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In May 2014, the UK government published an analysis identifying a "Union dividend" of Ł1,400 per year for each person in Scotland, mainly due to the higher level of public spending under the Barnett formula.[196] The Scottish government disputed this analysis, saying that each Scot would be Ł1,000 better off per year under independence by 2030.[196] Three economic experts said that both estimates were possible, but they both depended on unknown variables such as the division of UK government debt, future North Sea oil revenues, possible spending commitments of an independent Scotland and future productivity gains.[197] In its analysis, the UK government also estimated setup costs of Ł1.5 billion (1% of GDP) for establishing an independent state, or possibly Ł2.7 billion (180 public bodies costing Ł15 million each).[198][199] Patrick Dunleavy of the London School of Economics criticised the UK government's "ludicrous" use of his research in arriving at the latter figure.[199] The Treasury said that their main figure (Ł1.5 billion) was based on estimates by professor Robert Young of Western University.[200][201] Two of the main unionist parties in Scotland called on the SNP to publish their own estimate of the setup costs of an independent state,[199] but the Scottish government said that an estimate was not possible as the final bill would depend on negotiations with the rest of the UK.[202] Professor Dunleavy estimated immediate setup costs of Ł200 million in a report commissioned by the Sunday Post newspaper,[203] with "total transition costs" of between Ł600 million and Ł1,500 million in the first 10 years of independence.[204] The credit rating that an independent Scotland would merit also became a subject of debate.[205][206] The credit-rating agency Fitch stated in 2012 that it could not give an opinion on what rating Scotland would have, because Scottish finances would largely depend on the result of negotiations between the UK and Scotland on the division of assets and liabilities.[206] Standard & Poor's, another credit-rating agency, asserted in February 2014 that Scotland would face "significant, but not unsurpassable" challenges, and that "even excluding North Sea output and calculating per capita GDP only by looking at onshore income, Scotland would qualify for our highest economic assessment".[207] Research published by Moody's in May 2014 said that an independent Scotland would be given an A rating, comparable with Poland, the Czech Republic and Mexico.[208] An A rating would be two grades below its current rating for the UK, which Moody's said would be unaffected by Scottish independence.[208]



Energy[edit] Energy market[edit] Most issues regarding energy are controlled by the UK government,[209] although control over planning laws allows the Scottish government to prevent the construction of new nuclear power stations in Scotland.[209] Supporters of independence want to retain a single energy market for the whole of Great Britain after independence, in order to maintain price stability and support for suppliers.[209] Opponents have said that independence would threaten the single energy market.[209] Euan Phimister, professor of economics at Aberdeen University, has said that although independence would affect the relationship, it is likely that there would be continued English demand for electricity generated in Scotland because OFGEM projections suggest that there is little spare capacity.[210][211] The second largest supplier of energy in the UK, SSE plc, believes that a single market would be the most likely outcome under independence, although it would require negotiations and may involve changes to the existing system.[212] Labour MP Caroline Flint has said that independence would mean higher energy bills in Scotland, as its customers would have to pay more to support renewable energy in Scotland, which represents one third of the UK total.[210] Euan Phimister has said that bills are likely to increase across the whole of Great Britain because renewable schemes and new nuclear power stations in England are both receiving higher subsidies than the power plants which will shortly close due to environmental regulations.[210] He also said that there is a distinction between existing and proposed renewable schemes in that the existing schemes have already been paid for, whereas any new construction requires the promise of subsidy from the consumer.[210] Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed Davey stated Scottish generators would no longer be eligible for UK subsidies, which would increase energy bills for consumers.[213] North Sea oil[edit] Approximately 90% of the United Kingdom's North Sea oil fields are located in Scottish territorial waters. The tax revenue generated from an offshore site is not counted within the nation or region nearest to it, but is instead allocated to the UK Continental Shelf. The revenue from North Sea oil has been used to support current expenditure, rather than creating a sovereign oil fund.[214][215] The SNP believes that a portion of the revenues should be invested in a sovereign oil fund. The Scottish government, citing industry regulator Oil and Gas UK, estimated in Scotland's Future that there were 24 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe) remaining to be extracted.[216] Sir Ian Wood, founder of oil services company Wood Group, said in August 2014 that he believed there were between 15 and 16.5 billion boe and that the impact from declining production would be felt by 2030.[216] In September 2014, an investigation by industry recruitment website Oil and Gas People stated that there were extensive oil reserves to the west of the Western Isles and Shetland.[217] The report anticipated that the region would be developed within the next 10 years because of improvements in drilling technology, rig design and surveying.[217] European Union[edit] Current map of the European Union, member states shown in dark blue See also: Future enlargement of the European Union § Possible future scenarios The SNP advocated that an independent Scotland should become a full member state of the European Union (EU) with some exemptions, such as not having to adopt the euro. There was debate over whether Scotland would be required to re-apply for membership, and if it could retain the UK's opt-outs.[218][219] The European Commission (EC) offered to provide an opinion to an existing member state on the matter, but the British government confirmed it would not seek this advice, as it did not want to negotiate the terms of independence ahead of the referendum.[220] There is no precedent for an EU member state dividing into two sovereign countries after joining the EU.[221] Supporters of independence stated that an independent Scotland would become an EU member by treaty amendment under Article 48 of the EU treaties.[222] Opponents say that this would not be possible and that an independent Scotland would need to apply for EU membership under Article 49, which would require ratification by each member state.[222] Christina McKelvie, Convener of the European and External Relations Committee of the Scottish Parliament, in March 2014 asked Viviane Reding, Vice-President of the European Commission, whether Article 48 would apply.[223] Reding replied that EU treaties would no longer apply to a territory when it secedes from a member state.[224] She also indicated that Article 49 would be the route to apply to become a member of the EU.[224] José Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, stated earlier that an independent Scotland would have to apply for membership, while the rest of the UK would continue to be a member.[225] In 2014, he reiterated that Scotland joining the EU would be "extremely difficult, if not impossible".[226] The former prime minister Sir John Major suggested in November 2013 that Scotland would need to re-apply for EU membership, but that this would mean overcoming opposition to separatists among many existing member states, particularly Spain.[227] It may block Scottish membership of the EU, amid fears of repercussions with separatist movements in Catalonia and the Basque Country:[228] in November 2013 the Spanish Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, said: "I know for sure that a region that would separate from a member state of the European Union would remain outside the European Union and that should be known by the Scots and the rest of the European citizens."[229] He also stated that an independent Scotland would become a "third country" outside the EU and would require the consent of all 28 EU states to rejoin the EU, but that he would not seek to block an independent Scotland's entry.[229] Salmond cited a letter from Mario Tenreiro of the EC's secretariat general that said it would be legally possible to renegotiate the situation of the UK and Scotland within the EU by unanimous agreement of all member states.[230] Spain's position was reiterated two days before the referendum by the Spanish European affairs minister, who said "It is crystal clear that any partner member-state that leaves the member state is out of the European Union. If they want to apply again, they would have to follow the procedure of article 49 of the treaties."[231] Professor Sir David Edward, a former European Court judge, stated that the EU institutions and member states would be "obliged" to start negotiations before independence took effect to decide the future relationship.[232] He said this would be achieved by agreed amendment of the existing Treaties (Article 48), rather than a new Accession Treaty (Article 49).[219][232] Graham Avery, the EC's honorary director general, agreed with Edward.[233] Avery wrote a report, published by the European Policy Centre, which said that EU leaders would probably allow Scotland to be part of the EU because of the legal and practical difficulties that would arise from excluding it.[234] In a research paper, Professor Sionaidh Douglas-Scott of Oxford University stated that the EU law normally takes a "pragmatic and purposive approach" to issues that are not already provided for by existing treaties.[235] Research published by the Economic and Social Research Council in August 2014 concluded that it was unlikely that an independent Scotland would be cut off from the rights and obligations of EU membership for any period of time, even if Scotland was not formally a member state of the EU from its date of independence.[236] In January 2013, the Republic of Ireland's Minister of European Affairs, Lucinda Creighton, stated that "if Scotland were to become independent, Scotland would have to apply for membership and that can be a lengthy process";[237] she later clarified, writing that she "certainly did not at any stage suggest that Scotland could, should or would be thrown out of the EU".[238] In May 2013, Roland Vaubel, an Alternative for Germany adviser,[239] published a paper stating that Scotland would remain a member of the EU upon independence, and suggested there would need to be negotiations between the British and Scottish governments on sharing "the rights and obligations of the predecessor state". Vaubel also said that Barroso's comments on the legal position had "no basis in the European treaties".[240] Future status of the United Kingdom in the European Union[edit] In January 2013, the British Prime Minister, David Cameron, committed the Conservative Party to a referendum in 2017 on UK membership of the EU if they win the 2015 general election.[241] Legislation for an in/out EU referendum was approved by the House of Commons in November 2013.[242] Studies have shown some divergence in attitudes to the EU in Scotland and the rest of the UK. Although a Scottish government review based on survey data between 1999 and 2005 found that people in Scotland reported "broadly similar Eurosceptic views as people in Britain as a whole",[243] Ipsos MORI noted in February 2013 that voters in Scotland said they would choose to remain in the EU in a referendum, while there was a majority for withdrawal in England.[244] Yes Scotland said that the UK government plans for an EU referendum have caused "economic uncertainty" for Scotland.[245] During a CBI Scotland event attended by Cameron, businessman Mike Rake criticised him for creating uncertainty about EU membership.[246] In response to such criticism, Cameron pointed to examples of inward investment in the UK that he said was not happening in the rest of Europe.[246] Some commentators have suggested that the UK leaving the EU would undermine the case for Scottish independence, since free trade, freedom of movement and the absence of border controls with the UK could no longer be assumed.[247][248][249] Health care[edit] Responsibility for health care has been devolved to the Scottish Parliament since it was established in 1999.[250] The Scottish government has enacted health policies which are different from those in England, such as abolishing charges for prescriptions and elderly personal care.[250] NHS Scotland has been operationally independent of the NHS in the rest of the United Kingdom since the formation of the NHS in 1948.[251][252] Supporters of independence argue that independence is needed because possible reductions in the NHS budget in England would result in reduced funding for Scotland, which would make it difficult to maintain the existing service.[252] Harry Burns, a former chief medical officer for Scotland, said in July 2014 that he thought independence could be beneficial for public health because it may give people greater control of their lives.[253] In May 2014, about 100 medical workers, including surgeons, consultant doctors, GPs, pharmacists, dentists, hospital porters and janitors joined a pro-independence campaign group called NHS for Yes. Its co-founder described health care in Scotland as "a shining example of self-government for Scotland demonstrably being far better than Westminster government" and said independence would "protect [NHS Scotland] from future Westminster funding cuts, and the damaging impact of privatisation south of the border".[254] Two days before the referendum, papers indicating "a funding gap of Ł400–Ł450m in the next two financial years, 2015–17", for Scotland's NHS, resulting from Scottish government policies, were leaked to the media.[255] A Scottish government spokesperson commented that the papers were from "part of the regular discussions among NHS leaders to plan for NHS Scotland's future".[255] Specialist treatment[edit] Opponents of independence say that being part of the UK is crucial in allowing Scots to obtain specialist treatment elsewhere in the UK.[252] At present, NHS Scotland has reciprocal arrangements in place with the NHS services in the rest of the UK and specialist services are shared.[251] Vote No Borders, a unionist campaign group, ran a cinema advert claiming that Scots would find it more difficult to obtain treatment at the Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), a London facility which specialises in care for children.[256][257] Vote No Borders withdrew the advert after GOSH complained that it had not been consulted about the advert and stated that they have reciprocal health care agreements with numerous countries.[256][257] International relations[edit] The white paper on independence proposes that an independent Scotland would open around 100 embassies around the world.[114] David Cameron has suggested an independent Scotland would be "marginalised" at the United Nations, where the UK is a permanent member of the Security Council.[258] John Major has suggested that, after Scottish independence, the remaining UK could lose its permanent seat at the UN Security Council.[259] Monarchy[edit] See also: Union of the Crowns Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom A republic is favoured by some pro-independence political parties and organisations, including the Scottish Green Party[260] and the Scottish Socialist Party.[261] The SNP is in favour of an independent Scotland retaining the Queen as head of state. Christine Grahame has said she believes that party policy is to hold a referendum on the matter,[262] due to a 1997 SNP conference resolution.[263] Some media sources speculated that instead of retaining Queen Elizabeth II as monarch, an independent Scotland may choose the Jacobite heir (Franz, Duke of Bavaria).