring Washington's sister city relationship with Tokyo City. Capitalizing on the growing world economy, many sister city members developed business agreements with their partners. For example, Vermont's Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream company opened a factory in Karelia, Russia, and offered the same profit-sharing plan to its Russian employees as its American employees enjoyed. While not a primary goal, business relationships are a natural by-product of sister city exchanges. In 1995, the U.S. House of Representatives passed legislation to eliminate the United States Information Agency (USIA) with vocal support from the U.S. Conference of Mayors International Affairs Committee and Sister City members. The broadcasting functions of the USIA were maintained by the now independent Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG); all other continuing functions became part of the organizational structure overseen by the purposefully established Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs within the United States Department of State (DoS). SCI is a leading member of a consortium of non-profit NGOs that partner with the DoS Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA), which was created as part of this new organizational structure. Through the grant funding, logistical support and other resources made available through the ECA, SCI and other organizations develop, administer and promote the United States Cultural Exchange Programs (CEPs). One such CEP is the Kennedy-Lugar Youth Exchange and Study Programs (Yes Programs), which sponsor students predominantly from the Middle East to study for a year in the U.S. On a 2004 exchange, Arab students from Gaza, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, West Bank, Tunisia and Yemen lived in the US for a year with host families and attended a leadership summit in Boulder, Colorado. To further the Yes Program's goals, Sister Cities International developed the Youth and Education Network in 2004. Asia[edit] Isfahan street in Kuala Lumpur & Kuala Lumpur street in Isfahan Sister city partnerships are supported in Japan by the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations, a joint agency of local governments established by the Japanese government in 1988 (similar to Sister Cities International, its counterpart in the US). More recently, Tokyo has begun to actively promote 'city diplomacy' with other global cities at the initiative of its governor Yoichi Masuzoe.[50] Linguistic reasons[edit] Relationships between communities can also arise because of shared names; they may be named after one community (as in the case of Crdoba), they may share names (as in the case of Santiago de Compostela), or their names may have a common etymology. These similarities usually arise from sharing the same or related language, or from having been a colony or previously conquered. Political purposes[edit] Twinning towns and cities is sometimes done for political purposes. The Hungarian city Gyngys was twinned with the Azerbaijani city of Shusha in 2013, signing the twinning agreement with representatives from the Azerbaijani government; Hungary recognises Shusha as part of Azerbaijan, even though since the end of the Karabakh War it has been controlled by the military forces of Armenia and the unrecognised Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (de jure part of Azerbaijan).[51] An attempt was made in 2003 by Preston city councillors in England to twin with the Palestinian town of Nablus in the name of solidarity.[52] Recently, city partnership terminationnot just creationstarted to be used for political purposes. In 2013, Milan and Venice, formerly twinned with Saint Petersburg, suspended their links due to St Petersburg's conservative ban on "promotion of homosexuality to minors".[53] Other cities considered similar steps,[54][55] namely Los Angeles and Melbourne, where the campaign is led by Carl Katter. The cities of Glendale, California and Higashiosaka, Japan came close to terminating their sister cities relationship in 2013/14 on account of an ongoing dispute over Glendale's support for the erection of a statue dedicated to Korean comfort women in a city park.[56] In 2014, Prague terminated its partn e r s h i p w i t h S a i n t P e t e r s b u r g a n d M o s c o w b e c a u s e o f R u s s i a n m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n U k r a i n e . M o s c o w h a d b e e n P r a g u e ' s p a r t n e r c i t y s i n c e 1 9 9 5 . [ 5 7 ] G a l l e r y [ e d i t ] L o u i s v i l l e ' s s i s t e r c i t i e s C o a t s o f a r m s o f t h e t w i n t o w n s S z a m o t u B y , P o l a n d a n d B r i g n o l e s , F r a n c e A u b e r g e n v i l l e , F r a n c e V i l l e s j u m e l e s I n s i g n i a o f t w i n t o w n s o n t o w n h a l l i n K r a l u p y n a d V l t a v o u , C z e c h R e p u b l i c . S i g n i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m s h o w i n g t h e t w i n n i n g o f E p p i n g , E n g l a n d w i t h s i m i l a r l y - n a m e d E p p i n g e n i n G e r m a n y . P l o v d i v , Bulgaria twin towns and sister cities directions Ottobrunn, Germany Partnerschaftsschild Partner cities Four twinning towns of Brzeg Dolny, Poland Twin town signs Kemi, Finland Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm and Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zaventem, Belgium twin towns Twin town memorial in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia thumbnail |Twin town memorial in Antony, Matagalpa, Charlottenburg Linkping, Sweden twin towns Yalta, Crimea and Santa Barbara, California are sister cities Coat s o f a r m s o f W e i n s b e r g ' s t w i n t o w n s C a r i g n a n , F r a n c e a n d C o s t i g l i o l e d ' A s t i , I t a l y T w i n t o w n s s i g n i n O s i j e k , C r o a t i a B e B c h a t w , P o l a n d ' s t w i n t o w n s H o l o n , I s r a e l , t h e T w i n t o w n s a n d S i s t e r c i t i e s g a r d e n T h e c o a t s o f a r m s o f t h e t w i n t o w n s o f Dundee, UK, with their countries' flags Worms, Germany partner cities sign Welcome to Glastonbury, UK - Twin towns Lalibela, Ethiopia and Patmos, Greece Town twinning commemoration, Godalming, UK Rimini, Italy's twin towns and sister cities '50 years of town twinning', German stamp from 1997 50th Anniversary celebrations twin towns Suresnes, France and Holon[58] Kragujevac and Suresnes twinning agreement Rochester NY Sister Cities Bridge and Chamber of Commerce A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. The concept comes from geography and urban studies and rests on the idea that globalization can be understood as largely created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade. The most complex of these entities is the "global city", whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socio-economic means.[1] The use of "global city", as opposed to "megacity", was popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassen in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo,[2] though the term "world city" to refer to cities that control a disproportionate amount of global business dates to at least the May 1886 description of Liverpool by The Illustrated London News.[3] Patrick Geddes also used the term "world city" later in 1915.[4] Cities can also fall from such categorization, as in the case of cities that have become less cosmopolitan and less internationally renowned in the current era. Contents [hide] 1 Criteria 1.1 Characteristics 2 Variants 2.1 GaWC study 2.2 Global Cities Index 2.3 Global Economic Power Index 2.4 Global Power City Index 2.5 The Wealth Report 2.6 Global City Competitiveness Index 3 Gallery 3.1 Alpha++ 3.2 Alpha+ 3.3 Alpha 3.4 Alpha 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Criteria Global city status is considered to be beneficial and desired, and because of this, many groups have tried to classify and rank which cities are seen as world cities or non-world cities.[4] Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities,[5] the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included.[4] The criteria for identification tend either to be based on a yardstick value (e.g., if the producer-service sector is the largest sector then city X is a world city)[4] or on an imminent determination (if the producer-service sector of city X is greater than the combined producer-service sectors of N other cities then city X is a world city.)[4] Characteristics Although what constitutes a world city is still subject to debate, standard characteristics of world cities are:[6] A variety of international financial services,[7] notably in finance, insurance, real estate, banking, accountancy, and marketing Headquarters of several multinational corporations The existence of financial headquarters, a stock exchange and major financial institutions Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities Considerable decision-making power on a daily basis and at a global level Centres of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture and politics Centres of media and communications for global networks Dominance of the national region with great international significance High percentage of residents employed in the services sector and information sector High-quality educational institutions, including renowned universities, international student attendance[8] and research facilities Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal, medical and entertainment facilities in the country Variants GaWC study A map showing the distribution of GaWC-ranked world cities (2010 data) Together, Jon Beaverstock, Richard G. Smith and Peter J. Taylor established the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). A roster of world cities was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 and ranked cities based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law.[5] The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks.[9] The 2004 rankings acknowledged several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. The 2008 roster, similar to the 1998 version, is sorted into categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories), "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories) and additional cities with "High sufficiency" or "Sufficiency" presence. The following is a general guide to the rankings:[9] Alpha++ cities are London and New York City, which are vastly more integrated with the global economy than all other cities. Alpha+ cities complement London and New York City by filling advanced service niches for the global economy. Alpha and Alpha- cities are cities that link major economic regions into the world economy. Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy. Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy. Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be obviously dependent on world cities. Global Cities Index In 2008, the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with the Chicago-based consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia Sassen, Witold Rybczynski, and others.[10] Foreign Policy noted that "the worlds biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs of global integration. They are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions."[11] The ranking was updated in 2010, 2012 and 2014.[12] Global Economic Power Index Sources:[13][14] In 2015, the second Global Economic Power Index, a "survey of the surveys" compiled by Richard Florida, was published by The Atlantic (to be differentiated from a namesake list[13] published by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with cities ranked according to criteria reflecting their presence on 5 separate lists as published by 5 different entities. Global Power City Index Source:[15] The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo issued a comprehensive study of global cities in 2014. The ranking is based on six overall categories, "Economy", "Research & Development", "Cultural Interaction", "Livability", "Environment", and "Accessibility", with 70 individual indicators among them. This Japanese ranking also breaks down top ten world cities ranked in subjective categories such as "manager, researcher, artist, visitor and resident". The Wealth Report Source:[16][17] "The Wealth Report" (a global perspective on prime property and wealth) is made by the London-based estate agent Knight Frank LLP together with the Citi Private Bank. The report includes a "Global Cities Survey", evaluating which cities are considered the most important to the worlds HNWIs (high-net-worth individuals, having over $25million of investable assets). For the Global Cities Survey, Citi Private Banks wealth advisors, and Knight Franks luxury property specialists were asked to name the cities that they felt were the most important to HNWIs, in regard to: "economic activity", "political power", "knowledge and influence" and "quality of life". Global City Competitiveness Index Source:[18] In 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit (The Economist Group), ranked the competitiveness of global cities according to their demonstrated ability to attract capital, businesses, talent and visitors. Gallery Alpha++ London New York Alpha+ Tokyo Hong Kong Singapore Shanghai Sydney Dubai Beijing Paris Alpha Chicago Buenos Aires Mumbai Milan Moscow So Paulo Frankfurt Toronto Los Angeles Madrid Mexico City Amsterdam Kuala Lumpur Brussels Alpha New Delhi Johannesburg Vienna San Francisco Istanbul Jakarta Zrich Warsaw Washington D.C. Melbourne Miami Barcelona Bangkok The Ranally city rating system is a tool developed by Rand McNally & Co. to classify U.S. cities based on their economic function. The system is designed to reflect an underlying hierarchy whereby consumers and businesses go to a city of a certain size for a certain function; some functions are widely available and others are only available in the largest cities. The system was developed for Rand McNally by geographer Richard L. Forstall and released in 1964. The city rankings are updated periodically in the Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide, an annual two-volume set, which is available in many libraries. Among the criteria for categorization are retail sales, newspaper circulation, and the presence of universities and hospitals and corporate headquarters. The size of the city's tributary area is critical to determining whether it will be rated a 2, 3, or 4. As of 2006, there are 1492 cities rated. The system consists of a number and a letter. The number reflects a city's importance in the national hierarchy. Nationally important business centers are ranked 1. Regional business centers are ranked 2. Significant local business centers are ranked 3 and business centers whose importance is purely local are ranked 4. the letter reflects its importance in its own area. Doubled letters serve to distinguish centers within a class. The most important center in a market (trading area) is given some kind of A. Other business centers in the same market area will be given B or C depending on their importance. For example, Dallas is rated 1-AA (a nationally important business center) and Fort Worth is rated 2-BB. B cities constitute basic trading centers, while C cities do not. Rand McNally divides the country into basic trading areas (487 as of 2008), each of which has exactly one A-rated city. The basic trading areas are aggregated into major trading areas, of which there are 51. The Federal Communications Commission uses these areas for determining wireless territory boundaries.[1] New York has always been given the unique rating 1-AAAA due to its preeminent status in the national hierarchy. Chicago was originally the only other city rated 1-AAA as having influence over a large area of the country. In 1988, Los Angeles was similarly given a 1-AAA rating. Thirteen cities are given the rating 1-AA as major national business centers: Atlanta, Boston, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C.. Ranally city rating Description Examples (* indicates a complete listing) 1-AAAA Unique rating for New York New York City* 1-AAA Unique rating for Chicago and Los Angeles Chicago, Los Angeles* 1-AA Major national business centers Atlanta, Boston, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, Miami, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. (13 cities)* 1-A Other national business centers Baltimore, Cincinnati, Columbus, Denver, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, Phoenix, Portland, San Antonio, San Diego, and Seattle (14 cities)* 2-AA Major regional business centers Albany, Albuquerque, Allentown, Austin, Baton Rouge, Birmingham, Buffalo, Charlotte, Columbia, Dayton, Des Moines, El Paso, Grand Rapids, Harrisburg, Hartford, Honolulu, Jackson, Jacksonville, Knoxville, Las Vegas, Lexington, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Memphis, Nashville, New Haven, Norfolk, Omaha, Orlando, Peoria, Providence, Raleigh, Richmond, Rochester, NY, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, Shreveport, Spokane, Springfield, MA, Syracuse, Tampa, Toledo, Tucson, Tulsa, West Palm Beach, Wichita, and Youngstown (48 cities)* 2-BB Secondary major regional business centers Akron, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Worth, Oakland, St. Paul, St. Petersburg, San Jose, Wilmington, DE (8 cities)* 2-CC Same as 2-BB, but not constituting a basic trading center Newark* 2-A Other regional business centers Amarillo, Anchorage, Augusta, GA, Bakersfield, Beaumont, Canton, Charleston, SC, Charleston, WV, Chattanooga, Colorado Springs, Corpus Christi, Davenport, Daytona Beach, Erie, Eugene, Fayetteville, NC, Flint, Fort Myers, Fort Wayne, Fresno, Gainesville, FL, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville, SC, Huntington, WV, Kalamazoo, Lafayette, LA, Lancaster, PA, Lansing, Lubbock, McAllen, Melbourne, Mobile, Modesto, Montgomery, Pensacola, Portland, ME, Reading, Reno, Roanoke, Rockford, Saginaw, Salem, OR, Sarasota, Savannah, Scranton, South Bend, Springfield, IL, Springfield, MO, Stockton, Worcester (51 cities)* 2-B Secondary regional business centers Clearwater, Newport News, Tacoma, Trenton, and Virginia Beach (5 cities)* 2-C Same as 2-B, but not constituting a basic trading center Ann Arbor, Bridgeport, Riverside, and San Bernardino (4 cities)* 2-S Suburbs analogous to 2-C cities Anaheim, Arlington, Costa Mesa, Dearborn, Hialeah, Hollywood, FL, Long Beach (the largest city classified by Rand McNally as a suburb), Mesa, Paramus, Pasadena, Santa Ana, Southfield, MI, Stamford, Torrance, Troy, MI, White Plains (16 suburbs)* 3-AA Major significant local business centers Abilene, TX, Albany, GA, Alexandria, LA, Altoona, PA, Appleton, WI, Asheville, NC, Atlantic City, NJ, Bangor, ME, Billings, MT, Biloxi, MS, Binghamton, NY, Bloomington, IL, Boise, ID, Brownsville, TX, Burlington, VT, Cedar Rapids, IA, Champaign, IL, Charlottesville, VA, Columbus, GA, Decatur, IL, Duluth, MN, Eau Claire, WI, Elmira, NY, Fargo, ND, Florence, AL, Fort Smith, AR, Huntsville, AL, Jackson, MI, Johnstown, PA, Kingsport, TN, La Crosse, WI, Lafayette, IN, Lake Charles, LA, Lakeland, FL, Laredo, TX, Lawton, OK, Lima, OH, Lincoln, NE, Longview, TX, Lynchburg, VA, Macon, GA, Manchester, NH, Mansfield, OH, Medford, OR, Midland, TX, Monroe, LA, Muncie, IN, Muskegon, MI, New London, CT, Ocala, FL, Odessa, TX, Parkersburg, WV, Poughkeepsie, NY, Provo, UT, Pueblo, CO, Rochester, MN, St. Joseph, MO, Salinas, CA, San Angelo, TX, Santa Barbara, CA, Sioux City, IA, Sioux Falls, SD, Tallahassee, FL, Terre Haute, IN, Texarkana, TX, Topeka, KS, Tuscaloosa, AL, Tyler, TX, Utica, NY, Visalia, CA, Waco, TX, Waterloo, IA, Wheeling, WV, Wichita Falls, TX, Wilmington, NC, Yakima, WA, and York, PA (77 cities)* 3-BB Secondary major significant local business centers Durham, NC, Fall River, MA, Gastonia, NC, Hampton, VA, New Bedford, MA, Niagara Falls, NY, Monterey, CA, Ogden, UT, Pawtucket, RI, Schenectady, NY, Spartanburg, SC, Springfield, OH, Waterbury, CT, and Wilkes-Barre, PA (14 cities)* 3-CC Same as 3-BB, but not constituting a basic trading center Boulder, CO, Everett, WA, Oxnard, CA, Racine, WI, Santa Rosa, CA, Ventura, CA, and Warwick, RI (7 cities)* 3-SS Suburbs analogous to 3-CC cities Alexandria, VA, Arlington, VA, Aurora, CO, Aurora, IL, Bellevue, WA, Beverly Hills, CA, Bloomington, MN, Brockton, MA, Burlington, MA, Cambridge, MA, Cherry Hill, NJ, Concord, CA, Danbury, CT, Edina, MN, El Cajon, CA, Fairfax, VA, Framingham, MA, Fremont, CA, Fullerton, CA, Glendale, CA, Greensburg, PA, Hackensack, NJ, Hayward, CA, Huntington Beach, CA, Jersey City, NJ, Joliet, IL, Kansas City, KS, Lakewood, CO, Lawrence, MA, Livonia, MI, Lowell, MA, Mountain View, CA, Newport Beach, CA, Newton, MA, Norwalk, CT, Orange, CA, Overland Park, KS, Palo Alto, CA, Pomona, CA, Pontiac, MI, Rockville, MD, San Leandro, CA, San Mateo, CA, Schaumburg, IL, Scottsdale, AZ, Santa Monica, CA, Skokie, IL, Sterling Heights, MI, Vancouver, WA, Walnut Creek, CA, Warren, MI, Waukegan, IL, Wayne, NJ, Woodbridge, NJ, and Yonkers, NY (55 suburbs)* 3-A Other significant local business centers Athens, GA, Anderson, IN, Cheyenne, WY, Fond du Lac, WI, Fort Pierce, FL, Grand Forks, ND, Hagerstown, MD, Redding, CA (200 cities) 3-B Secondary significant local business centers Meriden, CT, Fitchburg, MA, Johnson City, TN, Port Arthur, TX (58 cities) 3-C Same as 3-B, but not constituting a basic trading center Ames, IA, Rock Hill, SC, Troy, NY (51 cities) 3-S Suburbs analogous to 3-C cities Arlington Heights, IL, Chula Vista, CA, Edison, NJ, Midwest City, OK, New Rochelle, NY, North Charleston, SC, Somerville, MA, Wyoming, MI (180 suburbs) A metropolis is a large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. The term is Greek and means the "mother city" of a colony (in the ancient sense), that is, the city which sent out settlers. This was later generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation. A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which is not the core of that agglomeration, is not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is most commonly metropolises.