[264][265][266][267] Some media reports suggested that the announcement on 8 September of the pregnancy of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge with her second child would help pro-union sentiment.[268][269][270][271] The Queen's official position on Scottish independence was neutral.[272] Just prior to the referendum, Elizabeth II said in a private conversation that she hoped people would "think very carefully about the future", a statement quickly published widely in the media.[273] Pensions[edit] UK State Pensions are managed by the UK government, paying Ł113.10 per week to a single person who is of state pension age in 2013/14.[274] The state pension age for men is 65, but this is due to rise to 66 in 2020 and 67 by 2028.[274] Research by the National Institute of Economic and Social Research found that an independent Scotland could delay these increases, due to a lower life expectancy.[275] The Scotland's Future white paper pledged to maintain a state pension at a similar rate to the UK.[276] Former prime minister Gordon Brown said in April 2014 that Scotland had an above-average share of the public-sector pension bill and concluded that pensions would be protected by sharing risks and resources within the UK.[277] UK government pensions minister Steve Webb said in May 2014 that Scots would be entitled to the current levels of state pension after independence because they had accumulated rights within the existing system.[278] Webb went on to say that there would need to be negotiations between the UK and Scotland as to how these pensions would be paid.[278] In relation to private pension schemes, a report by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland expressed concern that there were no plans to deal with EU regulations that may affect the funding of cross-border defined benefit schemes.[279] The EC decided in March 2014 not to relax these regulations, which require cross-border schemes to be fully funded.[280] Sport[edit] Scotland hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, less than two months before the referendum.[281][282] The Scottish team won a record number of gold medals, which Alan Bisset said would help give voters more belief and confidence.[281] Sunday Herald columnist Ian Bell took an opposing view, saying that sporting success would be unlikely to aid support for independence, due to the lengthy and passionate debate on the subject.[281] Former Labour first minister Henry McLeish published a report in May 2014 that found no obvious barriers to an independent Scotland competing in the 2016 Summer Olympics.[283] McLeish said that some athletes, particularly those in team sports, may choose to compete for the existing Great Britain team rather than Scotland, as they would be nationals of both states.[283] International Olympic Committee representative Craig Reedie pointed out that Scotland would need to obtain United Nations membership and may want to set its own Olympic qualifying standards, which would need to be done in the period between independence (March 2016) and the closing date for entries (July 2016).[283][284] Gordon Brown pointed to the 2012 medal count for Great Britain, saying that it showed the success of a union that included the two nations.[285] Scottish athletes were involved in 13 of the 65 medals won by Great Britain in 2012, but only three of those were won by Scots without assistance from other athletes.[286] Sir Chris Hoy said in May 2013 that it could "take time" for Scottish athletes to "establish themselves in a new training environment", indicating that the good performance of Scottish athletes in the Great Britain team would not automatically translate into that of an independent Scotland team.[287] Hoy also said that he believed the lack of facilities and coaching infrastructure in Scotland would have to be addressed by an independent state.[287] Status of Northern and Western Isles[edit] Main article: Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles The prospect of an independent Scotland has raised questions about the future of the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) and the Western Isles, island groups off the Scottish mainland. Some islanders had called for separate referendums to be held in the islands on 25 September 2014, one week after the Scottish referendum.[288][289][290] In March 2014, the Scottish Parliament published the online petition it had received calling for such referendums, which was supported by Shetland MSP Tavish Scott.[291] The referendums would ask islanders to choose from three options: that the island group should become an independent country; that it should remain in Scotland; or that (in the event of Scottish independence) it should remain in the UK.[292] The third option would implement the conditional promise made in 2012, when an SNP spokesperson said that, in the event of Scottish independence, Orkney and Shetland could remain in the United Kingdom if their "drive for self-determination" was strong enough.[293] Politicians in the three island groups have referred to the Scottish referendum as the most important event in their political history "since the inception of the island councils in 1975". Angus Campbell, leader of the Western Isles, said that the ongoing constitutional debate "offers the opportunity for the three island councils to secure increased powers for our communities to take decisions which will benefit the economies and the lives of those who live in the islands".[294] In a meeting of the island councils in March 2013, leaders of the three territories discussed their future in the event of Scottish independence, including whether the islands could demand and achieve autonomous status within either Scotland or the rest of the UK. Among the scenarios proposed were achieving either Crown Dependency status or self-government modelled after the Faroe Islands, in association with either Scotland or the UK.[295] Steven Heddle, Orkney's council leader, described pursuing Crown Dependency status as the least likely option, as it would threaten funding from the EU, which is essential for local farmers.[295] Alasdair Allan, MSP for the Western Isles, said independence could have a positive impact on the isles, as "crofters and farmers could expect a substantial uplift in agricultural and rural development funding via the Common Agricultural Policy if Scotland were an independent member state of the EU".[296] In July 2013, the Scottish government made the Lerwick Declaration, indicating an interest in devolving power to Scotland's islands. By November, it had made a commitment to devolve further powers to Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles in the event of independence.[297] Steven Heddle called for legislation to that effect to be introduced regardless of the referendum result.[298] A day before the referendum Alistair Carmichael, the MP for Orkney and Shetland, suggested that if Shetland were to vote strongly against independence but the Scottish national vote was narrowly in favour, then a discussion should be had about Shetland becoming a self-governing crown dependency outside of independent Scotland, similar to the Isle of Man. He stated that he did not want such circumstances to arise, "and the best way to avoid this was to vote no in the referendum."[299][300] Universities[edit] Scientific research[edit] In 2012–13, Scottish universities received 13.1% of Research Councils UK funding.[301] Dr Alan Trench of University College London has said that Scottish universities receive a "hugely disproportionate" level of funding and would no longer be able to access it following independence. Willie Rennie, leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats, has suggested that independence would mean Scottish universities losing Ł210m in research funding.[302] The Institute of Physics in Scotland warned that access to international facilities such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider, the European Space Agency, and European Southern Observatory could require renegotiation by the Scottish government.[303] It also expressed concerns about research funding from UK charities and the reaction of international companies with Scottish facilities.[303] The Scottish government's education secretary, Michael Russell, has said that Scotland's universities have a "global reputation" that would continue to attract investment after independence.[304] In September 2013, the principal of the University of Aberdeen said that Scottish universities could continue to access UK research funding through a "single research area" that crossed both nations' boundaries.[305] David Bell, professor of economics at the University of Stirling, said that cross-border collaboration might continue, but Scottish universities could still lose their financial advantage.[306] Roger Cook of the Scotland Institute pointed out that although Scottish universities do receive a higher share of Research Councils funding, they are much less dependent on this as a source of funding than their counterparts in England.[112] Professors from Scotland's five medical schools have written an open letter warning that independence would mean Scotland's researcher base being "denied its present ability to win proportionately more grant funding".[307] Questions have been asked whether Scotland, as an economy of a smaller size than the UK, would still support the same level of research activity, and what additional efforts might be required to establish a system of research councils "north of the border".[308][309] Jo Shaw, Salvesen chair of European institutions at the University of Edinburgh, noted that in smaller states, relationships between universities and research funders become "cosy", and lead to a "corporatist" approach.[310] Student funding[edit] See also: Tuition fees in the United Kingdom Students domiciled in Scotland do not pay tuition fees.[311] Students domiciled in the rest of the UK are charged fees of up to Ł9,000 per annum by Scottish universities,[312] but those from other EU member states are not charged fees, in order to comply with EU law.[313] If Scotland became an independent state, students from the rest of the UK would be in 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links Early life Elizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hair Princess Elizabeth aged 3, April 1929 Elizabeth was born at 02:40 (GMT) on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, Elizabeth, Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair.[2] She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,[3][c] and named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, and Mary after her paternal grandmother.[5] Called "Lilibet" by her close family,[6] based on what she called herself at first,[7] she was cherished by her grandfather George V, and during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery.[8] Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as "Crawfie".[9] Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature and music.[10] Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.[11] The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility.[12] Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."[13] Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".[14] Heir presumptive Elizabeth as a rosy-cheeked young girl with blue eyes and fair hair Princess Elizabeth aged 7, painted by Philip de László, 1933 During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as the Prince of Wales was still young, and many assumed that he would marry and have children of his own.[15] When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father. Later that year Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis.[16] Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, and she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a later son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession.[17] Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College,[18] and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.[19] A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so that she could socialise with girls her own age.[20] Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger.[19] In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. As in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours.[21] Elizabeth "looked tearful" as her parents departed.[22] They corresponded regularly,[22] and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.[21] Second World War In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War, which lasted until 1945. During the war, many of London's children were evacuated to avoid the frequent aerial bombing. The suggestion by senior politician Lord Hailsham[23] that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada was rejected by Elizabeth's mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."[24] Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret stayed at Balmoral Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk.[25] From February to May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they lived for most of the next five years.[26] At Windsor, the princesses staged pantomimes at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments.[27] In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities.[28] She stated: We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well.[28] Elizabeth in Auxiliary Territorial Service uniform, April 1945 Princess Elizabeth (left, in uniform) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace with (left to right) her mother Queen Elizabeth, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, King George VI, and Princess Margaret, 8 May 1945 In 1943, at the age of 16, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year.[29] As she approached her 18th birthday, the law was changed so that she could act as one of five Counsellors of State in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.[30] In February 1945, she joined the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service as an honorary second subaltern with the service number of 230873.[31] She trained as a driver and mechanic and was promoted to honorary junior commander five months later.[32][33] At the end of the war in Europe, on Victory in Europe Day, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret mingled anonymously with the celebratory crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief."[34] During the war, plans were drawn up to quell Welsh nationalism by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of Caernarfon Castle or a patron of Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for various reasons, which included a fear of associating Elizabeth with conscientious objectors in the Urdd, at a time when Britain was at war.[35] Welsh politicians suggested that she be made Princess of Wales on her 18th birthday. The idea was supported by the Home Secretary, Herbert Morrison, but rejected by the King because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent.[36] In 1946, she was inducted into the Welsh Gorsedd of Bards at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.[37] In 1947, Princess Elizabeth went on her first overseas tour, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong.[38] Marriage and family Main article: Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and 1937.[39] They are second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark and third cousins through Queen Victoria. After another meeting at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip and they began to exchange letters.[40] Their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947.[41] The engagement was not without controversy: Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the Royal Navy throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi links.[42] Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin."[43] Elizabeth's mother was reported, in later biographies, to have opposed the union initially, even dubbing Philip "The Hun".[44] In later life, however, she told biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman".[45] Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother's British family.[46] Just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style His Royal Highness.[47] Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey. They received 2500 wedding gifts from around the world.[48] Because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war, Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown, which was designed by Norman Hartnell.[49] In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for the Duke of Edinburgh's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding.[50] The Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, was not invited either.[51] Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Prince Charles, on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued letters patent allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince.[52] A second child, Princess Anne, was born in 1950.[53] Following their wedding, the couple leased Windlesham Moor, near Windsor Castle, until 4 July 1949,[48] when they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently, for several months at a time, in the hamlet of Gwardamanga, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. The children remained in Britain.[54] Reign Accession and coronation Elizabeth in crown and robes next to her husband in military uniform Coronation portrait of Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh, June 1953 Coronation of Elizabeth II Main article: Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II During 1951, George VI's health declined and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case the King died while she was on tour.[55] In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of the King and consequently Elizabeth's immediate accession to the throne. Philip broke the news to the new Queen.[56] Martin Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course".[57] She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.[58] She and the Duke of Edinburgh moved into Buckingham Palace.[59] With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable that the royal house would bear her husband's name, becoming the House of Mountbatten, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Elizabeth's grandmother, Queen Mary, favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, and so on 9 April 1952 Elizabeth issued a declaration that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. The Duke complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[60] In 1960, after the death of Queen Mary in 1953 and the resignation of Churchill in 1955, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.[61] Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret informed her sister that she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorcé‚ 16 years Margaret's senior, with two sons from his previous marriage. The Queen asked them to wait for a year; in the words of Martin Charteris, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out."[62] Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.[63] Eventually, she decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.[64] In 1960, she married Antony Armstrong-Jones, who was created Earl of Snowdon the following year. They were divorced in 1978; she did not remarry.[65] Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the coronation on 2 June 1953 went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died.[66] The ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time.[67][d] Elizabeth's coronation gown was embroidered on her instructions with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries:[71] English Tudor rose; Scots thistle; Welsh leek; Irish shamrock; Australian wattle; Canadian maple leaf; New Zealand silver fern; South African protea; lotus flowers for India and Ceylon; and Pakistan's wheat, cotton, and jute.[72] Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth Further information: Historical development of the Commonwealth realms, from the Queen's accession The Commonwealth realms (pink) and their territories and protectorates (red) at the beginning of Elizabeth II's reign A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume. Elizabeth II and Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Conference, Windsor Castle From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations.[73] By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.[74] Spanning 1953–54, the Queen and her husband embarked on a six-month around-the-world tour. She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those nations.[75] During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.[76] Throughout her reign, the Queen has undertaken state visits to foreign countries and tours of Commonwealth ones and she is the most widely travelled head of state.[77] In 1956, French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor of the European Union.[78] In November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.[79] The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden recommended that she consult Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Winston Churchill, and the Chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in the Queen appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan.[80] The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led in 1957 to the first major personal criticism of the Queen. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,[81] Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch".[82] Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.[83] Aleksejs Širovs born – chess player Andris Škele born – politician Prime Minister of Latvia Armands Škele – basketball player Ksenia Solo born – actress Ernests Štalbergs – – architect ensemble of the Freedom Monument Izaks Nahmans Šteinbergs – – politician lawyer and author Maris Štrombergs – BMX cyclist gold medal winner at and Olympics T edit Esther Takeuchi born – materials scientist and chemical engineer Mihails Tals – – the th World Chess Champion Janis Roberts Tilbergs – – painter sculptor U edit Guntis Ulmanis born – president of Latvia Karlis Ulmanis – – prime minister and president of Latvia


abby-lane abby-rode abigail-clayton ada-tauler addie-juniper addison-cain adele-wiesenthal adeline-lange adeline-pollicina adriana-amante adrianna-laurenti adrianna-russo agnes agnes-ardant agnes-zalontai aimee-addison aisha-sun aja aleena-ferari alessandra-schiavo aletta-ocean alexandra-nice alexandria-cass alexa-parks alex-dane alex-foxe alexia-knight alexis-devell alexis-firestone alexis-greco alexis-payne alexis-x alex-storm alex-white aliana-love alice-springs alicia-alighatti alicia-monet alicia-rio alicyn-sterling alighiera-olena ali-moore aline-santos alissa-ashley allysin-chaynes alysin-embers alyssa-love alyssa-reece amanda-addams amanda-blake amanda-blue amanda-jane-adams amanda-rae amanda-stone amanda-tyler amber-hunt amberlina-lynn amber-lynn amber-michaels amber-peach amber-wild amber-woods ambrosia-fox amia-miley ami-rodgers amy-allison amy-brooke amy-rose amy-starz anastasia-christ anastasia-sands andrea-adams andrea-brittian andrea-lange andrea-true andy angel angela-baron angela-summers angel-barrett angel-cash angel-cruz angel-cummings angel-ducharme angelica-sin angelika-reschner angelina-brasini angelina-korrs angelina-valentine angel-kelly angel-long angel-west angie-knight anita-andic anita-blond anita-cannibal anita-dark anna-belle anna-malle anna-nikova anna-pierce anna-ventura anna-veruska anne-bie-warburg anne-libert anne-magle anne-sand annette-haven annie-sprinkle ann-kiray ann-marie-michelle antonia-dorian april-flowers april-may april-west arcadia-lake ariana-bali ariana-jollee arlana-blue ashley-anne ashley-brooks ashley-coda ashley-fires ashley-lauren ashley-long ashley-marie ashley-nicole ashley-perk ashley-renee ashley-robbins ashley-welles ashley-wells ashley-winger ashlyn-gere astrid-bone athena-star aubrey-nichols aurora aurora-snow autumn-bliss autumn-rayne ava-devine ava-lauren avalon ava-marteens avy-lee-roth bailey-monroe bambi-allen barbara-bourbon barbara-boutet barbara-dare barbara-doll barbara-moose barbarella 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carmel-nougat carmen-blonde carmen-de-la-torre carmen-moore carmen-rose carol-connors carol-cross carol-cummings carole-dubois carole-gire carole-pierac carol-titian carolyn-connoly carolyn-monroe carrie-cruise cassandra-leigh cassidy cassie-courtland cataline-bullock catherine-count catherine-crystal catherine-ringer catherine-tailleferre cathy-delorme cathy-menard cathy-stewart celeste-fox celine-gallone chanel-preston chanel-price chantal-virapin chanta-rose chantelle-stevens charisma charisma-cole charlie-latour charlie-waters charlotte-de-castille charmane-star chasey-lain chayse-manhattan chaz-vincent chelsea-sinclaire chennin-blanc cheri-janvier cheri-taylor cherry-hill chessie-moore cheyenne-hunter cheyenne-silver china-lee china-leigh china-moon chloe-cruize chloe-dior chloe-kez chloe-stevens chris-collins chris-jordan chris-petersen chrissie-beauchamp christa-abel christa-ludwig christie-ford christi-lake christina-berg christina-blond christina-evol christina-skye christine-black christine-chavert christine-neona christine-rigoler christy-canyon cicciolina cindi-stephens cindy-carver cindy-crawford cindy-more cindy-shepard cindy-wong cinthya-marinho clair-dia claire-robbins claude-janna claudia-jackson claudia-jamsson claudia-mehringer claudia-nero claudia-van-statt claudia-zante claudine-beccarie clea-carson cleo-nichole cleo-patra cody-lane cody-love cody-nicole coffee-brown colleen-brennan connie-bennett connie-peterson constance-money copper-penny coreena corey-everson corinne-lemoine corneliah cory-everson cory-wolf courtney courtney-cummz courtney-james cris-cassidy crissy-moran cris-taliana crystal-breeze crystal-dawn crystal-holland crystal-knight crystal-lake crystal-lovin crystal-sync csilla-kalnay cuban-bee cynara-fox cyndee-summers cynthia-black cynthia-brooks cynthia-hammers cynthia-lavigne dagmar-lost daisy-layne dallas-miko dana-dylan dana-lynn danica-rhea daniela-nanou daniela-schiffer daniele-troeger daniella daniella-schiffer danielle danielle-foxxx danielle-rodgers danny-ricci danyel-cheeks daphne daphne-rosen darby-lloyd-rains darla-crane darla-delovely davia-ardell dayton-rain debbie-northrup debbie-revenge debbie-van-gils debi-diamond debi-jointed debra-lynn deidra-hopkins deidre-holland delania-raffino delia-moore delphine-thail delta-force delta-white demi-moor denice-klarskov denise-derringer denise-dior denise-sloan desiree-cousteau desiree-foxx desiree-lane desiree-west deva-station devin-devasquez devinn-lane devon-shire dia diana-holt diana-kisabonyi diana-siefert diana-stevenson diane-dubois diane-richards diane-sloan diane-suresne dido-angel dillan-lauren dina-deville dina-jewel dina-pearl ditty-blue diva divinity-love djiana dolly-darkley dominique dominique-dewitt dominique-saint-claire donna-hart donna-marie dorle-buchner dorothy-lemay dorothy-onan drea drimla dru-berrymore dusty-rose dyanna-lauren ebony-ayes edina-blond edita-ungerova edwige-faillel eileen-wells elaine-southern elena-berkova elena-maria-ricci eleonore-melzer elisabeth-bure elis-black elise elise-di-medici elle-devyne elle-rio elodie-delage elsa-maroussia elza-brown emili-doll emily-evermoore emily-george emily-jewel emmanuelle-pareze envy-mi erica-boyer erica-eaton erica-havens erica-idol erica-lauren erika-bella erika-cool erika-heaven erika-lockett esme-monroe eva-allen eva-angel eva-dionisio eva-gross eva-kleber eva-lux eva-uettori eve-laurence evelyne-lang evie-delatosso fabiana-venturi faith-stevens fallon fanny-garreau fanny-steel faye-runaway flame flick-shagwell flore-soller flower france-lomay france-quenie francoise frankie-leigh gabriella gabriella-mirelba gabriella-vincze gail-force gail-palmer gail-sterling georgette-saunders georgia-peach georgina-spelvin gia-givanna gianna-lynn gili-sky gina-carrera gina-gianetti gina-janssen gina-lee gina-martell gina-valentino ginger-jay ginger-lee ginger-lynn ginny-noack giovanna gisela-schwarz giselle-monet gladys-laroche gloria-leonard gloria-todd golden-jade greta-carlson greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade hazel-young heather-deeley heather-ellis heather-hart heather-lere heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray isabella-dior isabella-soprano isabelle-allay isabelle-brell isabelle-marchall isobel-wren iveta ivette-blanche jackie-right jacqueline-lorians jacy-allen jada-stevens jade-east jade-hsu jade-marcela jade-summers jade-wong jahn-gold jamie-brooks jamie-james jamie-summers jana-irrova jana-mrazkova jane-baker jane-darling jane-iwanoff jane-lindsay jane-lixx janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold jean-afrique jeanette-littledove jeanie-marie-sullivan jean-jennings jeanna-fine jeannie-pepper jenna-jameson jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante jennifer-noxt jennifer-stewart jennifer-welles jennifer-west jenny jenny-feeling jenny-fields jenny-wings jersey-jaxin jesie-st-james jesse-capelli jessica-bangkok jessica-bogart jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde jessi-foster jill-ferari jill-kelly joana-redgrave joan-devlon joanna-storm joanna-sweet jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black jordana-james jordan-green jordan-nevaeh jordan-star josephine-carrington joslyn-james julia-chanel julia-dal-fuoco juliana-grandi julia-paes julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde 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lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz 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pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn sabrina-jade sabrina-johnson sabrina-love-cox sabrina-mastrolorenzi sabrina-rose sabrina-scott sabrina-summers sacha-davril sahara sahara-sands sai-tai-tiger samantha-fox samantha-ryan samantha-sterlyng samantha-strong samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco sandra-kalermen sandra-russo sandy-lee sandy-pinney sandy-reed sandy-samuel sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills sarah-shine sara-sloane sasha sasha-hollander sasha-ligaya sasha-rose satine-phoenix satin-summer savannah-stern savanna-jane scarlet-scarleau scarlet-windsor seka selena serena serena-south severine-amoux shana-evans shanna-mccullough shannon-kelly shannon-rush shantell-day sharon-da-vale sharon-kane sharon-mitchell shaun-michelle shawna-sexton shawnee-cates shay-hendrix shayne-ryder sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin shelly-lyons sheri-st-clair sheyla-cats shonna-lynn shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white 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Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised the Queen to appoint the Earl of Home as prime minister, advice that she followed.[84] The Queen again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister.[84] In 1965, the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement.[85] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Queen Elizabeth II's Address to the United Nations General Assembly In 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session.[86] Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.[86][87] In 1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran.[88] On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins.[89] Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."[89] Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported that extremists within the Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination.[90][91] No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted.[92] The Queen with Prime Minister Edward Heath (left), US President Richard Nixon, and First Lady Pat Nixon, 1970 Elizabeth's pregnancies with Princes Andrew and Edward, in 1959 and 1963, mark the only times she has not performed the State Opening of the British parliament during her reign.[93] In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.[94] Acceleration of decolonisation The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. Over 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, Rhodesian Prime Minister Ian Smith, in opposition to moves toward majority rule, declared unilateral independence from Britain while still expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth. Although the Queen dismissed him in a formal declaration, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.[95] As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.[96] In February 1974, British Prime Minister Edward Heath advised the Queen to call a general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain.[97] The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberals. Heath only resigned when discussions on forming a coalition foundered, after which the Queen asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government.[98] A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.[99] As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to the Queen to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, stating that she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the governor-general.[100] The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism.[99] Silver Jubilee In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed the Queen's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband.[101] In 1978, the Queen endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist dictator, Nicolae Ceau?escu, and his wife, Elena,[102] though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".[103] The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.[104] According to Paul Martin, Sr., by the end of the 1970s the Queen was worried that the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister.[105] Tony Benn said that the Queen found Trudeau "rather disappointing".[105] Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind the Queen's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office.[105] In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found the Queen "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".[105] She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state.[105] Patriation removed the role of the British parliament from the Canadian constitution, but the monarchy was retained. Trudeau said in his memoirs that the Queen favoured his attempt to reform the constitution and that he was impressed by "the grace she displayed in public" and "the wisdom she showed in private".[106] 1980s Elizabeth in red uniform on a black horse Elizabeth riding Burmese at the 1986 Trooping the Colour ceremony During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony and only six weeks before the wedding of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at the Queen from close range as she rode down The Mall on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered that the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.[107] The Queen's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.[108] From April to September 1982, the Queen remained anxious[109] but proud[110] of her son, Prince Andrew, who was serving with British forces during the Falklands War. On 9 July, the Queen awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael Fagan, in the room with her. Remaining calm and through two calls to the Palace police switchboard, she spoke to Fagan while he sat at the foot of her bed until assistance arrived seven minutes later.[111] Though she hosted US President Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visited his Californian ranch in 1983, she was angered when his administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.[112] Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true.[113] As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."[114] Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that the Queen was worried that British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.[115] Thatcher reputedly said the Queen would vote for the Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents.[116] Thatcher's biographer John Campbell claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".[117] Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen,[118] and the Queen gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after Thatcher's replacement as prime minister by John Major.[119] Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid in South Africa.[120][121] In 1987, in Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau.[120] The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. Elizabeth, as monarch of Fiji, supported the attempts of the Governor-General, Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau, to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.[122] By the start of 1991, republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of the Queen's private wealth—which were contradicted by the Palace—and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.[123] The involvement of the younger royals in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout was ridiculed[124] and the Queen was the target of satire.[125] 1990s In 1991, in the wake of victory in the Gulf War, Elizabeth became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress.[126] Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful pose Prince Philip and Elizabeth II, October 1992 In a speech on 24 November 1992, to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis, meaning horrible year.[127] In March, her second son Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and his wife Sarah, Duchess of York, separated; in April, her daughter Anne, Princess Royal, divorced her husband Captain Mark Phillips;[128] during a state visit to Germany in October, angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at her;[129] and, in November, Windsor Castle suffered severe fire damage. The monarchy received increased criticism and public scrutiny.[130] In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".[131] Two days later, the Prime Minister, John Major, announced reforms of the royal finances that had been planned since the previous year, including the Queen paying income tax for the first time from 1993 and a reduction in the civil list.[132] In December, Charles, Prince of Wales, and his wife, Diana, Princess of Wales, formally separated.[133] The year ended with a lawsuit as the Queen sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before its broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated Ł200,000 to charity.[134] In the ensuing years, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.[135] Even though support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republicanism remained a minority viewpoint and the Queen herself had high approval ratings.[136] Criticism was focused on the institution of monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than the Queen's own behaviour and actions.[137] In consultation with her husband, Prime Minister John Major, Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey, and her private secretary, Robert Fellowes, she wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, saying that a divorce was desirable.[138] A year after the divorce, which took place in 1996, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997. The Queen was on holiday with her son and grandchildren at Balmoral. Diana's two sons wanted to attend church and so the Queen and Prince Philip took them that morning.[139] After that single public appearance, for five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,[140] but the royal family's seclusion and a failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace caused public dismay.[121][141] Pressured by the hostile reaction, the Queen agreed to a live broadcast to the world and returned to London to deliver it on 5 September, the day before Diana's funeral.[142] In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for Princes William and Harry.[143] As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.[143] Golden Jubilee In evening wear, Elizabeth and President Bush hold wine glasses of water and smile Elizabeth II and US President George W. Bush share a toast during a state dinner at the White House, 7 May 2007 Street scene of Elizabeth and spectators Elizabeth II (centre, in pink) during a walkabout in Queen's Park, Toronto, 6 July 2010 In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee as Queen. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.[144] She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, which began in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the King's House, the official residence of the governor-general, into darkness.[145] As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events and monuments were named to honour the occasion. A million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London[146] and the enthusiasm shown by the public for the Queen was greater than many journalists had predicted.[147] Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 she had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.[148] In May 2007, The Daily Telegraph newspaper reported claims from unnamed sources that the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of British Prime Minister Tony Blair, that she had shown concern that the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair repeatedly.[149] She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.[150] On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.[151] At the invitation of Irish President Mary McAleese, the Queen made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.[152] The Queen addressed the United Nations for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.[153] The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age".[154] During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for the British victims of the 11 September attacks.[154] The Queen's visit to Australia in October 2011, her 16th since 1954, was called her "farewell tour" in the press because of her age.[155] Diamond Jubilee and beyond Elizabeth's Diamond Jubilee in 2012 marked 60 years as Queen, with celebrations throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. In a message released on Accession Day, she stated: "In this special year, as I dedicate myself anew to your service, I hope we will all be reminded of the power of togetherness and the convening strength of family, friendship and good neighbourliness ... I hope also that this Jubilee year will be a time to give thanks for the great advances that have been made since 1952 and to look forward to the future with clear head and warm heart".[156] She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.[157][158] On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.[159] On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peace-time Cabinet meeting since King George III in 1781.[160] The Queen visiting Birmingham in July 2012 as part of her Diamond Jubilee tour The Queen opened the 2012 Summer Olympics on 27 July and the Paralympics on 29 August 2012 in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two different countries (she also opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal).[161] For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond.[162] On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony.[163] Elizabeth was admitted on 3 March 2013 to the King Edward VII Hospital for assessment as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis. She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day.[164] Because of her advanced age and the need for her to limit travelling, she did not attend the biennial meeting of Commonwealth heads of government which took place in November 2013 in Sri Lanka; it was the first time since 1973 that she did not attend the meeting. She was represented at the summit by her son, Charles, Prince of Wales.[165] The Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch in December 2007 and the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015.[166] She was celebrated in Canada as the "longest-reigning sovereign in Canada's modern era".[167] (King Louis XIV of France reigned over part of Canada for longer.[168]) She is the longest-reigning queen regnant in history,[169] the world's oldest reigning monarch and second-longest-serving current head of state (after King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand). She does not intend to abdicate,[170] though the proportion of the sovereign's duties performed by Prince Charles is expected to continue to increase as Elizabeth, who will celebrate her ninetieth birthday in 2016, reduces her commitments.[171] Public perception and character Main article: Personality and image of Queen Elizabeth II Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings. As a constitutional monarch, she has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum. She does have a deep sense of religious and civic duty and takes her coronation and the Urban Homesteading Assistance Board have joined forces with building tenant associations in a coalition supporting "Protection for tenants, Incentives for landlords to stay in the program, and Enforcement of the law"—or "PIE". The Mitchell-Lama PIE Campaign is working to educate tenants[25] and preserve Mitchell-Lama housing - primarily rental housing. The P.I.E. campaign is also participating in the Real Rent Reform Campaign.[26] Some residents of Mitchell-Lama co-ops who want to preserve that status have formed the group Cooperators United for Mitchell-Lama.[27] Co-op City Mitchell Lama Parkchester, Bronx Parkfairfax, Virginia Park La Brea, Los Angeles, California Park Merced, San Francisco, California Penn South Riverton Houses Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village Joseph Simmons (Run), rapper/pastor Russell Simmons, entrepreneur/producer Heathcliff Slocumb, former pitcher Fredro Starr, actor, rapper and member of hip-hop group Onyx William Grant Still, "dean of American black composers"[32] Sticky Fingaz, actor, rapper and member of hip-hop group Onyx Eva Taylor, 20s vocalist known as the "Dixie Nightingale"[32] Donald Trump, real estate developer Ben Webster, jazz tenor saxophonist[32] Marinus Willett, mayor of New York 1807–08 Clarence Williams, jazz pianist and composer[32] Fess Williams, jazz clarinetist[32] Bernard Wright, pop/funk/jazz composer, keyboardist and singer Tony Yayo, rapper and member of hip-hop group G-Unit Neighborhood (approximate) Handicapped/disabled access Station Tracks Services Opened Transfers and notes Jamaica Handicapped/disabled access Jamaica – 179th Street all E rush hours F all times December 10, 1950 169th Street local F all times April 24, 1937 Parsons Boulevard all E rush hours F all times April 24, 1937 Sutphin Boulevard local F all times April 24, 1937 IND Archer Avenue Line (E all times) merges Briarwood Briarwood local E nights after 9:00 p.m. and weekends F all times April 24, 1937 connecting tracks to Jamaica Yard Kew Gardens Handicapped/disabled access Kew Gardens – Union Turnpike all E all times F all times December 31, 1936 Forest Hills 75th Avenue local E nights after 9:00 p.m. and weekends F all times December 31, 1936 connecting tracks to Jamaica Yard; former connection to IND World's Fair Line Handicapped/disabled access Forest Hills – 71st Avenue all E all times F all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936 Rego Park 67th Avenue local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936 63rd Drive – Rego Park local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936 Elmhurst Woodhaven Boulevard local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936 Grand Avenue – Newtown local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936 Elmhurst Avenue local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936 Jackson Heights Handicapped/disabled access Jackson Heights – Roosevelt Avenue all E all times F all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 IRT Flushing Line (7 all times) at 74th Street – Broadway Woodside 65th Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 express tracks diverge (E all except late nights F all times) Northern Boulevard local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 Astoria 46th Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 Steinway Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 express tracks rejoin (E all except late nights F all times) Long Island City 36th Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 IND 63rd Street Line splits (F all times) Handicapped/disabled access Queens Plaza all E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933 local tracks split to IND Crosstown Line (no regular service) and 60th Street Tunnel Connection (R all except late nights) Court Square – 23rd Street express E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. August 28, 1939 IND Crosstown Line (G all times) IRT Flushing Line (7 all times <7>rush hours until 9:30 p.m., peak direction) 