[1] For urban centers outside metropolitan areas that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis, short regio, was introduced by German professors in 2006.[2] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Etymology and modern usage 3 Global city 4 By country 4.1 Africa 4.1.1 Egypt 4.1.2 Nigeria 4.1.3 South Africa 4.2 Asia 4.2.1 Bangladesh 4.2.2 India 4.2.3 Indonesia 4.2.4 Iran 4.2.5 Israel 4.2.6 Japan 4.2.7 Lebanon 4.2.8 Pakistan 4.2.9 Philippines 4.2.10 South Korea 4.2.11 Turkey Main article: Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II During 1951, George VI's health declined and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour.[55] In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of the King and consequently Elizabeth's immediate accession to the throne. Philip broke the news to the new Queen.[56] Martin Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course".[57] She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.[58] She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace.[59] With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable that the royal house would bear her husband's name, becoming the House of Mountbatten, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Elizabeth's grandmother, Queen Mary, favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, and so on 9 April 1952 Elizabeth issued a declaration that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[60] In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.[61] Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret informed her sister that she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorc 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Martin Charteris, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thoughtshe hopedgiven time, the affair would peter out."[62] Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.[63] Eventually, she decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.[64] In 1960, she married Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was created Earl of Snowdon the following year. They were divorced in 1978; she did not remarry.[65] Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the coronation on 2 June 1953 went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died.[66] The ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time.[67][d] Elizabeth's coronation gown was embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries:[71] English Tudor rose; Scots thistle; Welsh leek; Irish shamrock; Australian wattle; Canadian maple leaf; New Zealand silver fern; South African protea; lotus flowers for India and Ceylon; and Pakistan's wheat, cotton, and jute.[72] Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth Further information: Historical development of the Commonwealth realms, from the Queen's accession The Commonwealth realms (pink) and their territories and protectorates (red) at the beginning of Elizabeth II's reign A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume. Elizabeth II and Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Conference, Windsor Castle From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations.[73] By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.[74] Spanning 195354, the Queen and her husband embarked on a six-month around-the-world tour. She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those nations.[75] During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.[76] Throughout her reign, the Queen has undertaken state visits to foreign countries and tours of Commonwealth ones and she is the most widely travelled head of state.[77] In 1956, French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor of the European Union.[78] In November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.[79] The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden recommended that she consult Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Winston Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in the Queen appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan.[80] The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led in 1957 to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,[81] Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch".[82] Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.[83] Aleksejs irovs born chess player Andris kele born politician Prime Minister of Latvia Armands kele basketball player Ksenia Solo born actress Ernests talbergs architect ensemble of the Freedom Monument Izaks Nahmans teinbergs politician lawyer and author Maris trombergs BMX cyclist gold medal winner at and Olympics T edit Esther Takeuchi born materials scientist and chemical engineer Mihails Tals the th World Chess Champion Janis Roberts Tilbergs painter sculptor U edit Guntis Ulmanis born president of Latvia Karlis Ulmanis prime minister and president of Latvia


abby-lane abby-rode abigail-clayton ada-tauler addie-juniper addison-cain adele-wiesenthal adeline-lange adeline-pollicina adriana-amante adrianna-laurenti adrianna-russo agnes agnes-ardant agnes-zalontai aimee-addison aisha-sun aja aleena-ferari alessandra-schiavo aletta-ocean alexandra-nice alexandria-cass alexa-parks alex-dane alex-foxe alexia-knight alexis-devell alexis-firestone alexis-greco alexis-payne alexis-x alex-storm alex-white aliana-love alice-springs alicia-alighatti alicia-monet alicia-rio alicyn-sterling alighiera-olena ali-moore aline-santos alissa-ashley allysin-chaynes alysin-embers alyssa-love alyssa-reece amanda-addams amanda-blake amanda-blue amanda-jane-adams amanda-rae amanda-stone amanda-tyler amber-hunt amberlina-lynn amber-lynn amber-michaels amber-peach amber-wild amber-woods ambrosia-fox amia-miley ami-rodgers amy-allison amy-brooke amy-rose amy-starz anastasia-christ anastasia-sands andrea-adams andrea-brittian andrea-lange andrea-true andy angel angela-baron angela-summers angel-barrett angel-cash angel-cruz angel-cummings angel-ducharme angelica-sin angelika-reschner angelina-brasini angelina-korrs angelina-valentine angel-kelly angel-long angel-west angie-knight anita-andic anita-blond anita-cannibal anita-dark anna-belle anna-malle anna-nikova anna-pierce anna-ventura anna-veruska anne-bie-warburg anne-libert anne-magle anne-sand annette-haven annie-sprinkle ann-kiray ann-marie-michelle antonia-dorian april-flowers april-may april-west arcadia-lake ariana-bali ariana-jollee arlana-blue ashley-anne ashley-brooks ashley-coda ashley-fires ashley-lauren ashley-long ashley-marie ashley-nicole ashley-perk ashley-renee ashley-robbins ashley-welles ashley-wells ashley-winger ashlyn-gere astrid-bone athena-star aubrey-nichols aurora aurora-snow autumn-bliss autumn-rayne ava-devine ava-lauren avalon ava-marteens avy-lee-roth bailey-monroe bambi-allen barbara-bourbon barbara-boutet barbara-dare barbara-doll barbara-moose barbarella 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carmel-nougat carmen-blonde carmen-de-la-torre carmen-moore carmen-rose carol-connors carol-cross carol-cummings carole-dubois carole-gire carole-pierac carol-titian carolyn-connoly carolyn-monroe carrie-cruise cassandra-leigh cassidy cassie-courtland cataline-bullock catherine-count catherine-crystal catherine-ringer catherine-tailleferre cathy-delorme cathy-menard cathy-stewart celeste-fox celine-gallone chanel-preston chanel-price chantal-virapin chanta-rose chantelle-stevens charisma charisma-cole charlie-latour charlie-waters charlotte-de-castille charmane-star chasey-lain chayse-manhattan chaz-vincent chelsea-sinclaire chennin-blanc cheri-janvier cheri-taylor cherry-hill chessie-moore cheyenne-hunter cheyenne-silver china-lee china-leigh china-moon chloe-cruize chloe-dior chloe-kez chloe-stevens chris-collins chris-jordan chris-petersen chrissie-beauchamp christa-abel christa-ludwig christie-ford christi-lake christina-berg christina-blond christina-evol christina-skye christine-black christine-chavert christine-neona christine-rigoler christy-canyon cicciolina cindi-stephens cindy-carver cindy-crawford cindy-more cindy-shepard cindy-wong cinthya-marinho clair-dia claire-robbins claude-janna claudia-jackson claudia-jamsson claudia-mehringer claudia-nero claudia-van-statt claudia-zante claudine-beccarie clea-carson cleo-nichole cleo-patra cody-lane cody-love cody-nicole coffee-brown colleen-brennan connie-bennett connie-peterson constance-money copper-penny coreena corey-everson corinne-lemoine corneliah cory-everson cory-wolf courtney courtney-cummz courtney-james cris-cassidy crissy-moran cris-taliana crystal-breeze crystal-dawn crystal-holland crystal-knight crystal-lake crystal-lovin crystal-sync csilla-kalnay cuban-bee cynara-fox cyndee-summers cynthia-black cynthia-brooks cynthia-hammers cynthia-lavigne dagmar-lost daisy-layne dallas-miko dana-dylan dana-lynn danica-rhea daniela-nanou daniela-schiffer daniele-troeger daniella daniella-schiffer danielle danielle-foxxx danielle-rodgers danny-ricci danyel-cheeks daphne daphne-rosen darby-lloyd-rains darla-crane darla-delovely davia-ardell dayton-rain debbie-northrup debbie-revenge debbie-van-gils debi-diamond debi-jointed debra-lynn deidra-hopkins deidre-holland delania-raffino delia-moore delphine-thail delta-force delta-white demi-moor denice-klarskov denise-derringer denise-dior denise-sloan desiree-cousteau desiree-foxx desiree-lane desiree-west deva-station devin-devasquez devinn-lane devon-shire dia diana-holt diana-kisabonyi diana-siefert diana-stevenson diane-dubois diane-richards diane-sloan diane-suresne dido-angel dillan-lauren dina-deville dina-jewel dina-pearl ditty-blue diva divinity-love djiana dolly-darkley dominique dominique-dewitt dominique-saint-claire donna-hart donna-marie dorle-buchner dorothy-lemay dorothy-onan drea drimla dru-berrymore dusty-rose dyanna-lauren ebony-ayes edina-blond edita-ungerova edwige-faillel eileen-wells elaine-southern elena-berkova elena-maria-ricci eleonore-melzer elisabeth-bure elis-black elise elise-di-medici elle-devyne elle-rio elodie-delage elsa-maroussia elza-brown emili-doll emily-evermoore emily-george emily-jewel emmanuelle-pareze envy-mi erica-boyer erica-eaton erica-havens erica-idol erica-lauren erika-bella erika-cool erika-heaven erika-lockett esme-monroe eva-allen eva-angel eva-dionisio eva-gross eva-kleber eva-lux eva-uettori eve-laurence evelyne-lang evie-delatosso fabiana-venturi faith-stevens fallon fanny-garreau fanny-steel faye-runaway flame flick-shagwell flore-soller flower france-lomay france-quenie francoise frankie-leigh gabriella gabriella-mirelba gabriella-vincze gail-force gail-palmer gail-sterling georgette-saunders georgia-peach georgina-spelvin gia-givanna gianna-lynn gili-sky gina-carrera gina-gianetti gina-janssen gina-lee gina-martell gina-valentino ginger-jay ginger-lee ginger-lynn ginny-noack giovanna gisela-schwarz giselle-monet gladys-laroche gloria-leonard gloria-todd golden-jade greta-carlson greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade hazel-young heather-deeley heather-ellis heather-hart heather-lere heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray isabella-dior isabella-soprano isabelle-allay isabelle-brell isabelle-marchall isobel-wren iveta ivette-blanche jackie-right jacqueline-lorians jacy-allen jada-stevens jade-east jade-hsu jade-marcela jade-summers jade-wong jahn-gold jamie-brooks jamie-james jamie-summers jana-irrova jana-mrazkova jane-baker jane-darling jane-iwanoff jane-lindsay jane-lixx janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold jean-afrique jeanette-littledove jeanie-marie-sullivan jean-jennings jeanna-fine jeannie-pepper jenna-jameson jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante jennifer-noxt jennifer-stewart jennifer-welles jennifer-west jenny jenny-feeling jenny-fields jenny-wings jersey-jaxin jesie-st-james jesse-capelli jessica-bangkok jessica-bogart jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde jessi-foster jill-ferari jill-kelly joana-redgrave joan-devlon joanna-storm joanna-sweet jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black jordana-james jordan-green jordan-nevaeh jordan-star josephine-carrington joslyn-james julia-chanel julia-dal-fuoco juliana-grandi julia-paes julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde kristina-king kristina-klevits kristina-soderszk kristine-heller kristin-steen krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie lacy-rose lady-amanda-wyldefyre lady-stephanie laetitia-bisset lana-burner lana-cox lana-wood lara-amour lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya laura-clair laura-lazare laura-lion laura-may laura-orsolya laura-paouck laura-zanzibar lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith lauryl-canyon lauryn-may leah-wilde lea-magic lea-martini leanna-foxxx lee-caroll leigh-livingston leilani lenora-bruce leslie-winston lesllie-bovee letizia-bruni lexi-lane lexi-matthews lezley-zen lia-fire liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau lily-rodgers lily-valentine linda-shaw linda-vale linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring lisa-lake lisa-melendez lisa-sue-corey lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz 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pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre 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shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white tammy tammy-lee tammy-reynolds tania-lorenzo tantala-ray tanya-danielle tanya-fox tanya-foxx tanya-lawson tanya-valis tara-aire tasha-voux tatjana-belousova tatjana-skomorokhova tawnee-lee tawny-pearl tayla-rox taylor-wane teddi-austin teddi-barrett tera-bond tera-heart tera-joy teresa-may teresa-orlowski teri-diver teri-weigel terri-dolan terri-hall tess-ferre tess-newheart thais-vieira tia-cherry tianna tiara tiffany-blake tiffany-clark tiffany-duponte tiffany-rayne tiffany-rousso tiffany-storm tiffany-towers tiffany-tyler tiger-lily tigr timea-vagvoelgyi tina-blair tina-burner tina-evil tina-gabriel tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose tonisha-mills topsy-curvey tori-secrets tori-sinclair tori-welles tracey-adams traci-lords traci-topps traci-winn tracy-duzit tracy-love tracy-williams tricia-devereaux tricia-yen trinity-loren trisha-rey trista-post trixie-tyler ultramax ursula-gaussmann ursula-moore uschi-karnat valentina valerie-leveau valery-hilton vanessa-chase vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville velvet-summers veri-knotty veronica-dol veronica-hart veronica-hill veronica-rayne veronica-sage veronika-vanoza via-paxton vicky-lindsay vicky-vicci victoria-evans victoria-gold victoria-knight victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok viper virginie-caprice vivian-valentine vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears whitney-wonders wonder-tracey wow-nikki xanthia-berstein yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies





4.3 Europe 4.3.1 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.3.2 Denmark 4.3.3 Finland 4.3.4 France 4.3.5 Germany 4.3.6 Italy 4.3.7 Poland 4.3.8 United Kingdom 4.4 North America 4.4.1 Canada 4.4.2 Mexico 4.4.3 United States 4.5 Oceania 4.5.1 Australia 4.6 South America 4.6.1 Brazil 4.6.2 Colombia 4.6.3 Argentina 5 Metropolis as a mainland area 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading History[edit] The Colosseum at night In the past, metropolis was the designation for a city or state of origin of a colony. Many large cities founded by ancient civilizations have been considered important world metropolises of their times due to their large populations and importance. Some of these ancient metropolises survived until the modern days and are among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Using modern criteria, Rome is considered the first ever metropolis, containing one million people around year 1 and an urban culture that included architectural achievements unsurpassed for centuries.[3] Etymology and modern usage[edit] This is a Greek word, coming from , m t r m e a n i n g " m o t h e r " a n d , p l i s m e a n i n g " c i t y " o r " t o w n " , w h i c h i s h o w t h e G r e e k c o l o n i e s o f a n t i q u i t y r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l c i t i e s , w i t h w h o m t h e y r e t a i n e d c u l t i c a n d p o l i t i c a l - c u l t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s . T h e w o r d w a s u s e d i n p o s t - c l a s s i c a l Latin for the chief city of a province, the seat of the government and, in particular, ecclesiastically for the seat or see of a metropolitan bishop to whom suffragan bishops were responsible. This usage equates the province with the diocese or episcopal see. In modern usage the word has come to refer to a metropolitan area, a set of adjacent and interconnected cities clustered around a major urban center. In this sense, metropolitan usually means "spanning the whole metropolis" (as in "metropolitan administration") or "proper of a metropolis" (as in "metropolitan life", and opposed to "provincial" or "rural"). Global city[edit] The concept of a global city (or world city) is of a city that has a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socioeconomic means. The term has become increasingly familiar, because of the rise of globalization (i.e., global finance, communications, and travel). An attempt to define and categorize world cities by financial criteria was made by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC), based primarily at Loughborough University in England. The study ranked cities based on their provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising, finance and law. The inventory identifies three levels of world cities and several sub-ranks (see GaWC study). A metropolis is not necessarily a global cityor, being one, it might not be among the top-rankingdue to its standards of living, development, and infrastructures. A metropolis that is also a global city is a global metropolis. By country[edit] Africa[edit] A wide angle shot of the Mediterranean coastline of Alexandria. Cairo Skyline Egypt[edit] Cairo and Alexandria are considered Egypt's biggest metropolises. Nigeria[edit] Lagos is Nigeria's biggest metropolis. South Africa[edit] In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or "Category A municipality" is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a conurbation. This is by contrast to areas which are primarily rural, where the local government is divided into district municipalities (comparable to a "county" in the US) and local municipalities. There are eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. Big cities belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which are not the core of that agglomeration, are not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. The plural of the word is most commonly metropolises.[1] Dhaka is the largest city in Bangladesh Asia[edit] Bangladesh[edit] In the People's Republic of Bangladesh, there are seven metropolitan areas: Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal and Rangpur. Lands are highly priced and residents are considered to have a better urban lifestyle. Special police departments are allotted for the metropolitan cities, and there are city corporations for which mayors are elected for five-year regimes. Most of these cities have population density of 35,000/square mile or more. Dhaka is considered a mega city because its population surpasses 10 million.[4] India[edit] Mumbai is India's largest city In India, there are 47 metropolitan cities. As of 2011 census, the top-ten metropolitan cities based on their population are Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Bengaluru, Surat, Pune and Jaipur. The Census Commission defines the qualification for metropolitan city as, "the cities having a population of more than 10 lakhs (one million) and above" and Megacity as, "the cities having a population of more than 40 lakhs (four million) and above".