53rd Street Tunnel Midtown Manhattan Handicapped/disabled access Lexington Avenue – 53rd Street express E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. August 19, 1933 IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 late nights 6 all times <6>weekdays until 8:45 p.m., peak direction) at 51st Street Fifth Avenue / 53rd Street express E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. August 19, 1933 connection to IND Sixth Avenue Line (M weekdays until 11:00 p.m.) splits Seventh Avenue express E all times August 19, 1933 IND Sixth Avenue Line (B weekdays until 11:00 p.m. D all times) Handicapped/disabled access[note 2] 50th Street express E all times August 19, 1933 IND Eighth Avenue Line (A late nights C all except late nights) (transfer in same direction only) Theater and cinema edit See also List of Lithuanian actors Regimantas Adomaitis – theatre and film actor successful both in Lithuania and Russia Donatas Banionis – actor and star of Tarkovsky s Solaris Arturas Barysas – "counter culture" actor singer photographer and filmmaker known as the father of modern Lithuanian avant garde Šarunas Bartas – modern film director Ingeborga Dapkunaite – internationally successful actress Gediminas Girdvainis – lt Gediminas Girdvainis prolific theatre and movie actor Rolandas Kazlas – well known comedy actor Oskaras Koršunovas – best known modern theater director Jurgis Maciunas – initiator of Fluxus movement Vaiva Mainelyte – lt Vaiva Mainelyte popular actress remembered for the leading role in Bride of the Devil Lithuanian Velnio nuotaka Arunas Matelis – acclaimed documentary director Adolfas Mekas film director writer editor actor educator Jonas Mekas – filmmaker the godfather of American avant garde cinema Aurelija Mikušauskaite – television and theatre actress Juozas Miltinis – theater director from Panevežys Nijole Narmontaite – lt Nijole Narmontaite actress Eimuntas Nekrošius – theater director Algimantas Puipa – lt Algimantas Puipa film director Kostas Smoriginas – lt Kostas Smoriginas popular actor and singer Jonas Vaitkus – theater director director of Utterly Alone Adolfas Vecerskis – theatre and film actor director of theatre Arunas Žebriunas – lt Arunas Žebriunas one of the most prominent film directors during the Soviet rule Vytautas Šapranauskas – lt Vytautas Šapranauskas theater and film actor television presenter humorist Žilvinas Tratas actor and model Džiugas Siaurusaitis lt Džiugas Siaurusaitis actor television presenter humorist Sakalas Uždavinys lt Sakalas Uždavinys theater and film actor director Marius Jampolskis actor and TV host Ballet and Dance edit Egle Špokaite soloist of Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre – Actress art director Edita Daniute Professional Ballroom Dancer and World DanceSport Champion Iveta Lukosiute Professional Ballroom Dancer and World Dance Champion Music edit Soprano vocalist Violeta Urmanaviciute Urmana Pop singer Violeta RiaubiškyteSee also List of Lithuanian singers Linas Adomaitis – pop singer participant in the Eurovision Song Contest Ilja Aksionovas lt Ilja Aksionovas pop and opera singer boy soprano Osvaldas Balakauskas – ambassador and classical composer Alanas Chošnau – singer member of former music group Naktines Personos Egidijus Dragunas – lt Egidijus Dragunas leader of Sel one of the first hip hop bands in Lithuania Justas Dvarionas – lt Justas Dvarionas pianist educator Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis – painter and composer Balys Dvarionas – composer conductor pianist professor Gintare Jautakaite pop artist signed with EMI and Sony Music Entertainment in Gintaras Januševicius internationally acclaimed pianist Algirdas Kaušpedas architect and lead singer of Antis Nomeda Kazlauskaite Kazlaus opera singer dramatic soprano appearing internationally Vytautas Kernagis – one of the most popular bards Algis Kizys – long time bass player of post punk no wave band Swans Andrius Mamontovas – rock singer co founder of Foje and LT United Marijonas Mikutavicius – singer author of Trys Milijonai the unofficial sports anthem in Lithuania Vincas Niekus – lt Vincas Niekus composer Virgilijus Noreika – one of the most successful opera singers tenor Mykolas Kleopas Oginskis – one of the best composer of the late th century Kipras Petrauskas – lt Kipras Petrauskas popular early opera singer tenor Stasys Povilaitis – one of the popular singers during the Soviet period Violeta Riaubiškyte – pop singer TV show host Mindaugas Rojus opera singer tenor baritone Ceslovas Sasnauskas – composer Rasa Serra – lt Rasa Serra real name Rasa Veretenceviene singer Traditional folk A cappella jazz POP Audrone Simonaityte Gaižiuniene – lt Audrone Gaižiuniene Simonaityte one of the more popular female opera singers soprano Virgis Stakenas – lt Virgis Stakenas singer of country folk music Antanas Šabaniauskas – lt Antanas Šabaniauskas singer tenor Jurga Šeduikyte – art rock musician won the Best Female Act and the Best Album of in the Lithuanian Bravo Awards and the Best Baltic Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards Jonas Švedas – composer Michael Tchaban composer singer and songwriter Violeta Urmanaviciute Urmana opera singer soprano mezzosoprano appearing internationally Painters and graphic artists edit See also List of Lithuanian artists Robertas Antinis – sculptor Vytautas Ciplijauskas lt Vytautas Ciplijauskas painter Jonas Ceponis – lt Jonas Ceponis painter Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis – painter and composer Asteroid Ciurlionis is named for him Kostas Dereškevicius lt Kostas Dereškevicius painter Vladimiras Dubeneckis painter architect Stasys Eidrigevicius graphic artist Pranas Gailius lt Pranas Gailius painter Paulius Galaune Petronele Gerlikiene – self taught Lithuanian American artist Algirdas Griškevicius lt Algirdas Griškevicius Vincas Grybas – sculptor Leonardas Gutauskas lt Leonardas Gutauskas painter writer Vytautas Kairiukštis – lt Vytautas Kairiukštis painter art critic Vytautas Kasiulis – lt Vytautas Kasiulis painter graphic artist stage designer Petras Kalpokas painter Rimtas Kalpokas – lt Rimtas Kalpokas painter graphic artist Leonas Katinas – lt Leonas Katinas painter Povilas Kaupas – lt Povilas Kaupas Algimantas Kezys Lithuanian American photographer Vincas Kisarauskas – lt Vincas Kisarauskas painter graphic artist stage designer Saulute Stanislava Kisarauskiene – lt Saulute Stanislava Kisarauskiene graphic artist painter Stasys Krasauskas – lt Stasys Krasauskas graphic artist Stanislovas Kuzma – lt Stanislovas Kuzma sculptor Antanas Martinaitis – lt Antanas Martinaitis painter Jonas Rimša – lt Jonas Rimša painter Jan Rustem painter Antanas Samuolis – lt Antanas Samuolis painter Šarunas Sauka painter Boris Schatz – sculptor and founder of the Bezalel Academy Irena Sibley née Pauliukonis – Children s book author and illustrator Algis Skackauskas – painter Antanas Žmuidzinavicius – painter Franciszek Smuglewicz – painter Yehezkel Streichman Israeli painter Kazys Šimonis – painter Algimantas Švegžda – lt Algimantas Švegžda painter Otis Tamašauskas Lithographer Print Maker Graphic Artist Adolfas Valeška – painter and graphic artist Adomas Varnas – painter Kazys Varnelis – artist Vladas Vildžiunas lt Vladas Vildžiunas sculptor Mikalojus Povilas Vilutis lt Mikalojus Povilas Vilutis graphic artist Viktoras Vizgirda – painter William Zorach – Modern artist who died in Bath Maine Antanas Žmuidzinavicius – painter Kazimieras Leonardas Žoromskis – painter Politics edit President Valdas Adamkus right chatting with Vice President Dick Cheney left See also List of Lithuanian rulers Mindaugas – the first and only King of Lithuania – Gediminas – the ruler of Lithuania – Algirdas – the ruler together with Kestutis of Lithuania – Kestutis – the ruler together with Algirdas of Lithuania – Vytautas – the ruler of Lithuania – together with Jogaila Jogaila – the ruler of Lithuania – from to together with Vytautas the king of Poland – Jonušas Radvila – the field hetman of Grand Duchy of Lithuania – Dalia Grybauskaite – current President of Lithuania since Valdas Adamkus – President of Lithuania till Jonas Basanavicius – "father" of the Act of Independence of Algirdas Brazauskas – the former First secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party of Lithuanian SSR the former president of Lithuania after and former Prime Minister of Lithuania Joe Fine – mayor of Marquette Michigan – Kazys Grinius – politician third President of Lithuania Mykolas Krupavicius – priest behind the land reform in interwar Lithuania Vytautas Landsbergis – politician professor leader of Sajudis the independence movement former speaker of Seimas member of European Parliament Stasys Lozoraitis – diplomat and leader of Lithuanian government in exile – Stasys Lozoraitis junior – politician diplomat succeeded his father as leader of Lithuanian government in exile – Antanas Merkys – the last Prime Minister of interwar Lithuania Rolandas Paksas – former President removed from the office after impeachment Justas Paleckis – journalist and politician puppet Prime Minister after Soviet occupation Kazimiera Prunskiene – the first female Prime Minister Mykolas Sleževicius – three times Prime Minister organized

UK government has extended concrete promises in this regard. We believe that these factors are extremely important not only for Scotland but also in the general context of devolution processes."[419] Norway: Facing the result of the referendum, Erna Solberg, Prime Minister of Norway, stated to Norwegian broadcaster NRK she was 'glad' Scotland chose to remain in union and that Scottish independence could have become challenging for Norway as a neighbouring country.[420] Spain: Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, in a video message, said that the Scottish have avoided serious consequences and "have chosen the most favourable option for everyone; for themselves, for all of Britain and for the rest of Europe."[421] Basque Country: Ińigo Urkullu, the President of the Basque Country, stated on the day of the referendum that as the British Government had allowed Scotland to freely decide its own future, the responsibility of the Basque government was to "follow Scotland's footsteps" in securing a similar agreement in Spain.[422] Catalonia: Artur Mas, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, described the referendum as a model for a future vote in the Catalonia, and said "What happened in Scotland is not a setback for us, because what we really want in Catalonia is to have the chance to vote".[423] On the day after the Scottish referendum, the Catalan parliament voted to hold a "popular consultation" on Catalan independence, which was scheduled for 9 November 2014.[424] The Spanish government has said that such a referendum would be unconstitutional and that they will attempt to prevent it in the courts.[424] United States: The White House congratulated Scotland on their "full and energetic exercise of democracy". President Barack Obama welcomed the result, saying he looked forward to "continuing our strong and special relationship with all the people of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".[412] Allegations of voting irregularities[edit] Ten voters discovered that someone had voted under their names at polling stations in Glasgow,[425] a method of fraud termed 'personation', and this led to an investigation by Police Scotland.[425] The United Kingdom general election of 2015 was held on 7 May 2015 to elect the 56th Parliament of the United Kingdom.[1] Voting took place in all 650 parliamentary constituencies of the United Kingdom, each electing one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons, the dominant house of Parliament. Local elections took place in most of England on the same day, excluding Greater London. It was the first general election to be held at the end of a fixed term parliament following the enactment of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011. Polls and commentators predicted the outcome would be too close to call and would result in a second hung parliament similar to the 2010 election, dubbing the vote 'the most unpredictable in decades.'[2] Opinion polls were eventually proven to have underestimated the Conservative vote, which bore resemblance to their surprise victory in the 1992 general election.[3] Having governed in coalition with the Liberal Democrats since 2010, the Conservatives won 330 seats and 36.9% of the vote, this time winning a working majority of 12. The British Polling Council began an inquiry into the variance between opinion polls and the actual result.[4] The election marked the first time a Conservative majority government had been elected since 1992; David Cameron became the first Prime Minister to continue in office immediately after a full term with a larger popular vote share for his party since 1900 and the only Prime Minister other than Margaret Thatcher to continue in office immediately after a full term with a greater number of seats for his party. The Labour Party, led by Ed Miliband, saw a slight increase in their vote but incurred a net loss of seats, winning 30.4% and 232 seats. This was their lowest seat tally since 1987.[5] The Scottish National Party, having enjoyed a surge in support since the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, became the third largest party in the Commons by winning 56 of the 59 seats in Scotland, mostly at the expense of Labour. The Liberal Democrats, led by the outgoing Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, had their worst result since 1970 and held just eight out of their previous 57 seats.[6] Liberal Democrat cabinet ministers Vince Cable, Ed Davey, and Danny Alexander as well as former cabinet ministers Michael Moore and David Laws all lost their seats. A number of senior Labour shadow cabinet ministers, notably Ed Balls, Douglas Alexander and Margaret Curran, along with Scottish Labour leader Jim Murphy, were defeated. The Green Party won their highest ever share of the vote with 3.8% and held their only seat of Brighton Pavilion with an increased majority.[7][8] The campaign was marked by the growing support for the UK Independence Party (UKIP), which came third in terms of votes with 12.9% but only won a single seat, with party leader Nigel Farage failing to win the seat of South Thanet. Miliband (as national leader) and Murphy (as Scottish leader) resigned, as did Clegg and Farage,[9][10] although Farage's resignation was rejected by his party and he remained in post. Contents [hide] 1 Election process 2 Date of the election 2.1 Timetable 3 MPs not standing for re-election 4 Contesting political parties and candidates 4.1 Overview 4.2 Great Britain-based 4.2.1 Minor parties 4.3 Northern Ireland 4.4 Pacts and possible coalitions 4.5 Candidates 5 Campaign 5.1 Possibility of a hung Parliament 5.2 Government finance 6 Television debates 7 Endorsements 8 Opinion polling 8.1 Predictions one month before the vote 8.2 Final predictions before the vote 8.3 Exit poll 8.4 Opinion polling inaccuracies and scrutiny 9 Results 9.1 Geographic voting distribution 9.2 Outcome 9.3 Gender 9.4 Seats changing hands and MPs who lost their seats 10 Aftermath 10.1 Resignations 10.2 Financial markets 10.3 Electoral reform 10.4 Protests 10.5 Daily Telegraph investigation of abuse of Wikipedia 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 External links 14.1 Polls and forecasts 14.2 Constitutional issues 14.3 News sites 14.4 Manifestos 14.5 Boundary Commissions Election process[edit] See also: Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 The Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (as amended by the Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013) led to the dissolution of the 55th Parliament on 30 March 2015 and the scheduling of the election on 7 May, the House of Commons not having voted for an earlier date.[1] There were local elections on the same day in most of England, with the exception of Greater London. No other elections were scheduled to take place in Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, apart from any local by-elections. All British, Irish and Commonwealth citizens over the age of 18 on the date of the election were permitted to vote. In general elections, voting takes place in all parliamentary constituencies of the United Kingdom to elect members of parliament (MPs) to seats in the House of Commons, the dominant (historically termed the lower) house of Parliament. Each parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom elects one MP to the House of Commons using the "first past the post" system. If one party obtains a majority of seats, then that party is entitled to form the Government. If the election results in no single party having a majority, then there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition government.