[5] Indonesia[edit] Jakarta, the largest and busiest city in Indonesia In Indonesia, the metropolitan cities are in Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi), the biggest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia and the fifth metropolitan area in the world (2007). The other cities are Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang and Medan. Iran[edit] In Iran, the metropolitan cities are in Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Mashhad, Karaj, Tabriz and other cities such as Ahvaz, Qom and Urmia. Israel[edit] In Israel there are four main metropolitan areas: Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa, Beer Sheva. "Israel Central Bureau of Statistics" has defined the boundaries of metropolitan areas of Tel Aviv, Haifa and Beer Sheva, and divided the metropolitan area concentric rings that define the intensity of the main city links. Japan[edit] Skyline of Tokyo, with Mount Fuji in the background The Japanese legal term to ( ) i s b y d e s i g n a t i o n t o b e t r a n s l a t e d a s " m e t r o p o l i s " . [ 6 ] h o w e v e r e x i s t i n g t r a n s l a t i o n s p r e d a t e t h e d e s i g n a t i o n . S t r u c t u r e d l i k e a p r e f e c t u r e i n s t e a d o f a n o r m a l c i t y , t h e r e i s o n l y o n e t o i n J a p a n , n a m e l y T o k y o . A s o f 2 0 0 8 , J a p a n h a s 1 1 o t h e r c i t i e s w i t h populations greater than one million. The same Kanji character in Chinese, or in generic Japanese (traditional or non-specific), translates variouslycity, municipality, special municipality all qualify. Lebanon[edit] Beirut, Sidon, and Tripoli are three of the main metropolitan areas along the Lebanese coast. Most of Lebanon's metropolitan areas and biggest cities are situated along the coast. Pakistan[edit] Karachi is the Pakistan's largest city with about 23.5 million population In Pakistan, the major metropolitan cities are Karachi, Lahore, Faislabad, the twin cities of capital Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Philippines[edit] Metro Manila, the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines Metropolitan Manila, or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the city of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines. It is composed of 17 cities namely Manila, Caloocan, Las Pias, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig, Paraaque, Quezon City, San Juan, Taguig, Valenzuela and Pateros. The region is the political, economic, social, cultural, and educational center of the Philippines. As proclaimed by Presidential Decree No. 940, Metro Manila as a whole is the Philippines' seat of government but the city of Manila is the capital. The largest city in the metropolis is Quezon City, while the largest business district is the Makati Central Business District. South Korea[edit] In the Republic of Korea there are seven special and metropolitan cities at auto n o m o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s i n c l u d e : S e o u l , B u s a n , I n c h e o n , D a e g u , G w a n g j u , D a e j e o n a n d U l s a n . T u r k e y [ e d i t ] L e v e n t , I s t a n b u l , T u r k e y I n T u r k e y t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s " b y k _ e h i r b e l e d i y e s i " . T h e r e a r e 3 0 m e t r o p o l i t a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n T u r k e y n o w . T h e l a r g e s t b y f a r i s 0 s t a n b u l , f o l l o w e d b y A n k a r a a n d 0 z m i r . E u r o p e [ e d i t ] B o s n i a a n d H e r z e g o v i n a [ e d i t ] I n B o s n i a a n d H e r z e g o v i n a , t h e c o u n t r y ' s c a p i t a l S a r a j e v o i s t h e o n l y m e t r o p o l i s . S a r a j e v o i s a p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r al and infrastructural center. Moreover, Sarajevo has a region-wide influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts. With a metropolitan area of over 680 thousand, it is the forth largest city in the region of former Yugoslavia and the fifth largest in the Balkans.[7] Sarajevo, capital and biggest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also its metropolis. Denmark[edit] In Denmark the only metropolis is Greater Copenhagen,[8] consisting of the capital, Copenhagen, situated in the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand and Skne County (Sweden). Greater Copenhagen has an approximate population of 3.9 million people.[9][10] This area is the most densely populated area in the Nordic Region [11] Finland[edit] Finland's capital, Helsinki, along with the neighboring areas form an area of Greater Helsinki, with an approximate population of 1,4 million people. This area is the only metropolis in the country. France[edit] For France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, there are 12 "metropolitan cities" in France. Paris, Lyon, Marseille are the biggest but there are 9 other big cities : Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, Nice, Nantes, Strasbourg, Rennes, Grenoble and Montpellier. Germany[edit] Main article: Metropolitan regions in Germany Berlin is Germany's largest city The largest German city by administrative borders is Berlin, while Rhine-Ruhr is the largest metropolitan area (with more than 10 million people). The importance of a city is measured with three groups of indicators, also called metropolitan functions: The decision making and control function, the innovation and competition function and the gateway function. These functions are seen as key domains for metropolitan regions in developing their performance. In spatial planning a metropolis is usually observed within its regional context, thus the focus is mainly set on the metropolitan regions. These regions can be mono central or multi central. Eleven metropolitan regions have been defined due to these indicators: Berlin-Brandenburg, Bremen-Oldenburg, Dresden-Halle-Leipzig, Frankfurt-Rhine-Main, Hamburg, Hannover-Braunschweig-Gttingen-Wolfsburg, Munich, Nuremberg, Rhine-Neckar, Rhine-Ruhr (with Cologne/Bonn), and Stuttgart.[12] Italy[edit] Starting January 1, 2015, there will be 14 "metropolitan cities" in Italy. Rome, Milan, Naples and other big cores will take in urban zones from their surrounding areas and merge them into the new entities, which will be home for one out of three Italians. The provinces will remain in the parts of the country not belonging to any Citt Metropolitana.[13] Poland[edit] Main article: Metropolitan areas in Poland The Union of Polish Metropolises (Polish: Unia Metropolii Polskich), established in 1990, is an organization of the largest cities in the country. Currently twelve cities are members of the organization, of which 11 have more than a quarter-million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan area in Poland, if ranked solely by the number of inhabitants, is the Silesian Metropolis (in fact a metroplex), with 2 million inhabitants (5 million inhabitants in the Silesian metropolitan area), followed by Warsaw, with 1.7 million inhabitants in the city proper and 2.7 million in the Warsaw metropolitan area. The Silesian Metropolis is an initiative of recent years attempting to unite a large conurbation into one official urban unit. Other Polish metropolises are Krakw, A d z , W r o c B a w , P o z n a D , T r i c i t y , S z c z e c i n a n d B y d g o s z c z . U n i t e d K i n g d o m [ e d i t ] S e e a l s o : L i s t o f m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m L o n d o n i s t h e l a r g e s t c i t y i n t h e U K I n t h e U K , t h e t e r m t h e M e t r o p o l i s w a s u s e d t o r e f e r t o L o n d o n , o r t h e L o n d o n c o n urbation. The term is retained by the London police force, the Metropolitan Police Service (the "Met"). The chief officer of the Metropolitan Police is formally known as the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Since 1974 six conurbations (outside London) have been known as metropolitan counties, each divided into metropolitan districts. Other conurbations in the United Kingdom are also sometimes considered to be metropolitan areas, most notably the West Midlands (centred on the city of Birmingham), West Yorkshire (centred on the city of Leeds), Greater Manchester and Greater Glasgow which make up the most densely populated areas in the British Isles outside of London. North America[edit] Canada[edit] Toronto is Canada's largest city Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core where the urban core has a population of at least 100,000.[14] Canada's largest metropolises are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary and Edmonton. Mexico[edit] In Mexico, the term metropolis is used to refer to an urban area of economic, political, and cultural importance. Mexico City represents all three factors as it is the country's capital and financial center. Other metropolis are Monterrey and Guadalajara, both metropolitan areas population over 4,000,000 inhabitants. United States[edit] New York City is the largest city in the U.S. See also: List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas In the United States, an incorporated area or group of areas having a population more than 50,000 is required to have a metropolitan planning organization in order to facilitate major infrastructure projects and to ensure financial solvency. Thus, a population of 50,000 or greater has been used as a de facto standard to define a metropolis in the United States. A similar definition is used by the United States Census Bureau. The bureau defines a metropolitan statistical area as "at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants." The six largest metropolitan cities in the USA are New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, and Philadelphia, with New York City being the largest. Oceania[edit] Australia[edit] See also: List of cities in Australia by population Sydney is Australia's largest city and metropolis The Government of Australia defines a metropolitan area as any statistical division or district with a population of more than 100,000.[15] According to this definition, there are at least 16 metropolitan areas in Australia, including every state capital. By population the largest of these metropolitan areas is Sydney, New South Wales (urban area population at 2013 Census of 4,757,083) and the smallest is Darwin, Northern Territory (Urban area population at 2011 census of 103,016). South America[edit] Brazil[edit] So Paulo is Brazil's largest city In Brazil, So Paulo is the principal metropolis with over 20 million inhabitants. In the larger cities, such as So Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (6.3 million), favelas (slums) grew over decades as people migrated from rural areas in order to find work. The term used in Brazilian Portuguese for a metropolitan area is Regio Metropolitana. Others metropolises in Brazil that feature over one million inhabitants include: Belm, Belo Horizonte, Campinas, Curitiba, Florianpolis, Fortaleza, Goinia, Joo Pessoa, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife etc. Colombia[edit] Bogot is Colombia's largest city In Colombia, Bogot is the main metropolis with over 13 million inhabitants by its Metropolitan Area which includes boroughs like Soacha, Mosquera, Cota and Cha. The second metropolis in Colombia is Medelln which has boroughs too like Envigado, Itagi, La Estrella and Sabaneta. This metropolitan area is known by having the first and only Metro in Colombia, the Medelln Metro. Bogot has the Transmilenio, a Rapid Transit Metro-bus system. Argentina[edit] See also: List of Cities in Argentina megacity is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people.[1] A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge. The terms conurbation, metropolis and metroplex are also applied to the latter. As of 2015, there are 35 megacities in existence, Chennai being the latest. The largest of these are the metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Jakarta, each of these having a population of over 30 million inhabitants. Tokyo is the largest metropolitan area, while Shanghai is the largest city proper. Contents [hide] 1 Largest cities 2 History 2.1 Growth 3 Challenges 3.1 Slums 3.2 Crime and terrorism 3.3 Homelessness 3.4 Traffic congestion 3.5 Urban sprawl 3.6 Gentrification 3.7 Air pollution 3.8 Energy and Material Resources 4 In fiction 5 See also 6 References Largest cities[edit] This is the list as of 2015. Rank Megacity Image Country Continent Population 1 Tokyo-Yokohama Tokyo Tower view.jpg Japan Asia 37,900,000 2 Jakarta Jakarta Skyline (Resize).jpg Indonesia Asia 30,000,000[2] 3 Seoul Seoul-Cityscape-03.jpg South Korea Asia 26,100,000 4 Delhi Smog in the skies of Delhi, India.jpg India Asia 25,703,000[3] 5 Shanghai Night view from the Bund.jpg China Asia 25,400,000 6 Karachi Karachi Clifton Skyline.JPG Pakistan Asia 24,000,000[4] 7 New York City New York City skyline 09.jpg United States North America 23,632,722[5] 8 Mexico City Ciudad.Mexico.City.Distrito.Federal.DF.Reforma.Skyline.jpg Mexico North America 22,200,000 9 Beijing Beijing skyline at night.JPG China Asia 21,650,000 10 So Paulo Ponte e rio.jpg Brazil South America 21,250,000 11 Lagos Lagos Island.jpg Nigeria Africa 21,000,534[6] 12 Mumbai Mumbai night skyline.jpg India Asia 20,741,000[3] 13 Osaka Skyline in Osaka.JPG Japan Asia 20,260,000 14 Manila Bonifacio Global City.jpg Philippines Asia 20,040,000 15 Cairo Cairo by night.jpg Egypt Africa 18,810,000 16 Los Angeles Los Angeles Skyline at Night.jpg United States North America 18,550,288[7] 17 Dhaka Dhaka Skyline at Night.jpg Bangladesh Asia 18,250,000 18 Moscow Moscow-City skyline.jpg Russia Europe 16,900,000 19 Buenos Aires Aerial view - Palermo, Buenos Aires.jpg Argentina South America 16,500,000 20 Bangkok Bangkok - City skyline at mid day.JPG Thailand Asia 15,350,000 21 Istanbul Istanbul skyline at night - Kopya.jpg Turkey Europe/Asia 14,800,000 22 Kolkata Kolkata Skyline.jpg India Asia 14,766,000[3] 23 Rio de Janeiro Corcovado do Po de Acar.jpg Brazil South America 14,450,000 24 London London skyline showing planned Bishopsgate Tower.jpg[citation needed] United Kingdom Europe 14,031,830[8] 25 Tehran Tehran Skyline.jpg Iran Asia 13,700,000 26 Guangzhou Guangzhou skyline.jpg China Asia 12,700,000 27 Kinshasa 2010-03-07-Kinshasa depuis Brazzaville.jpg Democratic Republic of Congo Africa 12,500,000 28 Shenzhen Shenzhen, with Eiffel tower in the backgrund.jpg China Asia 12,250,000 29 Paris Paris skyline from the observation deck of the Montparnasse tower, July 2015.jpg France Europe 12,005,077[8] 30 Rhine-Ruhr Dsseldorf skyline.JPG Dsseldorf skyline shown Germany Europe 11,316,429[9] History[edit] The term "megacity" was coined in the late 19th or early 20th centuries, one of the earliest documented uses being by the University of Texas in 1904.[10] Initially the United Nations used the term to describe cities of 8 million or more inhabitants, but now uses the threshold of 10 million.[11] In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, a figure that rose to 47% by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; by 2007, this number had risen to 468.[12] The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities.[13] This increase will be most dramatic on the least-urbanized continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries.[14] One billion people, almost one-seventh of the world's population, now live in shanty towns.[15] In many poor countries overpopulated slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.[16] By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums.[17] Over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries, already live in slums. By 2025, Asia alone will have at least 28 megacities, including Mumbai, India (31.7 million people), Shanghai, China (31.4 million people), Delhi, India (35.6 million people), Tokyo, Japan (38.9 million people) and Seoul, South Korea (31.2 million people). Lagos, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 15.2 million today. Growth[edit] For almost five hundred years, Rome was the largest, wealthiest, and most politically important city in Europe.[18] Its population passed one million people by the end of the 1st century BC.[19] Rome's population started declining in 402 AD when Flavius Honorius, Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423, moved the government to Ravenna and Rome's population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation. Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation in 762 AD until the 930s, with some estimates putting its population at over one million.[20] Chinese capital cities Chang'an and Kaifeng also experienced huge population booms during prosperous empires. According to the census in the year 742 recorded in the New Book of Tang, 362,92 1 f a m i l i e s w i t h 1 , 9 6 0 , 1 8 8 p e r s o n s w e r e c o u n t e d i n J i n g z h a o F u ( NFQ^) , t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i n c l u d i n g s m a l l c i t i e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f C h a n g ' a n . [ 2 1 ] T h e m e d i e v a l s e t t l e m e n t s u r r o u n d i n g A n g k o r , t h e o n e - t i m e c a p i t a l o f t h e K h m e r E m p i r e w h i c h f l o u r i s h e d b e t w e e n the 9th and 15th centuries, could have supported a population of up to one million people.[22] From around 1825 to 1918 London was the largest city in the world, with the population growing rapidly, it was the first city to reach a population of over 5 million in 1900. In 1950, New York City was the only urban area with a population of over 10 million.[23] Geographers had identified 25 such areas as of October 2005,[24] as compared with 19 megacities in 2004 and only nine in 1985. This increase has happened as the world's population moves towards the high (7585%) urbanization levels of North America and Western Europe. Since the 2000s, the largest megacity has been the Greater Tokyo Area. The population of this urban agglomeration includes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, and is estimated to be between 37 and 38 million. This variation in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama are commonly included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku, thus arriving at a smaller population estimate.[25][26] A characteristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining their outer limits and accurately estimating the populations. Another list defines megacities as urban agglomerations instead of metropolitan areas.[27] As of 2010, there are 25 megacities by this definition, like Tokyo.[citation needed][needs update] Other sources list Nagoya[28] and the Rhein-Ruhr[29] as megacities. Challenges[edit] This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: A lot of vague statements without up-to-date / worldwide-applicable supporting examples or data. Can also be further expanded.. Please help improve this section if you can. (May 2014) Slums[edit] According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005.[30] However, due to rising population, the absolute number of slum dwellers is rising. The majority of these come from the fringes of urban margins, located in legal and illegal settlements with insufficient housing and sanitation. This has been caused by massive migration, both internal and transnational, into cities, which has caused growth rates of urban populations and spatial concentrations not seen before in history.[citation needed] These issues raise problems in the political, social, and economic arenas.[citation needed] Slum dwellers often have minimal or no access to education, healthcare, or the urban economy. Crime and terrorism[edit] The lack of proper and sufficient infrastructure and public services (such as proper sanitation, housing, education and healthcare) to support the growing population not only leads to the growth of slums, but also breeds discontent among urban dwellers, leading to high crime rates, as visibly seen in growing megacities such as Karachi, Rio de Janeiro and Lagos.[31] Homelessness[edit] Megacities often have significant numbers of homeless people. The actual legal definition of homelessness varies from country to country, or among different entities or institutions in the same country or region.[32] In 2002, research showed that children and families were the largest growing segment of the homeless population in the United States,[33][34] and this has presented new challenges, especially in services, to agencies. In the USA, the government asked many major cities to come up with a ten-year plan to end homelessness. One of the results of this was a "Housing first" solution, rather than to have a homeless person remain in an emergency homeless shelter it was thought to be better to quickly get the person permanent housing of some sort and the necessary support services to sustain a new home. But there are many complications with this kind of program and these must be dealt with to make such an initiative work successfully in the middle to long term.[35][36] Traffic congestion[edit] Bangkok is notorious for its traffic congestion. Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased pollution, and increased vehicular queueing. The Texas Transportation Institute estimated that, in 2000, the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion U.S. gallons (21.6 billion liters) in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity, or about 0.7% of the nation's GDP. It also estimated that the annual cost of congestion for each driver was approximately $1,000 in very large cities and $200 in small cities.[citation needed] Traffic congestion is increasing in major cities and delays are becoming more frequent in smaller cities and rural areas. Urban sprawl[edit] A flat land area in the Greater Los Angeles Area in the U.S. state of California almost completely filled with houses, buildings, roads, and freeways. Areas constructed to capacity contribute to urban expansion. Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density, auto-dependent development on rural land, with associated design features that encourage car dependency.[37] As a result, some critics argue that sprawl has certain disadvantages including longer transport distances to work, high car dependence, inadequate facilities (e.g. health, cultural. etc.) and higher per-person infrastructure costs. Discussions and debates about sprawl are often obfuscated by the ambiguity associated with the phrase. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization (spread of population without a well-defined center), discontinuity (leapfrog development), segregation of uses, etc.[citation needed] Arcology, a portmanteau of "architecture" and "ecology",[2] is a vision of architectural design principles for very densely populated habitats. The concept has been primarily popularized, and the term itself coined, by architect Paolo Soleri. It also appears in science fiction.[3] These structures have been largely hypothetical insofar as no 'arcology' envisioned by Soleri himself has yet been completed, but he posited that a completed arcology would provide space for a variety of residential, commercial, and agricultural facilities while minimizing individual human environmental impact. Arcologies are often portrayed in sci-fi as self-contained or economically self-sufficient. Contents [hide] 1 Development 2 Similar real-world projects 3 In popular culture 3.1 Novels and comics 3.2 Films and television 3.3 Video games 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links Development[edit] An arcology is distinguished from a merely large building in that it is designed to lessen the impact of human habitation on any given ecosystem. It could be self-sustainable, employing all or most of its own available resources for a comfortable life: power; climate control; food production; air and water conservation and purification; sewage treatment; etc. An arcology is designed to make it possible to supply those items for a large population. An arcology would supply and maintain its own municipal or urban infrastructures in order to operate and connect with other urban environments apart from its own. Arcology was proposed to reduce human impact on natural resources. Arcology designs might apply conventional building and civil engineering techniques in very large but practical projects in order to achieve pedestrian economies of scale that have proven, post-automobile, to be difficult to achieve in other ways. Frank Lloyd Wright proposed an early version[4] called Broadacre City although, in contrast to an arcology, Wright's idea is comparatively two-dimensional and depends on a road network. Wright's plan described transportation, agriculture, and commerce systems that would support an economy. Critics said that Wright's solution failed to account for population growth, and assumed a more rigid democracy than the U.S.A. actually has. Buckminster Fuller proposed the Old Man River's City project, a domed city with a capacity of 125,000, as a solution to the housing problems in East St. Louis, Illinois. Paolo Soleri proposed later solutions, and coined the term 'arcology'.[5] Soleri describes ways of compacting city structures in three dimensions to combat two-dimensional urban sprawl, to economize on transportation and other energy uses. Like Wright, Soleri proposed changes in transportation, agriculture, and commerce. Soleri explored reductions in resource consumption and duplication, land reclamation; he also proposed to eliminate most private transportation. He advocated for greater "frugality" and favored greater use of shared social resources, including public transit (and public libraries). Similar real-world projects[edit] Arcosanti is an experimental "arcology prototype" - a demonstration project under construction in central Arizona. Designed by Paolo Soleri, its primary purpose is to demonstrate Soleri's personal designs, his application of principles of arcology to create a pedestrian-friendly urban form. Many cities in the world have proposed projects adhering to the design principles of the arcology concept, like Tokyo, and Dongtan near Shanghai.[6] The Dongtan project may have collapsed, and it failed to open for the Shanghai World Expo in 2010.[7] Certain urban projects reflect arcology principles. Pedestrian connection systems often provide a wide range of goods and services in a single structure. Some examples include the +15 system in downtown Calgary, Montrals RSO or the Minneapolis Skyway System and The Windscreen in Fermont, Quebec. They include supermarkets, malls and entertainment complexes. The +15 is the world's most extensive skywalk, at 16 km (9.9 mi) in total length. Minneapolis has the longest single path, at 13 km (8 mi). Seward's Success, Alaska was never built, but would have been a small city just outside of Anchorage. Chicago has a sizeable tunnel system known as the Chicago Pedway connecting a portion of the buildings in the Chicago Loop. The Las Vegas Strip has many arcology features to protect people from the 45 C (113 F) heat. Many major casinos are connected by tunnels, footbridges, and monorails. It is possible to travel from Mandalay Bay at the south end of the Strip to the Las Vegas Convention Center, three miles (5 km) to the north, without using streets. In many cases, it is possible to travel between several different casinos without ever going outdoors. It is possible to live in this complex without need to venture outside, except the Strip has not generally been considered self-sustainable. Soleri did not advocate for enclosed cities, although he did sketch a design and build a model of an 'arcology' for outer space. The Toronto downtown area features an underground pedestrian network, PATH. Multiple high-rises are connected by a series of underground tunnels. It is possible to live in this complex without needing to venture outside, but the PATH network is not self-sustaining, nor is it presently self-sustainable. The total network spans 28-kilometres (17 mi). McMurdo Station of the United States Antarctic Program and other scientific research stations on the continent of Antarctica resemble the popular conception of an arcology as a technologically advanced, relatively self-sufficient human community. The Antarctic research base provides living and entertainment amenities for roughly 3,000 staff who visit each year. Its remoteness and the measures needed to protect its population from the harsh environment give it an insular character. The station is not self-sufficient the U.S. military delivers 30,000 cubic metres (800,000 US gal) of fuel and 5 kilotonnes (11 million pounds) of supplies and equipment yearly through its Operation Deep Freeze resupply effort[8] but it is isolated from conventional support networks. The base generates electricity with its own power plant, and grows fruits and vegetables in a hydroponic green house when resupply is non-existent. Under international treaty, it must avoid damage to the surrounding ecosystem. Crystal Island is a proposed arcology in Moscow, Russia. In 2009, construction was postponed indefinitely due to the global economic crisis. The Begich Towers operates like a small-scale arcology encompassing nearly all of the population of Whittier, Alaska. The pair of buildings contains residential housing as well as a school, grocery, and municipal offices Whittier once boasted a second structure known as the Buckner Building. The Buckner Building still stands but was deemed unfit for habitation after the 1969 earthquake. [9] Arcosanti in 2006 In popular culture[edit] Most proposals to build real arcologies have failed due to financial, structural or conceptual shortcomings. Arcologies are therefore found primarily in fictional works.[10] One significant example is the novel Oath of Fealty by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle. In the novel, a segment of the Los Angeles population has moved into an arcology. The plot examines the social changes that result, both inside and outside the arcology. Thus the arcology is presented not just as a plot device but as a subject of critique.[11] Novels and comics[edit] 1899 H.G. Wells's story "When the Sleeper Wakes" describes a rudimentary version of pre-Soleri arcology, having developed from the evolution of transportation. These are hotel-like and dominate the surrounding landscape, having replaced all towns and cities, albeit preserving their names.[12] 1912 William Hope Hodgson's 1912 story "The Last Redoubt" from The Night Land features the first example of what we now would call an arcology, albeit with full artificial ecology, agriculture, public transport by mobile roadways. The future Earthlings depicted millions of years into the future have different reasons for building their metallic pyramid.[13] 194085 In Isaac Asimov's Robot series, Earth's population lives in large hyperstructures simply called Cities. In Asimov's Empire and Foundation series, the capital planet Trantor of the galactic empire is a completely built-up planet, covered in its entirety with tall buildings and subterranean structures. 196768 In John Christopher's trilogy of novels The Tripods, an alien race known as "the Masters" live in three huge, domed arcologies built on Earth to use as a base from which to colonise the planet. The structures are made from a golden material, and are capped with a crystal that replicates the atmospheric conditions of the Masters' home planet. 1971 In the novel The World Inside by Robert Silverberg, the characters all live in "Urban Monads", self-contained three-kilometer-high hyperstructures of 1000-storeys each, providing everything necessary to the society. 1974 In the Joe Haldeman novel The Forever War much of the action between William Mandella's first and second deployments occurs in an arcology. 1975 J. G. Ballard's novel High Rise features a luxury arcology in which disparity between social classes among the residents eventually leads to widespread anarchy and a reversion to primitive archetypes. 1977 Frank Herbert's novel The Dosadi Experiment focuses on the creation of a super race through the control of another race, that forces them to live in an arcological situation. 197796 In Gregory Benford's Galactic Center Saga, several thousand years in the future descendants of humanity have migrated deep towards the galactic core, to directly compete with the machine based civilizations. To survive, humanity is forced to transform itself, adding biological and cybernetic enhancements, to compete with the machines. Over 5000 years, as humanity falls further behind, culture decays from the Chandelier Age where humanity lived in great citadels between the stars, to the High Arcology Era and finally the Citadel Age. 1977present In the Judge Dredd comic stories, originally published in 2000 AD, the megalopolis of Mega-City One consists of many hundreds, if not thousands, of City Blocks, in which a citizen can be born, grow, live, and die without ever leaving. 1982 In Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle's collaboration Oath of Fealty, much of the action is set in and around Todos Santos, an arcology built in a burnt-out section of Los Angeles that has evolved a separate culture from the city around it. 198488 William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy features various arcologies, including the "projects" (a megastructure built to provide heat, water, power, and food to its residents) and those built by global corporations to house their top research scientists. They are also featured in the Bridge Trilogy. 1986present In Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan Saga novels, the inhabitants of the planet Komarr live in arcologies, because the surface of the planet is inhospitable. 198999 David Wingrove's Chung Kuo series depicts a dystopian future Earth in which almost the entire population lives within several hyperstructures that are thousands of feet tall and span entire continents. 199699 All the remaining cities of the Earth are hyperstructures in Peter F. Hamilton's The Night's Dawn Trilogy. Arcology structures are located on worlds in Peter F. Hamilton's The Dreaming Void (Void Trilogy). Films and television[edit] 1976 The city in the film Logan's Run is entirely self-contained for all resources, except power, which is said to be supplied by water moved by the tides. 1982 In the film Blade Runner by Ridley Scott, the main offices of the fictional Tyrell Corporation (a Megacorp) resemble a hyperstructure. 198589 In the post-apocalyptic/cyberpunk series Appleseed by Masamune Shirow, in which hyperstructures dominate the skyline of the city Olympus. 1999 In the science fiction movie series The Matrix, the last human city, known as Zion, is a hyperstructure. Due to nuclear scarring of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, the hyperstructure is buried deep underground. While ecologically sparse, the habitat's climate is controlled by complex machinery in the lower levels. The population is in the realm of 200,000. Due to the nature of the aggression from the machines, Zion is an example of a heavily fortified hyperstructure. 19992007 The anime GetBackers has overarching plots involving a semi-constructed megabuilding called the Limitless Fortress. However, because its construction was abandoned, it has few inhabitants, and those it has may not all be (entirely) real. 2002 In the film Equilibrium, an arcology named Libria is the last human civilization, a society in which peace is kept by the forced administration of an injected liquid drug designed to completely suppress emotions. 2002 In the anime of Shangri-La, the arcology called Atlas stands behind a Tokyo abandoned after a devastating earthquake in the 2060s. It was intended to hold about three million people, and only those with connections or those who were chosen by lottery are allowed to live there. 2005 In the film Aeon Flux, Earth's surviving humans live in Bregna, an enclosed and self-sufficient city-state. 2005 In the fourth-season finale of the science fiction show Andromeda, a large battle takes place in space around an antiquated space hyperstructure known simply as 'Arcology'. 200607 In the anime Code Geass, the Holy Britannian Empire constructs an arcology over the ruins of Tokyo called the Tokyo Settlement. Video games[edit] Will Wright's computer game SimCity 2000 allows the construction of four different types of arcologies. Arcologies reappeared in SimCity as a "Great Work." Another Wright game, Spore, features bubbled cities that serve the same function. In Wright's 1990 SimEarth, "Nanotech Age" cities eventually advance to an exodus of the entire sentient species of the planet. Two levels of the video game Deus Ex: Invisible War posits (circa 2072) a futuristic arcology, simply called the Arcology, on the edge of an ancient medina in Cairo. In Chrono Trigger, the structure known as the Black Omen that appears across timelines after Queen Zeal summons Lavos to the Ocean Palace is defined as an arcology. The city of Chronopolis seen in Chrono Cross can also be considered as an arcology. In the computer game Afterlife, the player controlling Heaven and Hell can eventually purchase Love Domes or Omnibulges. Functioning similarly to arcologies, these structures are the remnants of transcended/destroyed Heaven/Hells that are able to hold billions of souls. In the computer game Civilization: Call to Power, the "Arcology Advance," found in a near future part of the technology list, grants access to the Arcology building, which reduces overcrowding effects in its host city. This is also available in Call to Power II. The tutorial in the computer game Dystopia takes place in Yggdrasil's first arcology. In Mass Effect the Codex (an in-game encyclopedia) explains that Earth is composed mainly of Arcology buildings. In Final Fantasy VII the city of Midgar and the military base of Junon (both are built by the Shinra Company) are examples of arcology. In Final Fantasy VIII the city of Esthar and the flying universities of Galbadia and Balamb are arcologies. The Outpost computer game and its sequel both focus on building arcologies (called 'colonies' in the game) on various planets to contain what remains of Humanity after Earth is obliterated by an asteroid. The game Brink is set on a futuristic arcology to preserve humanity after a natural flooding disaster.[14] In Final Fantasy XIII, Cocoon is an example of an arcology. In Xenogears, the city of Kislev is the remains of a very ancient (4000 + years) military base that is a self-contained city. Role-playing and table-top games In the table-top strategy game Warhammer 40,000, hyperstructures, called "hives," are extremely common and are the main method of housing large populations in the billions. Arcologies are so widespread that some planets, dubbed 'hive worlds', are constructed entirely of hyperstructures. Necromunda, an offshoot game set in the Warhammer 40,000 universe, involves conflict between rival gangs on the hive world of Necromunda. In the RPG Shadowrun, a number of hyperstructures such as the "Renraku Arcology" exist by 2050, most of which are mega-corporate controlled. A major theme to these is the desire of a large corporation to control every aspect of its employees' lives. A major meta-plot element was the sealing off of the aforementioned Renraku Arcology in Seattle when the advanced computer control system awakened into a self-aware AI named Deus. In the RPG Trinity, a number of hyperstructures exist, with the largest being that of the New New York Arcology run by the Psi-Order Orgotek. In the Rifts RPG, the capital of the Coalition States is the city of Chi-Town. Along with some of the other major Coalition cities, Chi-Town is considered a "Mega-City" in that its entire population is housed inside one giant structure consisting of more than thirty levels, each of which are several stories high and contain a number of sub-levels. In WildFire's CthulhuTech RPG, humanity has been forced to live in fortified arcologies due to attacks from the Old Ones and the Migou. In Mind Storm Labs's Alpha Omega RPG, the world's populations have retreated into arcology city-states to protect themselves from the war-torn decimation of the Earth's surface The Fallout franchise, created in 1997 by Interplay, contains several self-sustaining vaults that are cities. Each vault can hold around 1000 people, has its own self-sustaining power supply, water treatment center and built in food creators. Most vaults however, are known to have failed in less than 50 years or so in the series timeline, from attacks by enclave or mutants, destruction, or accidents. The only known vaults to be completely running 200 years after the bombs dropped are Vault 101, located in Washington DC, and Vault 21, Located in Las Vegas, Nevada. In Android: Netrunner, players controlling a corporation can construct arcologies or control resources associated with them Gentrification[edit] Gentrification and urban gentrification denote the socio-cultural changes in an area resulting from wealthier people buying housing property in a less prosperous community.[38] Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases in the community, which may result in the informal economic eviction of the lower-income residents, because of increased rents, house prices, and property taxes. This type of population change reduces industrial land use when it is Vytautas Kasiulis lt Vytautas Kasiulis painter graphic artist stage designer Petras Kalpokas painter Rimtas Kalpokas lt Rimtas Kalpokas painter graphic artist Leonas Katinas lt Leonas Katinas painter Povilas Kaupas lt Povilas Kaupas Algimantas Kezys Lithuanian American photographer Vincas Kisarauskas lt Vincas Kisarauskas painter graphic artist stage designer Saulute Stanislava Kisarauskiene lt Saulute Stanislava Kisarauskiene graphic artist painter Stasys Krasauskas lt Stasys Krasauskas graphic artist Stanislovas Kuzma lt Stanislovas Kuzma sculptor Antanas Martinaitis lt Antanas Martinaitis painter Jonas Rima lt Jonas Rima painter Jan Rustem painter Antanas Samuolis lt Antanas Samuolis painter arunas Sauka painter Boris Schatz sculptor and founder of the Bezalel Academy Irena Sibley ne Pauliukonis Children s book author and illustrator Algis Skackauskas painter Antanas muidzinavicius painter Franciszek Smuglewicz painter Yehezkel Streichman Israeli painter Kazys imonis painter Algimantas vegda lt Algimantas vegda painter Otis Tamaauskas Lithographer Print Maker Graphic Artist Adolfas Valeka painter and graphic artist Adomas Varnas painter Kazys Varnelis artist Vladas Vildiunas lt Vladas Vildiunas sculptor Mikalojus Povilas Vilutis lt Mikalojus Povilas Vilutis graphic artist Viktoras Vizgirda painter William Zorach Modern artist who died in Bath Maine Antanas muidzinavicius painter Kazimieras Leonardas oromskis painter Politics edit President Valdas Adamkus right chatting with Vice President Dick Cheney left See also List of Lithuanian rulers Mindaugas the first and only King of Lithuania Gediminas the ruler of Lithuania Algirdas the ruler together with Kestutis of Lithuania Kestutis the ruler together with Algirdas of Lithuania Vytautas the ruler of Lithuania together with Jogaila Jogaila the ruler of Lithuania from to together with Vytautas the king of Poland Jonuas Radvila the field hetman of Grand Duchy of Lithuania Dalia Grybauskaite current President of Lithuania since Valdas Adamkus President of Lithuania till Jonas Basanavicius "father" of the Act of Independence of Algirdas Brazauskas the former First secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party of Lithuanian SSR the former president of Lithuania after and former Prime Minister of Lithuania Joe Fine mayor of Marquette Michigan Kazys Grinius politician third President of Lithuania Mykolas Krupavicius priest behind the land reform in interwar Lithuania Vytautas Landsbergis politician professor leader of Sajudis the independence movement former speaker of Seimas member of European Parliament Stasys Lozoraitis diplomat and leader of Lithuanian government in exile Stasys Lozoraitis junior politician diplomat succeeded his father as leader of Lithuanian government in exile Antanas Merkys the last Prime Minister of interwar Lithuania Rolandas Paksas former President removed from the office after impeachment Justas Paleckis journalist and politician puppet Prime Minister after Soviet occupation Kazimiera Prunskiene the first female Prime Minister Mykolas Sleevicius three times Prime Minister organized

redeveloped for commerce and housing. In addition, new businesses, catering to a more affluent base of consumers, tend to move into formerly blighted areas, further increasing the appeal to more affluent migrants and decreasing the accessibility to less wealthy natives. Air pollution[edit] Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment. Many urban areas have significant problems with smog, a type of air pollution derived from vehicle emissions from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. Smog is also caused by large amounts of coal burning, which creates a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. World coal consumption was about 6,743,786,000 short tons in 2006[39] and is expected to increase 48% to 9.98 billion short tons by 2030.[40] China produced 2.38 billion tons in 2006. India produced about 447.3 million tons in 2006. 68.7% of China's electricity comes from coal. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total, using 90% of it for generation of electricity.[41] Energy and Material Resources[edit] The sheer size and complexity of megacities gives rise to enormous social and environmental challenges. Whether megacities can develop sustainably depends to a large extent on how they obtain, share, and manage their energy and material resources. There are correlations between electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of level of consumption and how efficiently they use resources.[42] In fiction[edit] Megacities are a common backdrop in dystopian science fiction, with examples such as the Sprawl in William Gibson's Neuromancer,[43] and Mega-City One, a megalopolis of between 50 and 800 million people (fluctuations due to war and disaster) across the east coast of the United States, in the Judge Dredd comic.[44] In Demolition Man a megacity called "San Angeles" was formed from the joining of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Diego and the surrounding metropolitan regions following a massive earthquake in 2010.[45] Fictional planet-wide megacities (ecumenopoleis) include Trantor in Isaac Asimov's Foundation series of books and Coruscant (population 1 trillion) in the Star Wars universe.[46] See also[edit] Amalgamation (politics) Arcology Consolidated city-county Ekistics Financial centre Global city List of agglomerations by population List of largest cities throughout history List of metropolitan areas by population List of metropolitan areas in Europe List of million-plus urban agglomerations in India Megalopolis (city type) Metroplex Primate city Principles of Intelligent Urbanism Urban sprawl Aerial view of Buenos Aires In Argentina, Buenos Aires is the principal metropolis with a population of around fifteen and a half million.[16] The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the third-largest conurbation in Latin America.[17] Buenos Aires is the main political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Argentina. Its port is one of the busiest in South America. Buenos Aires is sometimes referred to as the "Paris of South America". The city has the busiest live theatre industry in Latin America, with scores of theaters and productions, as well as the largest amount of theatres in the world.[17] There are more than 300 active theatres in Buenos Aires.[18] The number of cultural festivals with more than 10 sites and 5 years of existence also places the city as 2nd worldwide, after Edinburgh.[19] Metropolis as a mainland area[edit] Main article: Metropole In France, Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands metropolis (mtropole (Fr.) / metrpole (Port.) / metrpoli (Spa.) / metropool (Dutch)) designates the mainland part of a country near or on the European continent; in the case of France, this would mean France without its overseas departments. For Portugal and Spain during the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire period, the term was used to designate Portugal or Spain except its colonies (the Ultramar). In France mtropole is also used to refer to large agglomerations. See also[edit] Metropolitan area Other city types Global city Megacity Megalopolis Lists List of metropolitan areas by population Planning theories New Urbanism Smart growth Transit-oriented development Other Ekistics Large Cities Climate Leadership Group Sustainable city World's largest cities 4-A Other local business centers Sierra Vista, AZ, Bemidji, MN, Kalispell, MT, Rolla, MO (79 cities) 4-B Secondary local business centers Cedar Falls, IA, Kearney, NE, Springdale, AR, Urbana, IL (90 cities) 4-C Same as 4-B, but not constituting a basic trading center Carson City, NV, Conway, AR, DeKalb, IL, Dover, NH, Lodi, CA (155 cities) 4-S Suburbs analogous to 4-C cities Carrollton, TX, Compton, CA, Hillsboro, OR, Kirkland, WA, Mount Vernon, NY, West Haven, CT (361 suburbs) Notes: The B and C cities are secondary because they are in the same market area as a city rated A. While those are only abstract examples of the ratings, consider how the system works in practice with the example of Ohio. Rand McNally conceives of Ohio as consisting of nineteen markets (trading areas) with some peripheral counties being contained in trading areas of other states. The table below shows the nineteen trading areas in order of hierarchy. Each has an A-rated city. Some also have other rated cities and suburbs. Example: Ohio Trading area A-rated city Other cities Suburbs Cleveland-Akron Cleveland (1-AA) Akron (2-BB), Wooster (3-C) Elyria, Euclid, Lorain, Mentor, Middleburg Heights, Parma (all 3-S), Barberton, Beachwood, Bedford, Brooklyn, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Falls, Fairlawn, Kent, Lakewood, Mayfield Heights, Medina, North Olmsted, Painesville, Ravenna, Richmond Heights, Willoughby (all 4-S) Cincinnati Cincinnati (1-A) Hamilton (3-C), Middletown (3-C), Maysville, KY (4-C) Florence, KY, Springdale,(both 3-S), Covington, KY, Fairfield, Newport, KY (all 4-S) Columbus Columbus (1-A) Delaware, Lancaster, Newark (all 3-C), Mount Vernon (4-C) Upper Arlington, Whitehall (both 4-S) Dayton-Springfield Dayton (2-AA) Springfield (3-BB), Bellefontaine, Celina, Greenville, Piqua, Troy (all 4-C), Trotwood, Xenia (both 4-S) Toledo Toledo (2-AA) Bowling Green, Fremont (both 4-C) Maumee (4-S) Youngstown-Warren Youngstown (2-AA) Warren (3-B) Niles (3-S) Canton-New Philadelphia Canton (2-A) New Philadelphia (3-B), Dover (3-C), Alliance (4-C), Coshocton (4-C), Massillon (4-C) Lima Lima (3-AA) Mansfield Mansfield (3-AA) Ashland (4-C) Ontario (4-S) Ashtabula Ashtabula (3-A) Chillicothe Chillicothe (3-A) Findlay-Tiffin Findlay (3-A) Tiffin (4-B) Marion Marion (3-A) Portsmouth Portsmouth (3-A) Sandusky Sandusky (3-A) Steubenville-Weirton Steubenville (3-A) Weirton, WV (4-B) Zanesville-Cambridge Zanesville (3-A) Cambridge (4-B) Athens Athens (4-A) East Liverpool-Salem East Liverpool (4-A) Salem (4-B) The system is applied by businesses seeking to serve a network of customers with the greatest efficiency. For example, a company that services elevators or a wholesaler of paper bags would want to locate its field representatives primarily in A rated cities. The Rural Health Research Center at the University of Minnesota has recently published a report on access to physicians in rural areas which uses the system to evaluate access to physicians in rural areas Boston Dublin Taipei Munich Stockholm Atlanta See also Portal icon Globalization portal Ecumenopolis Financial centre Index of urban studies articles List of cities by GDP Megalopolis (city type) Metropolis Primate city Ranally city rating system Chinatown, Philadelphia, The arch built in Qing Dynasty style, using tiles from Philadelphia's sister city, Tianjin, China Partnership shield in Ilmenau, Germany Sign showing twin towns of Ppa , H u n g a r y P i a z z a T e r r a c i n a , E x e t e r . N a m e d a f t e r o n e o f E x e t e r ' s t w i n t o w n s T e r r a c i n a T w i n t o w n s a n d S i s t e r c i t i e s g a r d e n i n H o l o n M o n t i g n y - l e - B r e t o n n e u x , F r a n c e t w i n n i n g s M e l u n , F r a n c e t w i n n i n g s W o B w , P o l a n d ' s M i G - 1 7 t w i n t o w n d i r e c t i o n s i g n t o B e r d y c h i v , U k r a i n e Z a l a e g e r s z e g , H u n g a r y t w i n n i n g s T b i l i s i P l a t z i n S a a r b r c k e n , G e r m a n y P l a c e s o f i n t e r e s t [ e d i t ] S o u t h S h i e l d s t o w n c e n t r e a n d r i v e r s i d e a r e u n d e r g o i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e g e n e r a t i o n , w i t h n e w h o u s i n g , b u s i n e s s a n d l e i s u r e u s e s r e placing old industrial sites. The town centre offers high street shopping, a regular market by the Grade I listed old town hall, central library, head post office and sorting office, museum & art gallery, bus/Metro interchange, town hall and civic offices. The Customs House is located within the historic Mill Dam conservation area and hosts a theatre, cinema, art gallery and restaurant. Arbeia formed the easternmost extremity of the Roman Empire at Hadrian's Wall and is located at the mouth of the River Tyne on the North Sea coast. Excavations, a reconstructed fort and museum are open to the public on the historic Lawe Top site (Old English: hill top). The foreshore boasts a quality seaside experience, with the local landmarks of the Groyne lighthouse and mile-long South Pier to the north, and Marsden Rock and Souter Lighthouse to the south. There are award-winning sandy beaches at Littlehaven, Sandhaven and Marsden Bay; revitalised seafront promenades and scenic cliff top walks; the traditional thrills of Ocean Beach Pleasure Park and Dunes Adventure Island including fairground rides, an indoor bowling alley and amusement arcades; the North and South Marine parks with bandstand, boating lake, outdoor play areas and miniature steam railway; new state-of-the-art swimming pools, waterslides and fitness centre at Haven Point, a sailing club and Gypsies Green Stadium; the original Tyne Lifeboat, Jubilee Memorial and bronze statues of the Conversation Piece; a range of hotels, guest houses, chalets and caravan & camping sites; plus numerous restaurants, pubs and cafes, including the legendary local Minchella's ice cream and Colman's fish and chips. In summer there is a free festival, including a large street parade and entertainment from local and international stars at the outdoor amphitheatre and at Bents Park. An open-top tour bus connects the numerous places of interest during the busy summer tourist season. The Great North Run is the world's biggest half marathon and takes place every September/October, starting in Newcastle and finishing on The Leas at South Shields. On the coast road to Whitburn is Marsden Rock - an impressive limestone sea stack colonised by sea birds and a longstanding tourist attraction. Further down the coast is Souter Lighthouse, the first in the world to be generated by reliable electric current. Much of the coastal scenery in this area was, until two decades ago, dominated by the spoil heaps and pit head winding gear of Westoe and Whitburn collieries, but these are now gone and the area's natural beauty has been restored. Jarrow is home to St. Paul's Monastery, Bede's World museum, Jarrow Hall, the Viking Shopping Centre and J Barbour factory outlet. Hebburn riverside is surprisingly green with open views to the renewable and offshore-related industries across-river at Wallsend. The town centre has undergone significant change with new house building and civic & leisure facilities. The picturesque suburban villages of Cleadon, East and West Boldon, Harton, Monkton, Westoe and Whitburn offer traditional pubs, historic buildings and independent boutiques. There is an athletics track at Monkton and cricket grounds at Westoe and Whitburn. Environment[edit] The physical environment varies greatly in a small area: from established industrial areas like the Port of Tyne to new business parks at Monkton and Boldon; from traditional 'back to back' terraces to more modern suburban housing; from the River Tyne to the harbour entrance at Littlehaven; and from Marsden Quarry to the Great North Forest. The EcoCentre at Hebburn is a building constructed from recycled materials, self-reliant in power generation by means of its own wind turbine and is efficient in waste management. The weather is variable and typical of a Maritime Climate. Transport[edit] The A194(M), A19 and other trunk roads link South Tyneside to the national road network. The Tyne and Wear Metro is a light rail system connecting the area with the rest of the Tyne and Wear conurbation, including Sunderland and Newcastle Central Station and Newcastle International Airport. The Tyne Road and Pedestrian Tunnels traverse the river between Jarrow and Howdon. A pedestrian ferry also serves the towns of North and South Shields. The Port of Tyne situated at Tyne Dock is a growing terminal handling large volumes of freight, including exports from the Nissan car plant in Washington. People[edit] Well-known South Tynesiders include[citation needed] author Dame Catherine Cookson, former three times Prime Minister of New Zealand Sir William Fox, actress Dame Flora Robson, Monty Python actor Eric Idle, Hollywood director Ridley Scott, waxed jacket inventor J Barbour and athlete Steve Cram. Author Lewis Carroll was inspired to write 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' and 'Through the Looking-Glass' by local residents he met when staying in Whitburn. Singer Joe McElderry who won the 2009 X Factor also comes from the area as well as two members of 2011 X Factor winners Little Mix, Jade Thirlwall and Perrie Edwards. South Shields is the only town to have two X Factor winners from its area. Ginger of British rock heroes The Wildhearts is from South Shields. Twinned cities[edit] South Tyneside is twinned with pinay-sur-Seine, France; Noisy-le-Sec, France; and Wuppertal, Germany There are sixteen further education colleges in the region.[172] The main such colleges are Newcastle College, New College Durham, Darlington College, Gateshead College, Bishop Auckland College, Stockton Riverside College, Queen Elizabeth Sixth Form College, Hartlepool College of Further Education, Middlesbrough College, Cleveland College of Art and Design along with Sunderland College.[citation needed] Newcastle University Tertiary education[edit] At the higher education level the North East contains a number of universities. These include Durham University, which is the third oldest in England and is often ranked among the ten leading UK universities; Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group; and the newer universities of Northumbria University, University of Sunderland and Teesside University, which was voted Best University in the United Kingdom at the 2009 Times Higher Education awards. There are no higher education colleges in the region. The main university in the region is Newcastle University.[173] It offers the broadest range of courses and has the largest research budget. The next largest university by funding is Durham University, which has a research grant of about 70% that of Newcastle's. Newcastle has the most total income, followed by Durham, while Sunderland has the least. Queen's Campus (of Durham University), Stockton-on-Tees Over 50% of the region's students come from the region, and around 35% are from other regions. At first degree level, around 55% are from the North of England, and about 30% are from the North East. More students come from elsewhere than leave the North East for other regions, due to the distances involved. Of students native to the region, 80% study in the North of England, with Yorkshire and the Humber more popular than the North West, and around 55% study in the North East. The region has a higher proportion of students from so-called low participation neighbourhoods, as compared to elsewhere in England. Durham University has the least from these neighbourhoods. Northumbria University has the most students, followed by Teesside University. Durham University has the fewest total students. Almost 60% of graduates stay in the region, while 10% go to Yorkshire and another 10% go to London. Both areas are accessible via the East Coast Main Line. Local media[edit] BBC building in north Newcastle Local media include: Regional television is provided by the BBC North East and Cumbria, which broadcasts the regional evening Look North programme from Spital Tongues in Newcastle. Its commercial rival, ITV Tyne Tees & Border, broadcasts the evening programme ITV News Tyne Tees from Gateshead. BBC Radios Newcastle and Tees. National radio comes from Bilsdale on the North York Moors for Teesside, Pontop Pike in County Durham for Tyne and Wear, and Chatton near Wooler for Northumberland. These transmitters are also the main television transmitters. Commercial radio stations such as Metro (Newcastle), Real (Gateshead), Capital (formerly Galaxy in Wallsend), Real Radio XS, TFM (Recently moved to Newcastle after a takeover from Metro Radio), Sun FM (Sunderland), and Star Radio (Darlington). Digital radio comes from the Bauer Tyne & Wear and Bauer Teesside multiplexes. Community radio stations such as NE1fm (Newcastle), Radio Hartlepool, Radio Teesdale (Teesdale, County Durham), and Spark FM (Sunderland). Radio Tyneside is not only a popular and well known hospital radio station it is also said to be the longest serving station of its kind in the UK. Local regional newspapers the Evening Chronicle (Newcastle) , Sunderland Echo (Sunderland), The Journal (Newcastle), Evening Gazette (Middlesbrough), Shields Gazette (South Shields), Hartlepool Mail, The Northern Echo (Darlington) and the Darlington and Stockton Times. There are also free publications such as The Ferryhill Chapter, Bishop Press, The Hartlepool Post and Shildon Town Crier. Great North News Services, a new media company in Newcastle upon Tyne. See also: List of Newcastle upon Tyne publications and List of television shows set in Newcastle upon Tyne Local newspapers that are printed in Newcastle include Trinity Mirror's Evening Chronicle and The Journal, the Sunday Sun as well as the Metro freesheet. The Crack is a monthly style and listings magazine similar to London's Time Out. The adult comic Viz originated in Jesmond and includes many references to Newcastle, and The Mag is a fanzine for Newcastle United supporters. Two converted warehouses provided the base for Tyne Tees on City Road until 2005 ITV Tyne Tees was based at City Road for over 40 years after its launch in January 1959.[242] In 2005 it moved to a new facility on The Watermark business park next to the MetroCentre in Gateshead.[243] The entrance to studio 5 at the City Road complex gave its name to the 1980s music television programme, The Tube.[242] BBC North East and Cumbria is located to the north of the city on Barrack Road, Spital Tongues, in a building known, as the result of its colouring, as the Pink Palace.[244] It is from here that the Corporation broadcasts the Look North television regional news programme and local radio station BBC Radio Newcastle. Independent local radio stations include Metro Radio and sister station Magic 1152, which are both based in a building on the Swan House roundabout on the north side of the Tyne Bridge. Capital North East broadcasts across Newcastle from its studios in nearby Wallsend.[245] Real Radio and Smooth Radio both broadcast from Team Valley in Gateshead.[246] NE1fm launched on 8 June 2007, the first full-time community radio station in the area.[247] Newcastle Student Radio is run by students from both of the city's universities, broadcasting from Newcastle University's student's union building during term time.[248] Radio Tyneside[249] has been the voluntary hospital radio service for most hospitals across Newcastle and Gateshead since 1951, broadcasting on Hospedia [250] and online. The city also has a Radio Lollipop station based at the Great North Children's Hospital in the Newcastle Royal Victoria Infirmary. Newcastle is one of the first in the UK to have its city centre covered by wireless internet access. It was developed and installed at the end of 2006 and went active in March 2007.[251] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of residents of Newcastle upon Tyne Charles Avison, the leading British composer of concertos in the 18th century, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1709 and died there in 1770.[252] Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster, was born in the city in 1923.