[11] Although the Conservative Party planned the number of parliamentary seats to be reduced from 650 to 600, through the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies under the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, the review of constituencies and reduction in seats was delayed by the Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013 amending the 2011 Act.[12][13][14][15] The next boundary review is now set to take place in 2018; thus the 2015 general election was contested using the same constituencies and boundaries as in 2010. Of the 650 constituencies, 533 are in England, 59 in Scotland, 40 in Wales and 18 in Northern Ireland. In addition, the 2011 Act mandated a referendum in 2011 on changing from the current "first past the post" system to an alternative vote (instant-runoff) system for elections to the Commons. The Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreement committed the coalition government to such a referendum.[16] The referendum was held in May 2011 and resulted in the retention of the existing voting system. Before the previous general election, the Liberal Democrats had pledged to change the voting system, and the Labour Party pledged to have a referendum about any such change.[17] The Conservatives, however, promised to keep the first past the post system, but to reduce the number of constituencies by 10%. Liberal Democrat plans were to reduce the number of MPs to 500 elected using a proportional system.[18][19] Ministers increased the amount of money that parties and candidates were allowed to spend on the election by 23%, a move decided against Electoral Commission advice.[20] The election saw the first cap on spending by parties in individual constituencies during the 100 days before Parliament's dissolution on 30 March: Ł30,700, plus a per-voter allowance of 9p in county constituencies and 6p in borough seats. An additional voter allowance of more than Ł8,700 is available after the dissolution of Parliament. UK political parties spent Ł31.1m in the 2010 general election, of which Conservatives spent 53%, the Labour Party spent 25% and the Liberal Democrats 15%.[21] This was the first UK general election to use individual rather than household voter registration. Date of the election[edit] A church used as a polling station in Bath on 7 May 2015 See also: Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 An election is called following the dissolution of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The 2015 general election is the first to be held under the provisions of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011. Prior to this, the power to dissolve Parliament was a royal prerogative, exercised by the sovereign on the advice of the prime minister. Under the provisions of the Septennial Act 1716, as amended by the Parliament Act 1911, an election had to be announced on or before the fifth anniversary of the beginning of the previous parliament, barring exceptional circumstances. No sovereign had refused a request for dissolution since the beginning of the 20th century, and practice had evolved such that a prime minister would typically call a general election to be held at a tactically convenient time within the final two years of a Parliament's lifespan, in order to maximize the chance of an electoral victory for his or her party.[22] Prior to the 2010 general election, the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats pledged to introduce fixed-term elections.[17] As part of the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreement, the Cameron ministry agreed to support legislation for fixed-term Parliaments, with the date of the next general election being 7 May 2015.[23] This resulted in the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, which removed the prime minister's power to advise the monarch to call an early election. The act only permits an early dissolution if Parliament votes for one by a two-thirds supermajority, or if a vote of no confidence is passed by a majority and no new government is subsequently formed within 14 days.[24] However, the prime minister does have the power, by order made by Statutory Instrument under section 1(5) of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, to provide that the polling day is to be held up to two months later than 7 May 2015. Such a Statutory Instrument must be approved by each House of Parliament. Under section 14 of the Electoral Registration and Administration Act 2013, the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 was amended to extend the period between the dissolution of Parliament and the following general election polling day from 17 to 25 working days. This had the effect of moving forward the date of the dissolution of the Parliament to 30 March 2015.[1] Timetable[edit] The key dates were: Monday 30 March Dissolution of Parliament (the 55th) and campaigning officially began Saturday 2 May Last day to file nomination papers, to register to vote, and to request a postal vote[25] Thursday 7 May Polling day Monday 18 May New Parliament (the 56th) assembled Wednesday 27 May State Opening of Parliament MPs not standing for re-election[edit] Main article: List of MPs who stood down at the United Kingdom general election, 2015 While at the previous election there had been a record 148 MPs not standing for re-election,[26] the 2015 election saw 90 MPs standing down.[27] These comprised 38 Conservative, 37 Labour, 10 Liberal Democrat, 3 Independent, 1 Sinn Féin and 1 Plaid Cymru MP. The highest profile Members of Parliament leaving were: Gordon Brown, a former Prime Minister, Leader of the Labour Party (both 2007–2010) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1997–2007); and William Hague, the outgoing First Secretary of State and Leader of the House of Commons and former Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (2010–2014), Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition (both 1997–2001).[28] Alongside Brown and Hague, 17 former cabinet ministers stood down at the election, including Stephen Dorrell, Jack Straw, Alistair Darling, David Blunkett, Sir Malcolm Rifkind and Dame Tessa Jowell.[28] The highest profile Liberal Democrat to stand down was former leader Sir Menzies Campbell, while the longest-serving MP (the "Father of the House") Sir Peter Tapsell also retired, having served from 1959 to 1964 and then continuously since the 1966 general election.[28] Contesting political parties and candidates[edit] A sign in Woking showing opening hours of polling stations, including the advice that people queueing outside polling stations at 10.00pm "will be entitled to apply for a ballot paper" Overview[edit] Main article: List of parties contesting the United Kingdom general election, 2015 As of 9 April 2015, the deadline for standing for the general election, the Electoral Commission's Register of Political Parties included 428 political parties registered in Great Britain,[29] and 36 in Northern Ireland.[30] Candidates who do not belong to a registered party can use an "independent" label, or no label at all. The Conservative Party and Labour Party have been the two biggest parties since 1922, and have supplied all UK prime ministers since that date. Polls predicted that these parties would together receive between 65–75% of the votes and win 80–85% of seats between them[31][32] and that as such the leader of one of these parties would be the prime minister after the election. The Liberal Democrats had been the third party in the UK for many years; but as described by various commentators, other parties have risen relative to the Liberal Democrats since the 2010 election.[33][34] The Economist described a "familiar two-and-a-half-party system" (Conservatives, Labour, and the Liberal Democrats) that "appears to be breaking down" with the rise of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), the Greens and the Scottish National Party (SNP).[35] Newsnight[36] and The Economist[37] have described the country as moving into a six-party system, with the Liberal Democrats, SNP, UKIP and Greens all being significant. Ofcom, in their role regulating election coverage in the UK, have ruled that for the general election and local elections in May 2015, the major parties in Great Britain are the Conservatives, Labour and Liberal Democrats, with UKIP a major party in England and Wales, the SNP a major party in Scotland, and Plaid Cymru (PC) in Wales, and that the Greens were not a major party.[38] The BBC's guidelines are similar but exclude UKIP from the category of "larger parties" in Great Britain and instead state that UKIP should be given "appropriate levels of coverage in output to which the largest parties contribute and, on some occasions, similar levels of coverage".[39][40] Seven parties (Conservative, Labour, Liberal Democrat, UKIP, SNP, PC and Green) participated in the election leadership debates.[41] Great Britain-based[edit] The main Great Britain-based parties—several parties operate in Northern Ireland only, which has a mainly separate political culture—are listed below in order of seats being contested: Conservative Party: led by David Cameron, the prime minister. The Conservatives were the larger party in the coalition government, having won the most seats (306) at the 2010 election. They stood in 647 seats (every seat except for two in Northern Ireland and the Speaker's seat). Labour Party: led by Ed Miliband, the leader of the opposition. Labour had been in power from 1997 to 2010. The party constituted Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (also called the Official Opposition) after the 2010 election, having won 258 seats. They stood in 631 of Great Britain's 632 constituencies,[n 2] missing only the Speaker's seat. Liberal Democrats: led by Nick Clegg, the deputy prime minister. The Liberal Democrats were the junior member of the 2010–15 coalition government, having won 57 seats. The Lib Dems contested the same 631 seats as the Labour Party. UK Independence Party (UKIP): led by Nigel Farage MEP, who had not previously been in parliament but was standing in South Thanet in the general election. UKIP won the fourth most votes at the 2010 election, but failed to win any seats. They subsequently won two seats at by-elections in 2014 and won the highest share of votes at the 2014 European elections. They contested 624 seats across the United Kingdom.[n 3] Green parties: two distinct but cooperating Green parties operate in Great Britain: the Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) and the Scottish Green Party, with opinion polling generally making no distinction between the two. The Green Party of England and Wales is led by Natalie Bennett, who had not previously been elected to Westminster, but stood in Holborn and St Pancras at the general election. The GPEW won the fourth largest share of votes in the 2014 European elections, ahead of the Liberal Democrats. The Scottish Green Party is co-led by Patrick Harvie MSP and councillor Maggie Chapman, neither of whom were standing for election to Westminster. Caroline Lucas was elected as the only Green MP in 2010, in which the two parties received a combined 1% of the vote and were seventh overall. The Greens stood in 568 seats in Great Britain. Scottish National Party (SNP): led by Nicola Sturgeon, who is First Minister of Scotland and did not stand in the general election. The SNP only contested seats in Scotland and stood in all 59 Scottish constituencies. The party got the second most votes in Scotland and sixth overall in 2010, winning six seats. It won the 2011 election to the Scottish Parliament and had a surge of support since the Scottish independence referendum in September 2014, in which they were the main political party behind the losing Yes campaign.[42] Most projections suggested that they would be the third largest party overall after the 2015 election, in terms of seats won, overtaking the Liberal Democrats.[32] Plaid Cymru: led by Leanne Wood, who is a member of the Welsh Assembly and did not stand in the general election. Plaid Cymru organise only in Wales, where they contested all 40 Welsh constituencies. The party has three MPs and were fourth in Wales (eighth in Great Britain) by vote share in 2010, later finishing third in the 2011 Welsh Assembly elections. Minor parties[edit] Dozens of other minor parties stood in Great Britain. The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition, founded as an electoral alliance of socialist parties in 2010, had 135 candidates and was the only other party to have more than 40 candidates.[43] Respect entered into the election with one MP (George Galloway), who was elected at the 2012 Bradford West by-election, but stood just four candidates. The British National Party, which finished fifth with 1.9% of the vote for its 338 candidates at the 2010 general election, stood only eight candidates following a collapse in support.[44] 753 other candidates stood at the general election, including all independents, Northern Ireland-based party candidates, and candidates from other parties.[44] Northern Ireland[edit] See also: List of political parties in Northern Ireland The main parties in Northern Ireland (which has 18 constituencies) described by Ofcom,[38] the BBC[45] and others, ordered by vote share in 2010, are: Alliance Party of Northern Ireland: the Alliance Party had one MP, Naomi Long, who was elected for the first time in 2010. (Long lost her seat in 2015.) They were fifth in the 2010 election by vote share, fifth overall in 2011 and sixth in 2014. Alliance has a relationship with the Liberal Democrats in Great Britain: the party's former leader sits in the House of Lords as a Liberal Democrat, but Alliance's one MP elected in 2010 sat on the opposition benches in the Commons and not with the Liberal Democrats on the government benches. The party contested all 18 Northern Irish constituencies in 2015. Democratic Unionist Party (DUP): the DUP won eight seats in 2010, making them the largest Northern Ireland political party, and the fourth biggest in the UK as a whole. The party also won the 2011 Northern Ireland Assembly election, but were second in the 2014 European election. It contested 16 Northern Irish constituencies, having entered into an electoral pact with the Ulster Unionist Party in the remaining two. Sinn Féin: Sinn Féin won the most votes in Northern Ireland in 2010, but came second in seats, winning five constituencies. They were second in the 2011 Assembly elections, but first in the 2014 European elections. Sinn Féin follows an abstentionist policy with respect to the Commons and have never so far taken their seats there. The party also operates in the Republic of Ireland, where it does take seats in parliament. The party was standing in all 18 Northern Irish constituencies. Michelle Gildernew lost her seat in 2015, which she had held by only 4 votes in 2010, thus reducing the SF MPs from 5 to 4. Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP): the SDLP were third in terms of votes and seats in the 2010 and 2011 elections, and fourth in the 2014 European elections. Prior to dissolution the party had three MPs. The SDLP has a relationship with the Labour Party in Great Britain, with SDLP MPs generally following the Labour whip. The party was expected to have supported Labour in the event of a hung Parliament[46] and contested all 18 constituencies at the election. Ulster Unionist Party (UUP): in 2010 the UUP shared an electoral alliance with the Conservative Party and finished fourth in terms of votes in Northern Ireland, but won no seats. The party does have one MEP, having placed third in the 2014 European elections. They were fourth in the 2011 Assembly elections. The UUP contested 15 seats; the party did not run in two seats because of its electoral pact with the DUP, and also did not nominate a candidate against former UUP member and incumbent independent MP Sylvia Hermon.