[253] Vice Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, was born in the city. Ironmaster, metallurgist, and member of parliament Isaac Lowthian Bell was born in the city in 1816. Other notable people born in or associated with Newcastle include: engineer and industrialist Lord Armstrong, engineer and father of the modern steam railways George Stephenson, his son, also an engineer, Robert Stephenson, engineer and inventor of the steam turbine Sir Charles Parsons, inventor of the incandescent light bulb Sir Joseph Swan, modernist poet Basil Bunting,[254] and Lord Chief Justice Peter Taylor. Portuguese writer Ea de Queiroz was a diplomat in Newcastle from late 1874 until April 1879his most productive literary period.[255] Former Prime Minister of Thailand Abhisit Vejjajiva,[256] was born in the city. Musicians Eric Burdon, Sting, Mark Knopfler, Alan Hull, Cheryl Cole and Neil Tennant lived in Newcastle. Brian Johnson, founding member of Geordie, is the current lead vocalist of AC/DC. Hank Marvin and Bruce Welch were both former pupils of Rutherford Grammar School,[257] actors Charlie Hunnam and James Scott,[258] entertainers Ant and Dec and international footballers Michael Carrick and Alan Shearer were born in Newcastle. Multiple circumnavigator David Scott Cowper, Nobel Prize winning physicist Peter Higgs,[259] and Former WWE NXT champion Neville were born in the city. John Dunn, inventor of keyed Northumbrian smallpipes, the most characteristic musical instrument in the region, lived and worked in the city. Alan Shearer, former footballer an iconic Newcastle United player and the Premier League's all-time top goalscorer and England Captain. Rowan Atkinson, actor best known for Mr. Bean, Studied at Newcastle University[260] Cheryl Fernandez-Versini, pop singer, former member of Girls Aloud and a current X Factor judge, previously known as Cheryl Tweedy and Cheryl Cole Musician and lead singer of rock band the Police, Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, better known by his stage name Sting, grew up in the Newcastle area. Southern was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and educated at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated with a first-class honors degree in history. At Oxford, Southern's mentors were Sir Maurice Powicke and Vivian Hunter Galbraith. He was a fellow of Balliol from 1937 to 1961 (where he lectured alongside Christopher Hill), Chichele Professor of Modern History at Oxford from 1961 to 1969, and president of St John's College, Oxford, from 1969 to 1981. He was president of the Royal Historical Society from 1969 to 1973.[1] Southern was awarded the Balzan Prize for Medieval History in 1987. He was knighted in 1974. He died in Oxford in 2001. Southern is one of 20 medieval scholars profiled in Norman Cantor's Inventing the Middle Ages: The Lives, Works and Ideas of the Great Medievalists of the Twentieth Century. Cantor considers Southern's The Making of the Middle Ages one of two best single-volume books on the Middle Ages written in the 20th century for inspiring a revolution in the study of the period. However, Southern declined to lead the revolution by forming a programmatic research institute. Cantor describes him in Arthurian terms, with a group of devotees (including Cantor) who surrounded their master following the publication of The Making of the Middle Ages. Like Arthurian legend, Southern's story does not have an entirely happy ending, and Cantor describes his sense of disappointment when Southern failed to live up to Cantor's expectations. In addition to the influence exerted by his works, Southern had several prominent students who carried his influence into the next generation. Robert Bartlett and R. I. Moore, for example, share Southern's interest in the development of Europe in the High Middle Ages, and Valerie Flint had some of Southern's tendencies towards iconoclasm. Publications[edit] This section does not cite any references (sources). Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) Southern's The Making of the Middle Ages (1953) was a seminal work, and established Southern's reputation as a medievalist. This pioneering work, sketching the main personalities and cultural influences that shaped the character of Western Europe from the late tenth to the early thirteenth century and describing the development of social, political, and religious institutions, opened up new vistas in medieval history, and has been translated into many languages. The final chapter of the book (a chapter dedicated to spirituality) has often been credited with helping to popularize the thesis that in the 11th century Anselm of Canterbury "was the founder of the new type of ardent and effusive self-disclosure", epitomizing a broader tendency to "a greater measure of solitude, of introspection, and self-knowledge" that "ran like fire through Europe in the generation after his death and produced an outburst of meditations and spiritual soliloquies".[2] Southern's ideas were seminal for generations of scholars of medieval spirituality, helping them to build a picture of what they called affective piety emotionally charged prayer and meditation mostly focused on the Passion of Christ.[3] Southern made major contributions to the areas he studied, and was not afraid to attack long-held views. Southern's monographic studies of St Anselm and Robert Grosseteste, for example, have had significant influences on their historiography. Never afraid of controversy, Southern's interpretation of Grosseteste made a dramatic attempt to revise the chronology of Grosseteste's life. Further, Southern saw him as a particularly English figure (in contrast to earlier scholarship, which had seen Grosseteste's connections to French schools as being of particular importance).[4] Southern also took a revisionist line in his re-interpretation of the School of Chartres, an argument stated first in his Medieval Humanism and then refined in his Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe. Southern argued that scholars in the 19th and early 20th centuries had built the "School of Chartres" into a romanticised edifice out of all proportion with the documentary record. The figures in the School of Chartres were actually much more active in Paris than in Chartres itself, according to Southern; Chartres did indeed have a school, but it did not surpass the usual level of cathedral schools of the time. Southern's revisionist or iconoclastic approach was continued by some of his students. Valerie Flint, for example, attempted to make significant revisions to the interpretation of Anselm of Laon. Southern's final major work, Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe, was unfortunately destined to remain unfinished at his death. Southern never managed to finish the third volume of the work. The first two volumes of the work do represent a major contribution to medieval scholarship, however. In the work, Southern argues that, from the 12th century on, medieval scholars aspired to systematise all human knowledge in a comprehensive system. Furthermore, this scholarly vision (the "scholastic humanism" of the title) was to have a major influence on Western culture beyond the schools, as scholars and school-educated men moved out of the schools and took important roles in the government and the church. In addition to these major works, Southern also wrote several works that have not had quite as much influence on medieval scholarship. His brief Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages represents a relatively early effort to describe medieval attitudes towards Islam, identifying three stages in their development. His Medieval Humanism and Other Studies states first several themes that would be later developed in Scholastic Humanism. His Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages is a textbook survey like The Making of the Middle Ages but has not received quite as much attention as his earlier work Depiction of the Varangian Guard from the 12th-century Madrid Skylitzes Following the conquest, many Anglo-Saxons, including groups of nobles, fled the country[102] for Scotland, Ireland, or Scandinavia.[103] Members of King Harold Godwinson's family sought refuge in Ireland and used their bases in that country for unsuccessful invasions of England.[69] The largest single exodus occurred in the 1070s, when a group of Anglo-Saxons in a fleet of 235 ships sailed for the Byzantine Empire.[103] The empire became a popular destination for many English nobles and soldiers, as the Byzantines were in need of mercenaries.[102] The English became the predominant element in the elite Varangian Guard, until then a largely Scandinavian unit, from which the emperor's bodyguard was drawn.[104] Some of the English migrants were settled in Byzantine frontier regions on the Black Sea coast, and established towns with names such as New London and New York.[102] Governmental systems[edit] Page from the Warwickshire Domesday survey Before the Normans arrived, Anglo-Saxon governmental systems were more sophisticated than their counterparts in Normandy.[105][106] All of England was divided into administrative units called shires, with subdivisions; the royal court was the centre of government, and a justice system based on local and regional tribunals existed to secure the rights of free men.[107] Shires were run by officials known as shire reeves or sheriffs.[108] Most medieval governments were always on the move, holding court wherever the weather and food or other matters were best at the moment;[109] England had a permanent treasury at Winchester before William's conquest.[110] One major reason for the strength of the English monarchy was the wealth of the kingdom, built on the English system of taxation that included a land tax, or the geld. English coinage was also superior to most of the other currency in use in northwestern Europe, and the ability to mint coins was a royal monopoly.[111] The English kings had also developed the system of issuing writs to their officials, in addition to the normal medieval practice of issuing charters.[112] Writs were either instructions to an official or group of officials, or notifications of royal actions such as appointments to office or a grant of some sort.[113] This sophisticated medieval form of government was handed over to the Normans and was the foundation of further developments.[107] They kept the framework of government but made changes in the personnel, although at first the new king attempted to keep some natives in office. By the end of William's reign most of the officials of government and the royal household were Normans. The language of official documents also changed, from Old English to Latin. The forest laws were introduced, leading to the setting aside of large sections of England as royal forest.[108] The Domesday survey was an administrative catalogue of the landholdings of the kingdom, and was unique to medieval Europe. It was divided into sections based on the shires, and listed all the landholdings of each tenant-in-chief of the king as well as who had held the land before the conquest.[114] Language[edit] One of the most obvious effects of the conquest was the introduction of Anglo-Norman, a northern dialect of Old French, as the language of the ruling classes in England, displacing Old English. French words entered the English language, and a further sign of the shift was the usage of names common in France instead of Anglo-Saxon names. Male names such as William, Robert and Richard soon became common; female names changed more slowly. The Norman invasion had little impact on placenames, which had changed significantly after earlier Scandinavian invasions. It is not known precisely how much English the Norman invaders learned, nor how much the knowledge of French spread among the lower classes, but the demands of trade and basic communication probably meant that at least some of the Normans and native English were bilingual.[115] Nevertheless, it is known that William the Conqueror himself never developed a working knowledge of English and for centuries afterwards English was not well understood by the nobility.[116] Immigration and intermarriage[edit] An estimated 8000 Normans and other continentals settled in England as a result of the conquest, although exact figures cannot be established. Some of these new residents intermarried with the native English, but the extent of this practice in the years immediately after Hastings is unclear. Several marriages are attested between Norman men and English women during the years before 1100, but such marriages were uncommon. Most Normans continued to contract marriages with other Normans or other continental families rather than with the English.[117] Within a century of the invasion, intermarriage between the native English and the Norman immigrants had become common. By the early 1160s, Ailred of Rievaulx was writing that intermarriage was common in all levels of society.[118] Society[edit] Modern-day reconstruction of an Anglo-Saxon village at West Stow The impact of the conquest on the lower levels of English society is difficult to assess. The major change was the elimination of slavery in England, which had disappeared by the middle of the 12th century.[119] There were about 28,000 slaves listed in Domesday Book in 1086, fewer than had been enumerated for 1066. In some places, such as Essex, the decline in slaves was 20 per cent for the 20 years.[120] The main reasons for the decline in slaveholding appear to have been the disapproval of the Church and the cost of supporting slaves, who unlike serfs, had to be maintained entirely by their owners.[121] The practice of slavery was not outlawed, and the Leges Henrici Primi from the reign of King Henry I continue to mention slaveholding as legal.[120] Many of the free peasants of Anglo-Saxon society appear to have lost status and become indistinguishable from the non-free serfs. Whether this change was due entirely to the conquest is unclear, but the invasion and its after-effects probably accelerated a process already under way. The spread of towns and increase in nucleated settlements in the countryside, rather than scattered farms, was probably accelerated by the coming of the Normans to England.[119] The lifestyle of the peasantry probably did not greatly change in the decades after 1066.[122] Although earlier historians argued that women became less free and lost rights with the conquest, current scholarship has mostly rejected this view. Little is known about women other than those in the landholding class, so no conclusions can be drawn about peasant women's status after 1066. Noblewomen appear to have continued to influence political life mainly through their kinship relationships. Both before and after 1066 aristocratic women could own land, and some women continued to have the ability to dispose of their property as they wished.[123] Historiography[edit] Debate over the conquest started almost immediately. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, when discussing the death of William the Conqueror, denounced him and the conquest in verse, but the king's obituary notice from William of Poitiers, a Frenchman, was laudatory and full of praise. Historians since then have argued over the facts of the matter and how to interpret them, with little agreement.[124] The theory or myth of the "Norman Yoke" arose in the 17th century,[125] the idea that Anglo-Saxon society had been freer and more equal than the society that emerged after the conquest.[126] This theory owes more to the period it was developed in than to historical facts, but it continues to be used in both political and popular thought to the present day.[127] In the 20th and 21st centuries historians have focused less on the rightness or wrongness of the conquest itself, instead concentrating on the effects of the invasion. Some, such as Richard Southern, have seen the conquest as a critical turning point in history.[124] Southern stated that "no country in Europe, between the rise of the barbarian kingdoms and the 20th century, has undergone so radical a change in so short a time as England experienced after 1066."[128] Other historians, such as H. G. Richardson and G. O. Sayles, believe that the transformation was less radical.[124] In more general terms, one writer has called the conquest "the last echo of the national migrations that characterized the early Middle Ages".[129] The debate over the impact of the conquest depends on what metrics are used to measure change after 1066. If Anglo-Saxon England was already evolving before the invasion, with the introduction of feudalism, castles or other changes in society, then the conquest, while important, did not represent radical reform. But the change was dramatic if measured by the elimination of the English nobility or the loss of Old English as a literary language. Nationalistic arguments have been made on both sides of the debate, with the Normans cast as either the persecutors of the English or the rescuers of the country from a decadent Anglo-Saxon nobility After years outside the spotlight, Zuluaga made headlines again when she married a medical doctor and moved to the United States. In 1966, she returned to Manizales and became involved with the city council as well as with the state's institute of tourism, of which she eventually became director. Zuluaga has three sons and a daughter. She died on December 2, 2015 at the age of 77 at her home in Manizales Jakob Schmidt ... fx technical director Miguel Perez Senent ... effects technical director: Industrial Light & Magic Eric Sibley ... compositor Morgan Smith ... associate production manager Dan Snape ... digital compositor: ILM Ben Tabiner ... reference camera operator Adrian Teng ... visual effects artist Mark Theriault ... visual effects artist Shivas Thilak Anthikkat ... digital paint artist: ILM Lee Tibbetts ... visual effects artist: Industrial Light and Magic Attila Torok ... fx td: ILM Fernando Tortosa ... visual effects photographer: Propshop Chris Tost ... animator: ILM Brian Jason Tran ... visual effects: ILM Jon Tyler ... Motion Capture Supervisor: The Imaginarium Reuben Uy ... pipeline td Noor Valibhoy ... generalist: ILM Luke Vallee ... digital compositor: Industrial Light & Magic Nick van Diem ... creature td: Industrial Light & Magic Barbara van Schaik ... reference camera operator: The Imaginarium Studios Todd Vaziri ... lead artist: ILM Maximilian-Gordon Vogt ... character modeler Waikit Wan ... creature technical director: ILM Talmage Watson ... digital artist Ryan Weston ... digital artist: ILM Kristofer Whitford ... Paint & Roto artist Industrial Light & Magic Ronnie E. Williams Jr. ... digital compositor Richard Stuart Wilson ... visual effects digital coordinator David B. Wolgemuth II ... senior compositor Mike Wood ... digital matte artist Gary Wu ... creature technical director: ILM Perry Yap ... paint and roto artist: ILM Shaun Yue ... screen graphics designer: Blind Ltd London Gwen Zhang ... compositor: Industrial Light & Magic Stunts Adam J. Bernard ... stunt double: John Boyega Chlo Bruce ... stunt double: Daisy Ridley Neil Chapelhow ... stunt performer Nicole Chapman ... stunt department coordinator Morgan Chetcuti ... stunt performer Jonathan Cohen ... stunt performer Rhye Copeman ... stunt performer James Cox ... stunt performer Matt Crook ... stunt performer Levan Doran ... stunt performer Daniel Dow ... stunt performer James Embree ... stunt performer Dan Euston ... stunt double: Oscar Isaac Bradley Farmer ... stunt performer Dean Forster ... stunt performer Oliver Gough ... stunt performer David R. Grant ... stunt performer Bobby Holland Hanton ... stunt performer Al Holland ... stunt performer Paul Howell ... stunt performer Rob Inch ... stunt coordinator Erol Ismail ... stunt performer Olivia Jackson ... stunt performer George Kirby ... stunt performer Gza Kovcs ... stunt performer Raymond Mamrak ... utility stunts Mike Massa ... stunt double: Harrison Ford Adrian McGaw ... stunt performer Casey Michaels ... stunt performer Rory Mulroe ... stunt performer Giedrius Nagys ... stunt rigger Andrei Nazarenko ... stunt performer Chris Newton ... stunt performer David Newton ... stunt performer Sam Parham ... stunt performer Ian Pead ... stunt performer Rashid Phoenix ... stunt performer Jude Poyer ... stunt performer Florian Robin ... stunt performer Tom Rodgers ... stunt performer Matt Sherren ... stunt performer Jonny Stockwell ... stunt performer Ryan Stuart ... stunt performer Mens-Sana Tamakloe ... stunt performer Roy Taylor ... stunt performer Arran Topham ... stunt performer Gyula Tth ... stunt double: Adam Driver Pablo Verdejo ... stunt performer Vincent Wang ... stunts Andy Wareham ... stunt performer Reg Wayment ... stunt double: Harrison Ford William Willoughby ... stunt performer Leo Woodruff ... stunt performer Camera and Electrical Department Colin Anderson ... "a" camera/steadicam operator Dennis Baldwin ... practical electrician Jose F. Barrios ... best boy grip: santa monica unit Adrian Barry ... b camera grip Alex Bender ... second assistant camera: 'b' camera George Bird ... lighting technician Alasdair Boyce ... central loader: second unit Ben Brown ... clapper loader: dailes 2nd unit Rogan Brown ... additional grip Robyn Buchanan ... loader: Santa Monica unit Robbie Cairns ... camera trainee dailies: second unit Robert Soup Campbell ... second assistant camera "a" camera: los angeles unit Jake Capistron ... eclipse technician Philippe Carr-Forster ... "b" camera operator Alex Collings ... camera trainee: main unit Eliot Coulter ... lighting console operator Jon Cruz ... lighting technician: UAE Adam Dale ... aerial director of photography Richard Davis ... c camera: second assistant camera, second unit - dailies Carlos De Carvalho ... c cam operator Billy Dunn ... lighting technician Arnar Einarsson ... key grip: iceland unit Beisan Elias ... second assistant camera: 2nd unit dailies Martin Elvin ... crane technician: dailies Simon England ... second assistant camera: "a" camera Kevin Fitzpatrick ... Practical Electrician Dave Freeth ... libra head technician Harry K. Garvin ... "b" camera operator: Santa Monica unit Charley Gilleran ... key grip: los angeles Luke Andrew Haddock ... video assistant Steven Hall ... Visual Effects Cinematographer Peter Hayley-Barker ... trainee grip: second unit Colin Hazell ... crane tech Sam Hazell ... grip (Daily Crane Tech) David Hirschmann ... vfx camera operator Patrick Hoeschen ... gaffer additional photography Gary Hymns ... key grip Paul Hymns ... key grip: second unit Tony Jackson ... 'b' camera operator 2nd unit Chiabella James ... unit stills and publicity coordinator David James ... still photographer Ernesto Joven ... video engineer: motion capture department Viktor Dav Jhannsson ... grip: iceland Lizzie Kelly ... video assist operator: second unit Dora Krolikowska ... first assistant camera: "b" camera - Iceland unit Brad Larner ... first assistant camera: second unit Stephen Lloyd ... video assist trainee: dailies Martin Lorimer ... additional camera trainee: Main Unit Alexander Mansfield Martinez ... additional camera trainee John Marzano ... aerial unit John Ingi Matta ... grip: Iceland unit Bruce McCleery ... director of photography: second unit Danny McGee ... practical electrician Malcolm McGilchrist ... grip "a" camera Adam McGrady ... video assistant: second unit Jamie Mills ... lighting technician Dan Ming ... "b" camera first assistant: Santa Monica unit Tim Morris ... second assistant camera: second unit Jem Morton ... grip daillies Serge Nofield ... "a" camera first assistant: : Santa Monica unit / first assistant camera: "a' camera Boris Olomi ... d camera grip: Abu Dhabi Robert Palmer ... first assistant camera: b camera David Penfold ... first assistant camera Lee Perkins ... electrician Steve Petrie ... video assistant Michelle Pizanis ... "a" camera second assistant: Santa Monica unit Elliott Polley ... grip trainee: main unit Christopher Prampin ... gaffer: additional photography Christopher Pritzlaff ... lighting technician: Santa Monica unit / lighting technician: additional photography Simon Purdy ... practical electrician Andrew Rowlands ... "a" camera operator: Santa Monica unit Grace Royall ... camera trainee: second unit David Sinfield ... gaffer: 2nd unit Dan Smith ... lighting technician: second unit Gary Smith ... best boy grip Adrian Spanna ... video assist operator: main unit Mario Spanna ... libra head: second unit Tom Stansfield ... grip: dailies - second unit Joe Steel ... digital imaging technician: aerial unit Roxanne Stephens ... "b" camera second assistant: Santa Monica unit Alex Teale ... best boy loader: main unit Josefine Thieme ... video trainee Cameron Thorburn ... dolly grip - additional photogrophy Russel Torode ... additional camera trainee: main unit Calem Trevor ... camera trainee: second unit Mustafa Tyebkhan ... aerial unit 1st ac: Iceland / digital imaging technician: aerial unit Toby Tyler Jr. ... lighting technician: second unit Tom Wade ... second assistant camera: second unit Tom L. Weir ... assistant video dailies Dave Wells ... grip: second unit Paul Wheeldon ... first assistant camera Pip White ... additional camera trainee: main unit Brook Willard ... d.i.t.: Santa Monica unit Ben Wilson ... camera operator: "a" camera, second unit Bradley Everett Wilson ... camera supporter Marc Wolff ... pilot: camera helicopter Jonathan Wright ... second assistant "a" camera: second unit Noah Furrer ... desk operator (uncredited) Animation Department Amaury Coljon ... animator: ILM London Filippo Dattola ... animator Zaini Jalani ... animator James King ... animator Atsushi Kojima ... animator: ILM Dave Logan ... animator Anthony Rizzo ... animator Casting Department Rachel Dill ... casting assistant Kate McLaughlin ... extras casting Shannon Meehan ... casting / casting: uae Theo Park ... casting associate Jessica Sherman ... casting associate (as Jessica F. Sherman) Costume and Wardrobe Department Jennifer Alford ... costume cutter Pierre Bohanna ... Costume FX Supervising Modeller Sue Bradbear ... costume maker Keith Christensen ... concept artist Miranda Clarke ... costume buyer Estelle Cleary ... costume maker Alex Cox ... junior costume maker David Crossman ... costume supervisor Phaedra Dahdaleh ... wardrobe assistant Jessica Davis ... costumer Glyn Dillon ... chief concept artist Graham Docherty ... stand-by: daily Nigel Egerton ... assistant costume designer Marianne Elgaard-Bendtsen ... costume prop maker Neil Ellis ... costume prop maker Nicola Foy ... costume maker Perry Goyen ... costume assistant Libby Guy ... textile artist Toby Hawkes ... supervising modeller Imogen Hose ... costumer Darren Howton ... costume FX electrian Gary Hyams ... costumer Ian Jones ... chief costume prop maker Vivienne Jones ... assistant costume designer Aisha Kascioglu ... costume assistant Samantha Keeble ... junior assistant costume designer Samantha Kent ... costume assistant Trudy Klein ... costume pa Magdalena Kusowska ... concept artist Diane Logel ... costume trainee Susan MacKenzie ... costume maker Ashwin Makan ... costume assistant Elaine Mansouri ... costume maker Paul Marsh ... Costume prop maker Roxana McIntyre ... textile artist Amanda McLaughlan ... costume trainee Calandra Meredith ... key costumer Carla Monvid ... costume trainee Neil Murphy ... wardrobe master Gary Page ... costume cutter Kim Pickering ... costume trainee Kimberley Pope ... concept artist Lisa Robinson ... costume maker Lisa Sass ... costume assistant Margarethe Schmoll ... costume maker Rebecca Sellors ... costume maker Timothy Shanahan ... chief textile artist Paul Sinnott ... costumer Susanne Morthorst Staal ... costume maker William Steggle ... crowd master on set Amy Tapper ... junior costume buyer Crystel Tottenham ... crowd costume trainee Trethanna Trevarthen ... costume maker Amanda Trewin ... key costumer Jo Van Schuppen ... costume cutter Eve Walker ... costume accountant/coordinator (as Eve Wheeler) Lewis Westing ... cutter Sam Williams ... concept modeller Editorial Department David Abramsky ... epk editor: UK Elliot Barrett ... editorial trainee Juan Ignacio Cabrera ... temp colorist: Bad Robot/Kelvin Optical Aaron Coot ... dailies operator Martin Corbett ... first assistant editor Alden Delos Santos ... dailies assist Jason Esquivel ... dailies producer Thomas Kuo ... digital scanning and recording Ken Lebre ... senior dailies producer Dave Lee ... colorist: dailies Anjelica Lewis ... assistant dailies producer / dailies producer (Co-Chairman) Products Motion pictures, television films Owner Independent (19351985) News Corporation (19852013) 21st Century Fox (2013present) Parent Fox Entertainment Group Divisions 20th Television 20th Century Fox Animation Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Digital Studio Fox 2000 Pictures Fox Animation Studios Fox Atomic Fox Digital Entertainment Subsidiaries Blue Sky Studios Fox Star Studios (India) 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment Fox Television Studios 20th Century Fox Television 20th Century Fox Japan Fox Studios Australia TSG Entertainment Website www.foxmovies.com Entrance to 20th Century Fox studio lot. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (formerly known as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation with hyphen used from its inception until 1985), also known as 20th Century Fox, 20th Century Fox Pictures, 20CFFC, TCF, Fox 2000 Pictures or simply Fox is an American film studio, distributor and one of the six major American film studios. Located in the Century City area of Los Angeles, just west of Beverly Hills, the studio used to be owned by News Corporation, but is now owned by 21st Century Fox. 20th Century Fox has distributed famous film series, including the first two Star Wars trilogies, Ice Age, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Maze Runner, X-Men, Die Hard, Home Alone, Planet of the Apes, Independence Day, Night at the Museum, Power Rangers, Percy Jackson, Taken, Fantastic Four, The Omen, Alien, Predator, Rio, and Alvin and the Chipmunks. The studio is also credited for distributing Avatar and Titanic, the highest and second highest grossing films respectively at the box-office not adjusted for inflation. Television series produced by Fox include The Simpsons, Family Guy, M*A*S*H, The X-Files, Bob's Burgers, Bones, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Futurama, American Dad!, How I Met Your Mother, Archer, Glee, Modern Family, Empire, Malcolm in the Middle, New Girl, King of the Hill, and 24. Among the most famous actresses to come out of this studio were Shirley Temple, who was 20th Century Fox's first film star, Alice Faye, Betty Grable, Gene Tierney, Marilyn Monroe and Jayne Mansfield. The studio also contracted the first African-American cinema star, Dorothy Dandridge. 20th Century Fox is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).[2] In 2015, 20th Century Fox celebrated their 80th anniversary as a studio. Contents 1 History 1.1 Creation 1.2 Production and financial problems 1.3 Marvin Davis and Rupert Murdoch 2 Television 3 Music 4 Radio 5 Motion Picture Film Processing 6 Logo and fanfare 7 Highest-grossing films 8 Production deals 9 Films 10 See also 11 References 12 Additional sources 13 External links History[edit] Creation[edit] See also: Fox Film and Twentieth Century Pictures This section does not cite any references (sources). Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2014) Carmen Miranda in The Gang's All Here. In 1946, she was the highest-paid actress in the United States.[3] Alice Faye, Don Ameche, and Carmen Miranda in That Night in Rio, produced by Fox in 1941. From the 1952 film Viva Zapata! Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, and began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under president Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras, then manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen (and later became president of the new company). Aside from the theater chain and a first-rate studio lot, Zanuck and Schenck felt there was not much else to Fox, which had been reeling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The studio's biggest star, Will Rogers, died in a plane crash weeks after the merger. Its leading female star, Janet Gaynor, was fading in popularity and promising leading men James Dunn and Spencer Tracy had been dropped because of heavy drinking. At first, it was expected that the new company was originally to be called "Fox-20th Century", even though 20th Century was the senior partner in the merger. However, 20th Century brought more to the bargaining table besides Schenck and Zanuck; it was more profitable than Fox and had considerably more talent. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935; the hyphen was dropped in 1985. Schenck became Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, while Kent remained as President. Zanuck became Vice President in Charge of Production, replacing Fox's longtime production chief Winfield Sheehan. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding, even though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915.[4] The company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox. After the merger was completed, Zanuck quickly signed young actors who would carry Twentieth Century-Fox for years:[citation needed] Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, and Betty 1.12 Football (Association; Soccer) 1.13 Football (Australian Rules) 1.14 Golf 1.15 Gymnastics 1.16 Ice hockey 1.17 Judo 1.18 Kickboxing 1.19 Mixed martial arts 1.20 Motorsport 1.21 Rowing 1.22 Rugby league 1.23 Rugby union 1.24 Sailing 1.25 Shooting 1.26 Skiing 1.27 Speed skating 1.28 Swimming 1.29 Table tennis 1.30 Tennis 1.31 Track and field 1.32 Triathlon 1.33 Volleyball 1.34 Water polo 1.35 Weightlifting 1.36 Wrestling 1.37 Professional wrestling 2 Commissioners, managers/coaches and owners 3 Officials and referees 4 Jewish sports halls of fame 5 See also 6 References 6.1 Notes 6.2 Bibliography 6.2.1 General works 6.2.2 Baseball 6.2.3 Boxing 6.2.4 Chess 6.2.5 Olympics Athletes[edit] Baseball[edit] Ryan Braun, outfielder (Milwaukee Brewers) Ike Davis, first baseman (Oakland Athletics) Ian Kinsler, second baseman (Detroit Tigers) Ryan Lavarnway, catcher (Atlanta Braves) Jason Marquis, pitcher (Cincinnati Reds) Joc Pederson, outfielder (Los Angeles Dodgers) Kevin Youkilis, first and third baseman Cal Abrams, US, outfielder[2] Rubn Amaro, Jr., US, outfielder, general manager (Philadelphia Phillies)[2] Morrie Arnovich, US, outfielder, All-Star[2] Brad Ausmus, US, catcher, All-Star, 3x Gold Glove, manager of the Detroit Tigers[2] Jos Bautista, Dominican-born, pitcher[2] Robert "Bo" Belinsky, U.S., pitcher. Pitched no-hit game as rookie with Los Angeles Angels in 1962.[3] Moe Berg, US, catcher & shortstop, and spy for US in World War II[2] Ron Blomberg, US, DH/first baseman/outfielder, Major League Baseball's first designated hitter[4] Lou Boudreau, US, shortstop, 8x All-Star, batting title, MVP, Baseball Hall of Fame, manager[2] Ralph Branca, US, pitcher, 3x All-Star[5] Ryan Braun, US, outfielder, 2007 Rookie of the Year, home run champion, 5x All-Star, 5x Silver Slugger, 2011 National League MVP (Milwaukee Brewers)[6] Craig Breslow, US, relief pitcher (Boston Red Sox)[2] Mark Clear, US, relief pitcher, 2x All-Star[7] Andy Cohen, US, second baseman, coach Harry Danning, US, catcher, 4x All-Star[2][8] Ike Davis, US, first baseman (Oakland Athletics)[9] Moe Drabowsky, US, pitcher[10] Harry Eisenstat, US, pitcher[11] Mike Epstein, US, first baseman[2] Harry Feldman, US, pitcher[2] Scott Feldman, US, pitcher (Houston Astros)[2] Gavin Fingleson, South African-born Australian, Olympic silver medalist[12] Nate Freiman, US, first baseman (Oakland Athletics)[13][14] Sam Fuld, US, outfielder (Oakland Athletics)[15] Sid Gordon, US, outfielder & third baseman, 2x All-Star[2] John Grabow, US, relief pitcher[2] Shawn Green, US, right fielder, 2x All-Star, Gold Glove, Silver Slugger[2] Hank Greenberg, US, first baseman & outfielder, 5x All-Star, 4x home run champion, 4x RBI leader, 2x MVP, Baseball Hall of Fame[2] Ken Holtzman, US, starting pitcher, 2x All-Star[2] Joe Horlen, US, pitcher, All-Star, ERA leader[2] Gabe Kapler, US, outfielder[2] Ian Kinsler, US, second baseman, 3x All-Star (Detroit Tigers)[16] Sandy Koufax, US, starting pitcher, 6x All-Star, 5x ERA leader, 4x strikeouts leader, 3x Wins leader, 2x W-L% leader, 1 perfect game, MVP, 3x Cy Young Award, Baseball Hall of Fame[2] Barry Latman, US, pitcher[11] Ryan Lavarnway, US, catcher (Atlanta Braves)[17] Al Levine, US, relief pitcher[2] Mike Lieberthal, US, catcher, 2x All-Star, Gold Glove[2] Elliott Maddox, US, outfielder & third baseman[2] Jason Marquis, US, starting pitcher, Silver Slugger, All Star (Cincinnati Reds)[2] Erskine Mayer, US, pitcher[2] Bob Melvin, US, catcher & manager of the Oakland Athletics[18] Jon Moscot, US, pitcher (Cincinnati Reds)[19] Jeff Newman, US, catcher & first baseman, All-Star, manager[2] Joc Pederson, US, outfielder (Los Angeles Dodgers)[20] Barney Pelty, US, pitcher[2] Lipman Pike, US, outfielder, second baseman, & manager, 4x home run champion, RBI leader[2] Kevin Pillar, US, outfielder (Toronto Blue Jays) Aaron Poreda, US, pitcher (Yomiuri Giants)[2] Scott Radinsky, US, relief pitcher[2] Dave Roberts, US, pitcher[2] Saul Rogovin, US, pitcher[2] Al "Flip" Rosen, US, third baseman & first baseman, 4x All-Star, 2x home run champion, 2x RBI leader, MVP[2] Goody Rosen, Canada, outfielder, All-Star[2] Josh Satin, US, second baseman (Cincinnati Reds)[21] Richie Scheinblum, US, outfielder, All-Star[2] Scott Schoeneweis, US, pitcher[2] Michael Schwimer, US, relief pitcher (Toronto Blue Jays)[22] Art Shamsky, US, outfielder & first baseman[2] Larry Sherry, US, relief pitcher[2] Norm Sherry, US, catcher & manager[2] Moe "the Rabbi of Swat" Solomon, US, outfielder[2] George Stone, US, outfielder, 1x batting title[23] Steve Stone, US, starting pitcher, All-Star, Cy Young Award[2] Danny Valencia, US, third baseman (Oakland Athletics)[24] Phil "Mickey" Weintraub, US, first baseman & outfielder Josh Whitesell, US, first baseman (Saraperos de Saltillo)[25] Steve Yeager, US, catcher[2] Kevin Youkilis, US, first baseman, third baseman, & left fielder, 3x All-Star, Gold Glove, Hank Aaron Award[2] Josh Zeid, US, pitcher for the Detroit Tigers Basketball[edit] Omri Casspi Jordan Farmar Gal Mekel Jon Scheyer Sam Balter, US, 5' 10" guard, Olympic champion[8][26] Sue Bird, US & Israel, WNBA 5' 9" point guard, 2x Olympic champion, 4x All-Star (Seattle Storm)[27] David Blatt, US & Israel, Israeli Premier League 6' 3.5" point guard, coached Russia National Basketball Team, Israel's Maccabi Tel Aviv to Euroleague Championship, Euroleague Coach of the Year, 4x Israeli Coach of the Year, Head Coach of Cleveland Cavaliers[28][29] David Blu (formerly "Bluthenthal"), US & Israel, Euroleague 6' 7" forward (Maccabi Tel Aviv)[30] Harry Boykoff, US, NBA 6' 10" center[31] Tal Brody, US & Israel, Euroleague 6' 2" shooting guard[8] Larry Brown, US, ABA 5' 9" point guard, 3x All-Star, 3x assists leader, NCAA National Championship coach (1988), NBA coach, Olympic champion, Hall of Fame[8][26] Omri Casspi, Israel, 6' 9" small forward, drafted in 1st round of 2009 NBA Draft (Sacramento Kings)[32] Shay Doron, Israel & US, WNBA 5' 9" guard (New York Liberty)[33] Lior Eliyahu, Israel, 6' 9" power forward, NBA draft 2006 (Orlando Magic; traded to Houston Rockets), playing in the Euroleague (Hapoel Jerusalem)[34] Jordan Farmar, US, NBA 6' 2" point guard (Los Angeles Clippers)[35] Marty Friedman, US, 5' 7" guard & coach, Hall of Fame[8] Ernie Grunfeld, Romania-born US, NBA 6' 6" guard/forward & GM, Olympic champion[36] Yotam Halperin, Israel, 6' 5" guard, drafted in 2006 NBA draft by Seattle SuperSonics (Hapoel Jerusalem)[34] Sonny Hertzberg, US, NBA 5' 9" point guard, original NY Knickerbocker[37] Art Heyman, US, NBA 6' 5" forward/guard[37] Nat Holman, US, ABL 5' 11" guard & coach, Hall of Fame[8] Red Holzman, US, BAA & NBA 5' 10" guard, 2x All-Star, & NBA coach, NBA Coach of the Year, Hall of Fame[8] Eban Hyams, India-Israel-Australia, 6' 5" guard formerly of the Australian National Basketball League, Israeli Super League, first ever Indian national to play in ULEB competitions[38] Barry Kramer, first team All-American at NYU in 1963 Joel Kramer, US Phoenix Suns 6'7" forward Sylven Landesberg, US, 6' 6" former UVA shooting guard (Maccabi Tel Aviv)[39] Rudy LaRusso, US, NBA 6' 7" forward/center, 5x All-Star[40] Nancy Lieberman, US, WNBA player, general manager, & coach, Olympic silver, Hall of Fame[26][41] Gal Mekel, Israel, NBA 6' 3" point guard (Dallas Mavericks)[42] Bernard Opper, US, NBL and ABL 5' 10" guard, All-American at University of Kentucky Donna Orender (ne Geils), US, Women's Pro Basketball League 5' 7" point guard, All-Star, current WNBA president[37] Lennie Rosenbluth, US, NBA 6' 4" forward[36] Danny Schayes, US, NBA 6' 11" center/forward (son of Dolph Schayes)[37] Dolph Schayes, US, NBA 6' 7" forward/center, 3x FT% leader, 1x rebound leader, 12x All-Star, Hall of Fame, & coach (father of Danny Schayes)[8] Ossie Schectman, US, NBA 6' 0" guard, scorer of first NBA basket[36] Doron Sheffer, US (college), Maccabi Tel Aviv,Hapoel Jerusalem Jon Scheyer, US, All-American Duke University 6' 5" shooting guard & point guard (Maccabi Tel Aviv)[43] Barney Sedran, US, Hudson River League & New York State League 5' 4" guard, Hall of Fame[8] Sidney Tannenbaum, US, BAA 6' 0" guard, 2x All-American, left as NYU all-time scorer[8] Alex Tyus, US & Israel, 6' 8" power forward/center (Maccabi Tel Aviv) Neal Walk, US, NBA 6' 10" center[37] Max Zaslofsky, US, NBA 6' 2" guard/forward, 1x FT% leader, 1x points leader, All-Star, ABA coach[8] Bowling[edit] Barry Asher, 10 PBA titles, PBA Hall of Fame[7] Marshall Holman, 22 PBA titles (11th all-time); PBA Hall of Fame[44] Mark Roth, 34 PBA titles (5th all-time); PBA Hall of Fame[45] Boxing[edit] Yuri Foreman Zab Judah Dmitry Salita Barney Aaron (Young), English-born US lightweight, Hall of Fame[46] Abe Attell ("The Little Hebrew"), US, world champion featherweight, Hall of Fame[8] Monte Attell ("The Knob Hill Terror"), US, bantamweight[47] Max Baer ("Madcap Maxie"), US, world champion heavyweight. Wore a Star of David on his trunks; inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. Hall of Fame/[48] Benny Bass ("Little Fish"), US, world champion featherweight & world champion junior lightweight, Hall of Fame[8] Fabrice Benichou, France, world champion super bantamweight[34] Jack Kid Berg (Judah Bergman), England, world champion junior welterweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks, Hall of Fame[8] Maxie Berger, Canada, wore a Star of David on his trunks[49] Samuel Berger, US, Olympic champion heavyweight[8] Jack Bernstein (also "John Dodick", "Kid Murphy", and "Young Murphy"), US, world champion junior lightweight[8] Nathan "Nat" Bor, US, Olympic bronze lightweight[26] Mushy Callahan (Vincente Sheer), US, world champion light welterweight[47] Joe Choynski ("Chrysanthemum Joe"), US, heavyweight, Hall of Fame[8][50] Robert Cohen, French & Algerian, world champion bantamweight[8] Al "Bummy" Davis (Abraham Davidoff), US, welterweight & lightweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks[47] Louis "Red" Deutsch, US, heavyweight, later famous as the proprietor of the Tube Bar in Jersey City, NJ and inspiration for Moe Szyslak on "The Simpsons" Carolina Duer ("The Turk"), Argentine, WBO world champion super flyweight and bantamweight[51] John "Jackie" Fields (Jacob Finkelstein), US, world champion welterweight & Olympic champion featherweight, Hall of Fame[8] Hagar Finer, Israel, WIBF champion bantamweight[52] Yuri Foreman, Belarusian-born Israeli US middleweight and World Boxing Association champion super welterweight[53] Gyrgy Ged, Hungary, Olympic champion light flyweight[41] Abe Goldstein, US, world champion bantamweight[54] Ruby Goldstein ("Ruby the Jewel of the Ghetto"), US, welterweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks[8] Roman Greenberg ("The Lion from Zion"), Israel, International Boxing Organization's Intercontinental champion heavyweight[53] Stphane Haccoun, France, featherweight, super featherweight, and junior lightweight[55][56] Alphonse Halimi ("La Petite Terreur"), France, world champion bantamweight[8] Harry Harris ("The Human Hairpin"), US, world champion bantamweight[8] Gary Jacobs, Scottish, British, Commonwealth, and European (EBU) champion welterweight[57] Ben Jeby (Morris Jebaltowsky), US, world champion middleweight[47] Yoel Judah, US, 3x world champion kickboxer and boxer & trainer[58] Zab Judah ("Super"), US, world champion junior welterweight & world champion welterweight (Converted to Christianity)[58][59][60][61] Louis Kaplan ("Kid Kaplan"), Russian-born US, world champion featherweight, Hall of Fame[8][50] Solly Krieger ("Danny Auerbach"), US, world champion middleweight[8] Julie Kogon US, 1947 New England Lightweight Champion. Inducted into the Connecticut Boxing Hall of Fame. Benny Leonard (Benjamin Leiner; "The Ghetto Wizard"), US, world champion lightweight, Hall of Fame[8] Battling Levinsky (Barney Lebrowitz), US, world champion light heavyweight, Hall of Fame[8] King Levinsky (Harry Krakw), US, heavweight, also known as Kingfish Levinsky[8] Harry Lewis (Harry Besterman), US, world champion welterweight[47] Ted "Kid" Lewis (Gershon Mendeloff), England, world champion welterweight, Hall of Fame[8] Sammy Luftspring, Canada, Canadian champion welterweight, Canada's Sports Hall of Fame[47] Saoul Mamby, US, world champion junior welterweight[47] Al McCoy (Alexander Rudolph), US, world champion middleweight[8] Daniel Mendoza, England, world champion heavyweight, Hall of Fame[8] Jacob Michaelsen, Denmark, Olympic bronze heavyweight[26] Samuel Mosberg, US, Olympic champion lightweight[8] Bob Olin, US, world champion light heavyweight[62] Victor Perez ("Young"), Tunisian, world champion flyweight[8] Harold Reitman ("The Boxing Doctor"), professional heavyweight that fought while working as surgeon, Golden Gloves champion.