[47] Smaller parties in Northern Ireland include Traditional Unionist Voice (standing in seven seats) and the Green Party in Northern Ireland (standing in five seats). TUV and the Greens each currently hold one seat in the Legislative Assembly. The North Down seat was retained by independent Sylvia Hermon. The Northern Ireland Conservatives and UKIP fielded candidates, whereas Labour and the Liberal Democrats do not contest elections in Northern Ireland.[48] Pacts and possible coalitions[edit] With the United Kingdom electoral system, coalitions have been rare as one party has usually won an overall majority in the Commons. However, with the outgoing Government being a coalition and with opinion polls not showing a large or consistent lead for any one party, there was much discussion about possible post-election coalitions or other arrangements, such as confidence and supply agreements.[49] Some UK political parties that only stand in part of the country have reciprocal relationships with parties standing in other parts of the country. These include: Labour (in Great Britain) and SDLP (in Northern Ireland) Liberal Democrats (in Great Britain) and Alliance (in Northern Ireland) SNP (in Scotland) and Plaid Cymru (in Wales) Plaid Cymru also recommended supporters in England to vote Green,[50] while the SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon said she would vote for Plaid Cymru were she in Wales, and Green were she in England.[51] Green Party of England and Wales (in England and Wales), Scottish Greens (in Scotland) and the Green Party in Northern Ireland (in Northern Ireland) On 17 March 2015 the Democratic Unionist Party and the Ulster Unionist Party agreed an election pact, whereby the DUP would not stand candidates in Fermanagh and South Tyrone (where Michelle Gildernew, the Sinn Féin candidate, won by only four votes in 2010) and in Newry and Armagh. In return the UUP would stand aside in Belfast East and Belfast North. The SDLP rejected a similar pact suggested by Sinn Féin to try to ensure that an agreed nationalist would win that constituency.[52][53][54] The DUP also called on voters in Scotland to support whichever pro-Union candidate was best placed to beat the SNP.[55] Candidates[edit] Main article: Candidates standing in the United Kingdom general election, 2015 The deadline for parties and individuals to file candidate nomination papers to the acting returning officer (and the deadline for candidates to withdraw) was 4 p.m. on 9 April 2015.[56][57][58][59] The total number of candidates was 3,971; the second-highest number in history, slightly down from the record 4,150 candidates at the last election in 2010.[44][60] There were a record number of female candidates standing in terms of both absolute numbers and percentage of candidates: 1,020 (26.1%) in 2015, up from 854 (21.1%) in 2010.[44][60] The proportion of female candidates for major parties ranged from 41% of Alliance Party candidates to 12% of UKIP candidates.[61] According to UCL's Parliamentary Candidates UK project[62] the major parties had the following percentages of black and ethnic minority candidates: the Conservatives 11%, the Liberal Democrats 10%, Labour 9%, UKIP 6%, the Greens 4%.[63] The average age of the candidates for the seven major parties was 45.[62] The youngest candidates were all aged 18: Solomon Curtis (Labour, Wealden); Niamh McCarthy (Independent, Liverpool Wavertree); Michael Burrows (UKIP, Inverclyde); Declan Lloyd (Labour, South East Cornwall); and Laura-Jane Rossington (Communist Party, Plymouth Sutton and Devonport).[64][65][66] The oldest candidate was Doris Osen, 84, of the Elderly Persons' Independent Party (EPIC), who was standing in Ilford North.[65] Other candidates aged over 80 included three long-serving Labour MPs standing for re-election: Sir Gerald Kaufman (aged 84; Manchester Gorton), Dennis Skinner (aged 83; Bolsover) and David Winnick (aged 81; Walsall North). A number of candidates—including two for Labour[67][68] and two for UKIP[69][70] — were suspended from their respective parties after nominations were closed. Independent candidate Ronnie Carroll died after nominations were closed.[71] Campaign[edit] Possibility of a hung Parliament[edit] Hung Parliaments have been unusual in post-War British political history, but with the outgoing Government a coalition and opinion polls not showing a large or consistent lead for any one party, it was widely expected and predicted throughout the election campaign that no party would gain an overall majority, which could have led to a new coalition or other arrangements such as confidence and supply agreements.[36][72] This was also associated with a rise in multi-party politics, with increased support for UKIP, the SNP and the Greens. The question of what the different parties would do in the event of a hung result dominated much of the campaign. Smaller parties focused on the power this would bring them in negotiations; Labour and the Conservatives both insisted that they were working towards winning a majority government, while they were also reported to be preparing for the possibility of a second election in the year.[73] In practice, Labour were prepared to make a "broad" offer to the Liberal Democrats in the event of a hung Parliament.[74] Most predictions saw Labour as having more potential support in Parliament than the Conservatives, with several parties, notably the SNP, having committed to keeping out a Conservative government.[75][76] Conservative campaigning sought to highlight what they described as the dangers of a minority Labour administration supported by the SNP. This proved effective at dominating the agenda of the campaign[74] and at motivating voters to support them.[77][78][79][80] The Conservative victory was "widely put down to the success of the anti-Labour/SNP warnings", according to a BBC article[81] and others.[82] Labour, in reaction, produced ever stronger denials that they would cooperate with the SNP after the election.[74] The Labour, Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties rejected the idea of a coalition with the SNP.[83][84][85] This was particularly notable for Labour, to whom the SNP had previously offered support: their manifesto stated that "the SNP will never put the Tories into power. Instead, if there is an anti-Tory majority after the election, we will offer to work with other parties to keep the Tories out."[86][87] SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon later confirmed in the Scottish leaders' debate on STV that she was prepared to "help make Ed Miliband prime minister."[88] However, on 26 April, Miliband ruled out a confidence and supply arrangement with the SNP too.[89] Miliband's comments suggested to many that he was working towards forming a minority government.[90][91][92] The Liberal Democrats said that they would talk first to whichever party won the most seats.[93] They later campaigned on being a stabilising influence should either the Conservatives or Labour fall short of a majority, with the slogan "We will bring a heart to a Conservative Government and a brain to a Labour one."[94] Both Labour and the Liberal Democrats ruled out coalitions with UKIP.[95] Ruth Davidson, leader of the Scottish Conservatives, asked about a deal with UKIP in the Scottish leaders' debate, replied, "No deals with UKIP." She continued that her preference and the Prime Minister's preference in a hung Parliament was for a minority Conservative government.[96] UKIP say they could support a minority Conservative government through a confidence and supply arrangement in return for a referendum on EU membership before Christmas 2015.[97] They also spoke of the DUP joining UKIP in this arrangement.[98] UKIP and DUP said they would work together in Parliament.[99] The DUP welcomed the possibility of a hung Parliament and the influence that this would bring them.[73] The party's deputy leader, Nigel Dodds, said the party could work with the Conservatives or Labour, but that the party is "not interested in a full-blown coalition government".[100] Their leader, Peter Robinson, said that the DUP would talk first to whichever party wins the most seats.[101] The DUP said they wanted, for their support, a commitment to 2% defence spending, a referendum on EU membership, and a reversal of the under-occupation penalty. They opposed the SNP being involved in government.[102][103] The UUP also indicated that they would not work with the SNP if it wanted another independence referendum in Scotland.[104] The Green Party of England & Wales, Plaid Cymru and the Scottish National Party all ruled out working with the Conservatives, and agreed to work together "wherever possible" to counter austerity.[105][106][107] Each would also make it a condition of any agreement with Labour that Trident nuclear weapons was not replaced; the Green Party of England and Wales stated that "austerity is a red line."[108] Both Plaid Cymru and the Green Party stated a preference for a confidence and supply arrangement with Labour, rather than a coalition.[108][109] The leader of the SDLP, Alasdair McDonnell, said, "We will be the left-of-centre backbone of a Labour administration", and that, "the SDLP will categorically refuse to support David Cameron and the Conservative Party".[110] Sinn Féin reiterated their abstentionist stance.[73] In the event, the Conservatives did secure an overall majority, rendering much of the speculation and positioning moot. Government finance[edit] The deficit, who was responsible for it and plans to deal with it were a major theme of the campaign. While some smaller parties opposed austerity,[107] the Conservatives, Labour, Liberal Democrats and UKIP all supported some further cuts, albeit to different extents.[citation needed] Conservative campaigning sought to blame the deficit on the previous Labour government. Labour, in return, sought to establish their fiscal responsibility. With the Conservatives also making several spending commitments (e.g. on the NHS), commentators talked of the two main parties' "political crossdressing", each trying to campaign on the other's traditional territory.[111] Television debates[edit] Main article: United Kingdom general election debates, 2015 The first series of televised leaders' debates in the United Kingdom was held in the previous election. After much debate and various proposals,[112][113] a seven-way debate with the leaders of Labour, the Conservatives, Liberal Democrats, UKIP, Greens, SNP and Plaid Cymru was held.[114] with a series of other debates involving some of the parties. The campaign was notable for the absence of party posters on roadside hoardings. It was suggested that 2015 saw "the death of the campaign poster".[115] Endorsements[edit] Main article: Endorsements in the United Kingdom general election, 2015 Various newspapers, organisations and individuals endorsed parties or individual candidates for the election. Opinion polling[edit] Main articles: Opinion polling for the 2015 United Kingdom general election and Opinion polling in United Kingdom constituencies, 2010–15 Conservative Labour Liberal Democrats UKIP Greens Throughout the 55th parliament of the United Kingdom, first and second place in the polls without exception alternated between the Conservatives and Labour. Labour took a lead in the polls in the second half of 2010, driven in part by a collapse in Liberal Argyll and Bute 26,324 37,143 41.5% 58.5% 63,467 88.2% Clackmannanshire 16,350 19,036 46.2% 53.8% 35,386 88.6% Dumfries and Galloway 36,614 70,039 34.3% 65.7% 106,653 87.5% Dundee 53,620 39,880 57.3% 42.7% 93,500 78.8% East Ayrshire 39,762 44,442 47.2% 52.8% 84,204 84.5% East Dunbartonshire 30,624 48,314 38.8% 61.2% 78,938 91.0% East Lothian 27,467 44,283 38.3% 61.7% 71,750 87.6% East Renfrewshire 24,287 41,690 36.8% 63.2% 65,977 90.4% Edinburgh 123,927 194,638 38.9% 61.1% 318,565 84.4% Eilean Siar 9,195 10,544 46.6% 53.4% 19,739 86.2% Falkirk 50,489 58,030 46.5% 53.5% 108,519 88.7% Fife 114,148 139,788 45.0% 55.0% 253,936 84.1% Glasgow 194,779 169,347 53.5% 46.5% 364,126 75.0% Highland 78,069 87,739 47.1% 52.9% 165,808 87.0% Inverclyde 27,243 27,329 49.9% 50.1% 54,572 87.4% Midlothian 26,370 33,972 43.7% 56.3% 60,342 86.8% Moray 27,232 36,935 42.4% 57.6% 64,167 85.4% North Ayrshire 47,072 49,016 48.9% 51.1% 96,088 84.4% North Lanarkshire 115,783 110,922 51.1% 48.9% 226,705 84.4% Orkney 4,883 10,004 32.8% 67.2% 14,887 83.7% Perth and Kinross 41,475 62,714 39.8% 60.2% 104,189 86.9% Renfrewshire 55,466 62,067 47.2% 52.8% 117,533 87.3% Scottish Borders 27,906 55,553 33.4% 66.6% 83,459 87.4% Shetland 5,669 9,951 36.3% 63.7% 15,620 84.4% South Ayrshire 34,402 47,247 42.1% 57.9% 81,649 86.1% South Lanarkshire 100,990 121,800 45.3% 54.7% 222,790 85.3% Stirling 25,010 37,153 40.2% 59.8% 62,163 90.1% West Dunbartonshire 33,720 28,776 54.0% 46.0% 62,396 87.9% West Lothian 53,342 65,682 44.8% 55.2% 119,024 86.2% Scotland 1,617,989 2,001,926 44.7% 55.3% 3,619,915 84.6% Reactions to the result[edit] Domestic reaction[edit] Queen Elizabeth II issued a politically neutral statement following the referendum, stating that it was "a result that all of us throughout the United Kingdom will respect". She said that she and her family would support all efforts to "work constructively for the future of Scotland and indeed all parts of this country".[408] Prime Minister David Cameron said he was "delighted" with the result, adding: "it would have broken my heart to see our United Kingdom come to an end and I know that this sentiment was shared not just by people across our country but also around the world".[409] While attending a public event with Michael Bloomberg later in September, Cameron told Bloomberg that the Queen had "purred down the line" when he informed her of the result.[410] Cameron admitted he was "very embarrassed" for revealing the Queen's political view, which she had guarded in her own comments.[410] Alex Salmond, the Scottish First Minister and leader of the SNP, stated that he accepted the "verdict of the people" and called upon "all Scots to follow suit in accepting the democratic verdict of the people of Scotland". He called the referendum a "triumph for the democratic process and for participation in politics".[409] Salmond confirmed that following the result he would step down as SNP leader and as Scottish First Minister, saying that "for me as leader my time is nearly over but for Scotland the campaign continues and the dream shall never die."[411] Northern Ireland's First Minister Peter Robinson and Welsh First Minister Carwyn Jones responded positively to the result. Robinson was "delighted Scotland has voted to remain in the Union".[409] International reaction[edit] NATO: Secretary General of NATO Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that he fully respected "the choice that the people of Scotland have made".[412] European Union European Commission: President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso said the Scottish vote was good for a "united, open and stronger Europe".[413] Canada: John Baird, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada, welcomed the decision and praised the conduct of the referendum.[414] Quebec: The Premier of Quebec, Philippe Couillard, said that there were limited comparisons between Scotland and Quebec, where the sovereignty movement lost referendums in 1980 and 1995, and suggested a devolved model similar to federalism as a possible future model for the UK: "I think that if the Scots had what we have, Quebecers within Canada, they probably would be quite happy."[414] Stéphane Bédard, leader of the Parti Québécois, described himself as "disappointed" by the result.[415] Germany: Chancellor Angela Merkel said that, "We [the German government] have always respected the fact that this referendum was called and that the central government in London agreed to this. And now we respect the outcome of it as well". When asked how she felt about the result she replied "I will not comment on this but just smile."