[63] Charlie Phil Rosenberg ("Charles Green"), US, world champion bantamweight[8] Dana Rosenblatt ("Dangerous"), US, world champion middleweight[64] Maxie Rosenbloom ("Slapsie"), US, world champion light heavyweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks, Hall of Fame[8] Barney Ross (Dov-Ber Rasofsky), US, world champion lightweight & junior welterweight, Hall of Fame[8] Mike Rossman (Michael Albert DiPiano; "The Jewish Bomber"), US, world champion light heavyweight, wore Star of David on trunks[64] Shamil Sabirov, Russia, Olympic champion light flyweight[26] Dmitry Salita ("Star of David"), US, North American Boxing Association champion light welterweight[65] Isadore "Corporal Izzy" Schwartz ("The Ghetto Midget"), US, world champion flyweight[8] Al Singer ("The Bronx Beauty"), US, world champion lightweight[47] "Lefty" Lew Tendler, US, bantamweight, lightweight, and welterweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks, Hall of Fame[8] Sid Terris ("Ghost of the Ghetto"), US, lightweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks[54] Matt Wels, England, champion of Great Britain lightweight and world champion welterweight Canoeing[edit] Jessica Fox Shaun Rubenstein Lszl Fbin, Hungary, sprint canoer, Olympic champion (K-2 10,000 meter), 4x world champion (3x K-2 10,000 meter and 1x K-4 10,000 meter) and one silver (K-4 10,000 meter)[26] Imre Farkas, Hungary, sprint canoer, 2x Olympic bronze (C-2 1,000 and 10,000 meter)[66] Jessica Fox, French-born Australian, slalom canoer, Olympic silver (K-1 slalom), world championships bronze (C-1)[67] Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi, France, slalom canoer, Olympic bronze (K-1 slalom), 5 golds at ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships (2x K-1, 3x K-1 team)[41] Klra Fried-Bnfalvi, Hungary, sprint canoer, Olympic bronze (K-2 500 m), world champion (K-2 500 m)[26] Leonid Geishtor, USSR (Belarus), sprint canoer, Olympic champion (Canadian pairs 1,000-meter)[41] Joe Jacobi, US, slalom canoer, Olympic champion (Canadian slalom pairs)[41] Michael Kolganov, Soviet (Uzbek)-born Israeli, sprint canoer, world champion, Olympic bronze (K-1 500-meter)[41] Anna Pfeffer, Hungary, sprint canoer, Olympic 2x silver (K-2 500 m), bronze (K-1 500 m); world champion (K-2 500 m), silver (K-4 500 m), 2x bronze (K-2 500)[26] Naum Prokupets, Moldovan-born Soviet, sprint canoer, Olympic bronze (C-2 1,000-meter), gold (C-2 10,000-meter) at ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships[41] Leon Rotman, Romanian, sprint canoer, 2x Olympic champion (C-1 10,000 meter, C-1 1,000-meter) and bronze (C-1 1,000-meter), 14 national titles[41] Shaun Rubenstein, South Africa, canoer, World Marathon champion 2006[68] Cricket[edit] Michael Klinger Ben Ashkenazi, Australia (Victorian Bushrangers) Ali Bacher, South Africa, batsman and administrator (relative of Adam Bacher)[69] Mike Barnard, England, cricketer[69] Mark Bott, England, cricketer[70] Stevie Eskinazi, South African born, Australian raised, English wicketkeeper Mark Fuzes. Australian all rounder played for Hong Kong. Father Peter Fuzes kept goal for Australian Soccer team (see)[71] Dennis Gamsy, South Africa, Test wicket-keeper[72] Darren Gerard, England, cricketer[73] Norman Gordon, South Africa, fast bowler[69] Steven Herzberg, English-born Australian, cricketer[74] Sid Kiel, South Africa, opening batsman (Western Province)[75] Michael Klinger, Australia, batsman (Western Warriors)[69] Leonard "Jock" Livingston, Australia, cricketer[69] Bev Lyon, England, cricketer[69] Dar Lyon, England, cricketer (brother of Bev)[69] Greg, Jason, and Lara Molins, two brothers and a cousin from the same Irish family[74] Jon Moss, Australia, allrounder (Victorian Bushrangers)[69] John Raphael, England, batsman[69] Marshall Rosen, NSW Australia, cricketer and selector[76] Lawrence Seeff, South Africa, batsmen[77] Maurice Sievers, Australia, lower order batsman and fast-medium bowler[69] Bensiyon Songavkar, India, cricketer, MVP of 2009 Maccabiah Games cricket tournament[78] Fred Susskind, South Africa, Test batsman[69] Fred Trueman, England, English test fast bowler (a lifelong Christian)[69] Julien Wiener, Australia, Test cricketer[69] Mandy Yachad, South Africa, Test cricketer[69] Equestrian[edit] Margie Goldstein-Engle Robert Dover, US, 4x Olympic bronze, 1x world championship bronze (dressage)[79] Margie Goldstein-Engle, US, world championship silver, Pan American Games gold, silver, and bronze (jumping)[80] Edith Master, US, Olympic bronze (dressage)[26] Fencing[edit] Helene Mayer Soren Thompson Henri Anspach, Belgium (pe & foil), Olympic champion[26] Paul Anspach, Belgium (pe & foil), 2x Olympic champion[26] Norman Armitage (Norman Cohn), US (sabre), 17x US champion, Olympic bronze[26] Albert "Albie" Axelrod, US (foil); Olympic bronze, 4x US champion[8] Pter Bakonyi, Hungary (saber), Olympic 3x bronze[41] Cliff Bayer, US (foil); youngest US champion[37] Albert Bogen (Albert Bgathy), Austria (saber), Olympic silver[41] Tamir Bloom, US (pe); 2x US champion[37] Daniel Bukantz, US (foil); 4x US champion[37] Sergey Sharikov, Russia (saber), 2x Olympic champion, silver, bronze[26] Yves Dreyfus, France (pe), Olympic bronze, French champion[26] Ilona Elek, Hungary (saber), 2x Olympic champion[26] Boaz Ellis, Israel (foil), 5x Israeli champion[34] Siegfried "Fritz" Flesch, Austria (sabre), Olympic bronze[26] Dr. Dezs Fldes, Hungary (saber), 2x Olympic champion[26] Dr. Jen Fuchs, Hungary (saber), 4x Olympic champion[81] Tmas Gbor, Hungary (pe), Olympic champion[8] Jnos Garay, Hungary (saber), Olympic champion, silver, bronze, killed by the Nazis[8] Dr. Oskar Gerde, Hungary (saber), 2x Olympic champion, killed by the Nazis[26] Dr. Sndor Gombos, Hungary (saber), Olympic champion[62] Vadim Gutzeit, Ukraine (saber), Olympic champion[82] Johan Harmenberg, Sweden (pe), Olympic champion[26] Delila Hatuel, Israel (foil), Olympian, ranked # 9 in world[83] Lydia Hatuel-Zuckerman, Israel (foil), 6x Israeli champion[84][85] Dr. Otto Herschmann, Austria (saber), Olympic silver[26] Emily Jacobson, US (saber), NCAA champion[86] Sada Jacobson, US (saber), ranked # 1 in the world, Olympic silver, 2x bronze[86] Allan Jay, British (pe & foil), Olympic 2x silver, world champion[26] Endre Kabos, Hungary (saber), 3x Olympic champion, bronze[26] Roman Kantor, Poland (pe), Nordic champion & Soviet champion, killed by the Nazis[26] Dan Kellner, US (foil), US champion[86] Byron Krieger, US[87] Grigory Kriss, Soviet (pe), Olympic champion, 2x silver[26] Allan Kwartler, US (saber), 3x Pan American Games champion[10] Alexandre Lippmann, France (pe), 2x Olympic champion, 2x silver, bronze[8] Helene Mayer, Germany & US (foil), Olympic champion[26] Ljubco Georgievski ????? ??????????? Kiro Gligorov ???? ???????? Nikola Gruevski ?????? ???????? Gjorge Ivanov ????? ?????? Gordana Jankuloska ??????? ?????????? Zoran Jolevski ????? ???????? Srgjan Kerim ????? ????? Lazar Kolievski ????? ?????????? Hari Kostov ???? ?????? Trifun Kostovski ?????? ????????? Ilinka Mitreva ?????? ??????? Lazar Mojsov ????? ?????? Tito Petkovski ???? ????????? Lui Temelkovski ??? ??????????? Boris Trajkovski ????? ?????????? Vasil Tupurkovski ????? ??????????? Zoran Zaev ????? ???? Partisans World War II freedom fighters edit Mirce Acev ????? ???? Mihajlo Apostolski ????j?? ?????????? Cede Filipovski Dame ???? ?????????? ???? Blagoj Jankov Muceto ?????? ?????? ?????? Orce Nikolov ???? ??????? Strao Pindur ?????? ?????? Hristijan Todorovski Karpo ????????? ?????????? ?????? Revolutionaries edit Yordan Piperkata ?????? ???????? ????????? Goce Delcev ???? ????? Petar Pop Arsov ????? ??? ????? Dame Gruev ???? ????? Jane Sandanski ???? ????????? Dimitar Pop Georgiev Berovski ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? Ilyo Voyvoda ???? ??? ?????????? Pere Toev ???? ????? Pitu Guli ???? ???? Dimo Hadi Dimov ???? ???? ????? Hristo Uzunov ?????? ?????? Literature edit Gjorgji Abadiev ????? ??????? Petre M Andreevski ????? ? ?????????? Maja Apostoloska ???? ??????????? Dimitrija Cupovski ????????? ???????? Jordan Hadi Konstantinov Dinot ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? Vasil Iljoski ????? ?????? Slavko Janevski ?????? ???????? Blae Koneski ????? ??????? Risto Krle ????? ???? Vlado Maleski ????? ??????? Mateja Matevski ?????? ???????? Krste Misirkov ????? ????????? Kole Nedelkovski ???? ??????????? Olivera Nikolova Anton Panov ????? ????? Gjorche Petrov ????? ?????? Vidoe Podgorec ????? ???????? Aleksandar Prokopiev ?????????? ????????? Koco Racin ???? ????? Jovica Tasevski Eternijan ?????? ???????? ????????? Gane Todorovski ???? ?????????? Stevan Ognenovski ?????? ?????????? Music edit Classical music edit Composers edit Atanas Badev ?????? ????? Dimitrije Buarovski ????????? ?????????? Kiril Makedonski ????? ?????????? Toma Proev ???? ?????? Todor Skalovski ????? ????????? Stojan Stojkov ?????? ??????? Aleksandar Dambazov ?????????? ???????? Conductors edit Borjan Canev ?????? ????? Instrumentalists edit Pianists Simon Trpceski ????? ???????? Opera singers edit Blagoj Nacoski ?????? ??????? Boris Trajanov ????? ???????? Popular and folk music edit Composers edit Darko Dimitrov ????? ???????? Slave Dimitrov ????? ???????? Jovan Jovanov ????? ??????? Ilija Pejovski ????? ???????? Musicians edit Bodan Arsovski ????? ???????? Goran Trajkoski ????? ????????? Ratko Dautovski ????? ????????? Kiril Dajkovski ????? ????????? Tale Ognenovski ???? ?????????? Vlatko Stefanovski ?????? ??????????? Stevo Teodosievski ????? ???????????? Aleksandra Popovska ?????????? ???????? Singers and Bands edit Lambe Alabakoski ????? ?????????? Anastasia ????????? Arhangel ???????? Kristina Arnaudova ???????? ????????? Kaliopi Bukle ??????? Dani Dimitrovska ???? ??????????? Riste Tevdoski ????? ???????? Karolina Goceva ???????? ?????? Vaska Ilieva ????? ?????? Andrijana Janevska ????????? ???????? Vlado Janevski ????? ???????? Jovan Jovanov ????? ??????? Leb i sol ??? ? ??? Aleksandar Makedonski ?????????? ?????????? Elvir Mekic ????? ????? Mizar ????? Jasmina Mukaetova ??????? ????e???? The Malagasy French Malgache are the ethnic group that forms nearly the entire population of Madagascar They are divided into two subgroups the "Highlander" Merina Sihanaka and Betsileo of the central plateau around Antananarivo Alaotra Ambatondrazaka and Fianarantsoa and the "coastal dwellers" elsewhere in the country This division has its roots in historical patterns of settlement The original Austronesian settlers from Borneo arrived between the third and tenth centuries and established a network of principalities in the Central Highlands region conducive to growing the rice they had carried with them on their outrigger canoes Sometime later a large number of settlers arrived from East Africa and established kingdoms along the relatively unpopulated coastlines The difference in ethnic origins remains somewhat evident between the highland and coastal regions In addition to the ethnic distinction between highland and coastal Malagasy one may speak of a political distinction as well Merina monarchs in the late th and early th century united the Merina principalities and brought the neighboring Betsileo people under their administration first They later extended Merina control over the majority of the coastal areas as well The military resistance and eventual defeat of most of the coastal communities assured their subordinate position vis vis the Merina Betsileo alliance During the th and th centuries the French colonial administration capitalized on and further exacerbated these political inequities by appropriating existing Merina governmental infrastructure to run their colony This legacy of political inequity dogged the people of Madagascar after gaining independence in candidates ethnic and regional identities have often served to help or hinder their success in democratic elections Within these two broad ethnic and political groupings the Malagasy were historically subdivided into specifically named ethnic groups who were primarily distinguished from one another on the basis of cultural practices These were namely agricultural hunting or fishing practices construction style of dwellings music hair and clothing styles and local customs or taboos the latter known in the Malagasy language as fady citation needed The number of such ethnic groups in Madagascar has been debated The practices that distinguished many of these groups are less prevalent in the st century than they were in the past But many Malagasy are proud to proclaim their association with one or several of these groups as part of their own cultural identity "Highlander" ethnic groups Merina Sihanaka Betsileo Zafimaniry Coastal ethnic groups Antaifasy or Antefasy Antaimoro or Temoro or Antemoro Antaisaka or Antesaka Antambahoaka Antandroy or Tandroy Antankarana Antanosy or Tanosy Academia edit Afifi al Akiti Khasnor Johan historian Khoo Kay Kim Jomo Kwame Sundaram Danny Quah Harith Ahmad Architects edit Main article List of Malaysian architects Artists edit Main article List of Malaysian artists Business edit Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Al Bukhary born Tan Sri Dato Loh Boon Siew Tan Sri Jeffrey Cheah Tan Sri William Cheng Dato Choong Chin Liang born Tan Sri Dato Tony Fernandes born Lim Goh Tong Tan Sri Tiong Hiew King Tan Sri Teh Hong Piow born Chung Keng Quee Tan Sri Ananda Krishnan born Robert Kuok born Tan Sri Quek Leng Chan born Shoba Purushothaman Shah Hakim Zain Halim Saad Tan Sri Mohd Saleh Sulong Tan Sri Vincent Tan born Lillian Too born Tan Sri Dr Francis Yeoh Tun Daim Zainuddin born Tan Sri Kong Hon Kong Designers edit Bernard Chandran fashion designer Jimmy Choo born shoe designer Poesy Liang born artist writer philanthropist jewellery designer industrial designer interior architect music composer Inventors edit Yi Ren Ng inventor of the Lytro Entertainers edit Yasmin Ahmad film director Stacy Angie Francissca Peter born Jamal Abdillah born Sudirman Arshad Loganathan Arumugam died Datuk David Arumugam Alleycats Awal Ashaari Alvin Anthons born Asmawi bin Ani born Ahmad Azhar born Ning Baizura born Kasma Booty died Marion Caunter host of One In A Million and the TV Quickie Ella born Erra Fazira born Sean Ghazi born Fauziah Latiff born Angelica Lee born Daniel Lee Chee Hun born Fish Leong born Sheila Majid born Amy Mastura born Mohamad Nasir Mohamad born Shathiyah Kristian born Meor Aziddin Yusof born Ah Niu born Dayang Nurfaizah born Shanon Shah born Siti Nurhaliza born Misha Omar born Hani Mohsin Aziz M Osman born Azmyl Yunor born P Ramlee born Aziz Sattar born Fasha Sandha born Ku Nazhatul Shima Ku Kamarazzaman born Nicholas Teo born Pete Teo Penny Tai born Hannah Tan born Jaclyn Victor born Chef Wan Adira Suhaimi Michael Wong born Victor Wong born Dato Michelle Yeoh Hollywood actress born James Wan director of Hollywood films like several Saw films Insidious The Conjuring Fast and Furious born Ziana Zain born Zee Avi Shila Amzah Yunalis Zarai Zamil Idris born Military edit Leftenan Adnan Warrior from mainland Malaya Antanum Warrior from Sabah Borneo Rentap Warrior from Sarawak Syarif Masahor Warrior from Sarawak Monsopiad Warrior from Sabah Borneo Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong Warrior from Telemong Terengganu Mat Salleh Warrior from Sabah Borneo Rosli Dhobi Warrior from Sarawak Politicians edit Parameswara founder of Sultanate of Malacca Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj st Prime Minister of independent Malaya Tun Abdul Razak nd Prime Minister V T Sambanthan Founding Fathers of Malaysia along with Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tan Cheng Lock Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock Founder of MCA Tun Hussein Onn rd Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad th Prime Minister Father of Modernisation Abdullah Ahmad Badawi th Prime Minister since Najib Tun Razak Current Prime Minister since Dato Seri Ong Ka Ting Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim Dato Wan Hisham Wan Salleh Nik Aziz Nik Mat Raja Nong Chik Zainal Abidin Federal Territory and Urban Wellbeing Minister Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Karpal Singh Lim Kit Siang Lim Guan Eng Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah Religious edit Antony Selvanayagam Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Penang Anthony Soter Fernandez Archbishop Emeritus of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur and Bishop Emeritus of the Diocese of Penang Gregory Yong Second Roman Catholic Archbishop of Singapore Tan Sri Datuk Murphy Nicholas Xavier Pakiam Metropolitan archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of Malaysia Singapore and Brunei and publisher of the Catholic weekly newspaper The Herald Datuk Ng Moon Hing the fourth and current Anglican Bishop of West Malaysia Sportspeople edit Squash edit Datuk Nicol Ann David Ong Beng Hee Azlan Iskandar Low Wee Wern Badminton edit Chan Chong Ming men s doubles Dato Lee Chong Wei Chew Choon Eng men s doubles Wong Choong Hann Chin Eei Hui women s doubles Hafiz Hashim Roslin Hashim Wong Pei Tty women s doubles Choong Tan Fook men s doubles Lee Wan Wah men s doubles Koo Kien Keat men s doubles Tan Boon Heong men s doubles Retired edit Tan Aik Huang Eddy Choong Punch Gunalan Yap Kim Hock Foo Kok Keong Jalani Sidek Misbun Sidek Rashid Sidek Razif Sidek Cheah Soon Kit Lee Wan Wah Football soccer edit Brendan Gan Sydney FC Shaun Maloney Wigan Athletic Akmal Rizal Perak FA Kedah FA RC Strasbourg FCSR Haguenau Norshahrul Idlan Talaha Kelantan FA Khairul Fahmi Che Mat Kelantan FA Mohd Safiq Rahim Selangor FA Mohd Fadzli Saari Selangor FA PBDKT T Team FC SV Wehen Rudie Ramli Selangor FA PKNS F C SV Wehen Mohd Safee Mohd Sali Selangor FA Pelita Jaya Baddrol Bakhtiar Kedah FA Mohd Khyril Muhymeen Zambri Kedah FA Mohd Azmi Muslim Kedah FA Mohd Fadhli Mohd Shas Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlat Moravce Mohd Irfan Fazail Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlat Moravce Wan Zack Haikal Wan Noor Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlat Moravce F C Ryukyu Nazirul Naim Che Hashim Harimau Muda A F C Ryukyu Khairul Izuan Abdullah Sarawak FA Persibo Bojonegoro PDRM FA Stanley Bernard Stephen Samuel Sabah FA Sporting Clube de Goa Nazmi Faiz Harimau Muda A SC Beira Mar Ahmad Fakri Saarani Perlis FA Atltico S C Chun Keng Hong Penang FA Chanthaburi F C Retired edit Serbegeth Singh owner founder of MyTeam Blackburn Rovers F C Global dvisor Mokhtar Dahari former Selangor FA and Malaysian player Lim Teong Kim former Hertha BSC player