[416] Ireland: The Taoiseach, Enda Kenny, stated that the Irish government would respect the "democratic decision that Scotland should remain as part of the United Kingdom", he went on to say how "As neighbours, friends and partners across political, economic, cultural and many other spheres, relations between Ireland and Britain have never been stronger. We look forward to working with all parties across these islands in the years ahead. The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 is the historic template for harmonious and mutually beneficial development of the totality of relationships among the peoples of these islands. In particular, it has led to a transformation in relationships between the two great traditions on this island." [417] Italy: Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of Italy, released a statement saying that "The Italian government, also in its capacity as duty president of the EU, hails the result of the vote democratically expressed by the Scottish people," he later sent a message to David Cameron where he said that Scotland "recognised and appreciated diversity" without "fragmenting." [418] Russia: In a press release following the referendum, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated: "It is an understandable and logical desire of the Scottish people for the central authorities to guarantee respect for their national and cultural identity, language and traditions and also give them more independence to take decisions on Scotland's socioeconomic development and its standing in the united state. We have noted that the Barney Pelty, US, pitcher[2] Lipman Pike, US, outfielder, second baseman, & manager, 4x home run champion, RBI leader[2] Kevin Pillar, US, outfielder (Toronto Blue Jays) Aaron Poreda, US, pitcher (Yomiuri Giants)[2] Scott Radinsky, US, relief pitcher[2] Dave Roberts, US, pitcher[2] Saul Rogovin, US, pitcher[2] Al "Flip" Rosen, US, third baseman & first baseman, 4x All-Star, 2x home run champion, 2x RBI leader, MVP[2] Goody Rosen, Canada, outfielder, All-Star[2] Josh Satin, US, second baseman (Cincinnati Reds)[21] Richie Scheinblum, US, outfielder, All-Star[2] Scott Schoeneweis, US, pitcher[2] Michael Schwimer, US, relief pitcher (Toronto Blue Jays)[22] Art Shamsky, US, outfielder & first baseman[2] Larry Sherry, US, relief pitcher[2] Norm Sherry, US, catcher & manager[2] Moe "the Rabbi of Swat" Solomon, US, outfielder[2] George Stone, US, outfielder, 1x batting title[23] Steve Stone, US, starting pitcher, All-Star, Cy Young Award[2] Danny Valencia, US, third baseman (Oakland Athletics)[24] Phil "Mickey" Weintraub, US, first baseman & outfielder Josh Whitesell, US, first baseman (Saraperos de Saltillo)[25] Steve Yeager, US, catcher[2] Kevin Youkilis, US, first baseman, third baseman, & left fielder, 3x All-Star, Gold Glove, Hank Aaron Award[2] Josh Zeid, US, pitcher for the Detroit Tigers Basketball[edit] Omri Casspi Jordan Farmar Gal Mekel Jon Scheyer Sam Balter, US, 5' 10" guard, Olympic champion[8][26] Sue Bird, US & Israel, WNBA 5' 9" point guard, 2x Olympic champion, 4x All-Star (Seattle Storm)[27] David Blatt, US & Israel, Israeli Premier League 6' 3.5" point guard, coached Russia National Basketball Team, Israel's Maccabi Tel Aviv to Euroleague Championship, Euroleague Coach of the Year, 4x Israeli Coach of the Year, Head Coach of Cleveland Cavaliers[28][29] David Blu (formerly "Bluthenthal"), US & Israel, Euroleague 6' 7" forward (Maccabi Tel Aviv)[30] Harry Boykoff, US, NBA 6' 10" center[31] Tal Brody, US & Israel, Euroleague 6' 2" shooting guard[8] Larry Brown, US, ABA 5' 9" point guard, 3x All-Star, 3x assists leader, NCAA National Championship coach (1988), NBA coach, Olympic champion, Hall of Fame[8][26] Omri Casspi, Israel, 6' 9" small forward, drafted in 1st round of 2009 NBA Draft (Sacramento Kings)[32] Shay Doron, Israel & US, WNBA 5' 9" guard (New York Liberty)[33] Lior Eliyahu, Israel, 6' 9" power forward, NBA draft 2006 (Orlando Magic; traded to Houston Rockets), playing in the Euroleague (Hapoel Jerusalem)[34] Jordan Farmar, US, NBA 6' 2" point guard (Los Angeles Clippers)[35] Marty Friedman, US, 5' 7" guard & coach, Hall of Fame[8] Ernie Grunfeld, Romania-born US, NBA 6' 6" guard/forward & GM, Olympic champion[36] Yotam Halperin, Israel, 6' 5" guard, drafted in 2006 NBA draft by Seattle SuperSonics (Hapoel Jerusalem)[34] Sonny Hertzberg, US, NBA 5' 9" point guard, original NY Knickerbocker[37] Art Heyman, US, NBA 6' 5" forward/guard[37] Nat Holman, US, ABL 5' 11" guard & coach, Hall of Fame[8] Red Holzman, US, BAA & NBA 5' 10" guard, 2x All-Star, & NBA coach, NBA Coach of the Year, Hall of Fame[8] Eban Hyams, India-Israel-Australia, 6' 5" guard formerly of the Australian National Basketball League, Israeli Super League, first ever Indian national to play in ULEB competitions[38] Barry Kramer, first team All-American at NYU in 1963 Joel Kramer, US Phoenix Suns 6'7" forward Sylven Landesberg, US, 6' 6" former UVA shooting guard (Maccabi Tel Aviv)[39] Rudy LaRusso, US, NBA 6' 7" forward/center, 5x All-Star[40] Nancy Lieberman, US, WNBA player, general manager, & coach, Olympic silver, Hall of Fame[26][41] Gal Mekel, Israel, NBA 6' 3" point guard (Dallas Mavericks)[42] Bernard Opper, US, NBL and ABL 5' 10" guard, All-American at University of Kentucky Donna Orender (née Geils), US, Women's Pro Basketball League 5' 7" point guard, All-Star, current WNBA president[37] Lennie Rosenbluth, US, NBA 6' 4" forward[36] Danny Schayes, US, NBA 6' 11" center/forward (son of Dolph Schayes)[37] Dolph Schayes, US, NBA 6' 7" forward/center, 3x FT% leader, 1x rebound leader, 12x All-Star, Hall of Fame, & coach (father of Danny Schayes)[8] Ossie Schectman, US, NBA 6' 0" guard, scorer of first NBA basket[36] Doron Sheffer, US (college), Maccabi Tel Aviv,Hapoel Jerusalem Jon Scheyer, US, All-American Duke University 6' 5" shooting guard & point guard (Maccabi Tel Aviv)[43] Barney Sedran, US, Hudson River League & New York State League 5' 4" guard, Hall of Fame[8] Sidney Tannenbaum, US, BAA 6' 0" guard, 2x All-American, left as NYU all-time scorer[8] Alex Tyus, US & Israel, 6' 8" power forward/center (Maccabi Tel Aviv) Neal Walk, US, NBA 6' 10" center[37] Max Zaslofsky, US, NBA 6' 2" guard/forward, 1x FT% leader, 1x points leader, All-Star, ABA coach[8] Bowling[edit] Barry Asher, 10 PBA titles, PBA Hall of Fame[7] Marshall Holman, 22 PBA titles (11th all-time); PBA Hall of Fame[44] Mark Roth, 34 PBA titles (5th all-time); PBA Hall of Fame[45] Boxing[edit] Yuri Foreman Zab Judah Dmitry Salita Barney Aaron (Young), English-born US lightweight, Hall of Fame[46] Abe Attell ("The Little Hebrew"), US, world champion featherweight, Hall of Fame[8] Monte Attell ("The Knob Hill Terror"), US, bantamweight[47] Max Baer ("Madcap Maxie"), US, world champion heavyweight. Wore a Star of David on his trunks; inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. Hall of Fame/[48] Benny Bass ("Little Fish"), US, world champion featherweight & world champion junior lightweight, Hall of Fame[8] Fabrice Benichou, France, world champion super bantamweight[34] Jack Kid Berg (Judah Bergman), England, world champion junior welterweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks, Hall of Fame[8] Maxie Berger, Canada, wore a Star of David on his trunks[49] Samuel Berger, US, Olympic champion heavyweight[8] Jack Bernstein (also "John Dodick", "Kid Murphy", and "Young Murphy"), US, world champion junior lightweight[8] Nathan "Nat" Bor, US, Olympic bronze lightweight[26] Mushy Callahan (Vincente Sheer), US, world champion light welterweight[47] Joe Choynski ("Chrysanthemum Joe"), US, heavyweight, Hall of Fame[8][50] Robert Cohen, French & Algerian, world champion bantamweight[8] Al "Bummy" Davis (Abraham Davidoff), US, welterweight & lightweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks[47] Louis "Red" Deutsch, US, heavyweight, later famous as the proprietor of the Tube Bar in Jersey City, NJ and inspiration for Moe Szyslak on "The Simpsons" Carolina Duer ("The Turk"), Argentine, WBO world champion super flyweight and bantamweight[51] John "Jackie" Fields (Jacob Finkelstein), US, world champion welterweight & Olympic champion featherweight, Hall of Fame[8] Hagar Finer, Israel, WIBF champion bantamweight[52] Yuri Foreman, Belarusian-born Israeli US middleweight and World Boxing Association champion super welterweight[53] György Gedó, Hungary, Olympic champion light flyweight[41] Abe Goldstein, US, world champion bantamweight[54] Ruby Goldstein ("Ruby the Jewel of the Ghetto"), US, welterweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks[8] Roman Greenberg ("The Lion from Zion"), Israel, International Boxing Organization's Intercontinental champion heavyweight[53] Stéphane Haccoun, France, featherweight, super featherweight, and junior lightweight[55][56] Alphonse Halimi ("La Petite Terreur"), France, world champion bantamweight[8] Harry Harris ("The Human Hairpin"), US, world champion bantamweight[8] Gary Jacobs, Scottish, British, Commonwealth, and European (EBU) champion welterweight[57] Ben Jeby (Morris Jebaltowsky), US, world champion middleweight[47] Yoel Judah, US, 3x world champion kickboxer and boxer & trainer[58] Zab Judah ("Super"), US, world champion junior welterweight & world champion welterweight (Converted to Christianity)[58][59][60][61] Louis Kaplan ("Kid Kaplan"), Russian-born US, world champion featherweight, Hall of Fame[8][50] Solly Krieger ("Danny Auerbach"), US, world champion middleweight[8] Julie Kogon US, 1947 New England Lightweight Champion. Inducted into the Connecticut Boxing Hall of Fame. Benny Leonard (Benjamin Leiner; "The Ghetto Wizard"), US, world champion lightweight, Hall of Fame[8] Battling Levinsky (Barney Lebrowitz), US, world champion light heavyweight, Hall of Fame[8] King Levinsky (Harry Kraków), US, heavweight, also known as Kingfish Levinsky[8] Harry Lewis (Harry Besterman), US, world champion welterweight[47] Ted "Kid" Lewis (Gershon Mendeloff), England, world champion welterweight, Hall of Fame[8] Sammy Luftspring, Canada, Canadian champion welterweight, Canada's Sports Hall of Fame[47] Saoul Mamby, US, world champion junior welterweight[47] Al McCoy (Alexander Rudolph), US, world champion middleweight[8] Daniel Mendoza, England, world champion heavyweight, Hall of Fame[8] Jacob Michaelsen, Denmark, Olympic bronze heavyweight[26] Samuel Mosberg, US, Olympic champion lightweight[8] Bob Olin, US, world champion light heavyweight[62] Victor Perez ("Young"), Tunisian, world champion flyweight[8] Harold Reitman ("The Boxing Doctor"), professional heavyweight that fought while working as surgeon, Golden Gloves champion.[63] Charlie Phil Rosenberg ("Charles Green"), US, world champion bantamweight[8] Dana Rosenblatt ("Dangerous"), US, world champion middleweight[64] Maxie Rosenbloom ("Slapsie"), US, world champion light heavyweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks, Hall of Fame[8] Barney Ross (Dov-Ber Rasofsky), US, world champion lightweight & junior welterweight, Hall of Fame[8] Mike Rossman (Michael Albert DiPiano; "The Jewish Bomber"), US, world champion light heavyweight, wore Star of David on trunks[64] Shamil Sabirov, Russia, Olympic champion light flyweight[26] Dmitry Salita ("Star of David"), US, North American Boxing Association champion light welterweight[65] Isadore "Corporal Izzy" Schwartz ("The Ghetto Midget"), US, world champion flyweight[8] Al Singer ("The Bronx Beauty"), US, world champion lightweight[47] "Lefty" Lew Tendler, US, bantamweight, lightweight, and welterweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks, Hall of Fame[8] Sid Terris ("Ghost of the Ghetto"), US, lightweight, wore a Star of David on his trunks[54] Matt Wels, England, champion of Great Britain lightweight and world champion welterweight Canoeing[edit] Jessica Fox Shaun Rubenstein László Fábián, Hungary, sprint canoer, Olympic champion (K-2 10,000 meter), 4x world champion (3x K-2 10,000 meter and 1x K-4 10,000 meter) and one silver (K-4 10,000 meter)[26] Imre Farkas, Hungary, sprint canoer, 2x Olympic bronze (C-2 1,000 and 10,000 meter)[66] Jessica Fox, French-born Australian, slalom canoer, Olympic silver (K-1 slalom), world championships bronze (C-1)[67] Myriam Fox-Jerusalmi, France, slalom canoer, Olympic bronze (K-1 slalom), 5 golds at ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships (2x K-1, 3x K-1 team)[41] Klára Fried-Bánfalvi, Hungary, sprint canoer, Olympic bronze (K-2 500 m), world champion (K-2 500 m)[26] Leonid Geishtor, USSR (Belarus), sprint canoer, Olympic champion (Canadian pairs 1,000-meter)[41] Joe Jacobi, US, slalom canoer, Olympic champion (Canadian slalom pairs)[41] Michael Kolganov, Soviet (Uzbek)-born Israeli, sprint canoer, world champion, Olympic bronze (K-1 500-meter)[41] Anna Pfeffer, Hungary, sprint canoer, Olympic 2x silver (K-2 500 m), bronze (K-1 500 m); world champion (K-2 500 m), silver (K-4 500 m), 2x bronze (K-2 500)[26] Naum Prokupets, Moldovan-born Soviet, sprint canoer, Olympic bronze (C-2 1,000-meter), gold (C-2 10,000-meter) at ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships[41] Leon Rotman, Romanian, sprint canoer, 2x Olympic champion (C-1 10,000 meter, C-1 1,000-meter) and bronze (C-1 1,000-meter), 14 national titles[41] Shaun Rubenstein, South Africa, canoer, World Marathon champion 2006[68] Cricket[edit] Michael Klinger Ben Ashkenazi, Australia (Victorian Bushrangers) Ali Bacher, South Africa, batsman and administrator (relative of Adam Bacher)[69] Mike Barnard, England, cricketer[69] Mark Bott, England, cricketer[70] Stevie Eskinazi, South African born, Australian raised, English wicketkeeper Mark Fuzes. Australian all rounder played for Hong Kong. Father Peter Fuzes kept goal for Australian Soccer team (see)[71] Dennis Gamsy, South Africa, Test wicket-keeper[72] Darren Gerard, England, cricketer[73] Norman Gordon, South Africa, fast bowler[69] Steven Herzberg, English-born Australian, cricketer[74] Sid Kiel, South Africa, opening batsman (Western Province)[75] Michael Klinger, Australia, batsman (Western Warriors)[69] Leonard "Jock" Livingston, Australia, cricketer[69] Bev Lyon, England, cricketer[69] Dar Lyon, England, cricketer (brother of Bev)[69] Greg, Jason, and Lara Molins, two brothers and a cousin from the same Irish family[74] Jon Moss, Australia, allrounder (Victorian Bushrangers)[69] John Raphael, England, batsman[69] Marshall Rosen, NSW Australia, cricketer and selector[76] Lawrence Seeff, South Africa, batsmen[77] Maurice Sievers, Australia, lower order batsman and fast-medium bowler[69] Bensiyon Songavkar, India, cricketer, MVP of 2009 Maccabiah Games cricket tournament[78] Fred Susskind, South Africa, Test batsman[69] Fred Trueman, England, English test fast bowler (a lifelong Christian)[69] Julien Wiener, Australia, Test cricketer[69] Mandy Yachad, South Africa, Test cricketer[69] Equestrian[edit] Margie Goldstein-Engle Robert Dover, US, 4x Olympic bronze, 1x world championship bronze (dressage)[79] Margie Goldstein-Engle, US, world championship silver, Pan American Games gold, silver, and bronze (jumping)[80] Edith Master, US, Olympic bronze (dressage)[26] Fencing[edit] Helene Mayer Soren Thompson Henri Anspach, Belgium (épée & foil), Olympic champion[26] Paul Anspach, Belgium (épée & foil), 2x Olympic champion[26] Norman Armitage (Norman Cohn), US (sabre), 17x US champion, Olympic bronze[26] Albert "Albie" Axelrod, US (foil); Olympic bronze, 4x US champion[8] Péter Bakonyi, Hungary (saber), Olympic 3x bronze[41] Cliff Bayer, US (foil); youngest US champion[37] Albert Bogen (Albert Bógathy), Austria (saber), Olympic silver[41] Tamir Bloom, US (épée); 2x US champion[37] Daniel Bukantz, US (foil); 4x US champion[37] Sergey Sharikov, Russia (saber), 2x Olympic champion, silver, bronze[26] Yves Dreyfus, France (épée), Olympic bronze, French champion[26] Ilona Elek, Hungary (saber), 2x Olympic champion[26] Boaz Ellis, Israel (foil), 5x Israeli champion[34] Siegfried "Fritz" Flesch, Austria (sabre), Olympic bronze[26] Dr. Dezsö Földes, Hungary (saber), 2x Olympic champion[26] Dr. Jenö Fuchs, Hungary (saber), 4x Olympic champion[81] Támas Gábor, Hungary (épée), Olympic champion[8] János Garay, Hungary (saber), Olympic champion, silver, bronze, killed by the Nazis[8] Dr. Oskar Gerde, Hungary (saber), 2x Olympic champion, killed by the Nazis[26] Dr. Sándor Gombos, Hungary (saber), Olympic champion[62] Vadim Gutzeit, Ukraine (saber), Olympic champion[82] Johan Harmenberg, Sweden (épée), Olympic champion[26] Delila Hatuel, Israel (foil), Olympian, ranked # 9 in world[83] Lydia Hatuel-Zuckerman, Israel (foil), 6x Israeli champion[84][85] Dr. Otto Herschmann, Austria (saber), Olympic silver[26] Emily Jacobson, US (saber), NCAA champion[86] Sada Jacobson, US (saber), ranked # 1 in the world, Olympic silver, 2x bronze[86] Allan Jay, British (épée & foil), Olympic 2x silver, world champion[26] Endre Kabos, Hungary (saber), 3x Olympic champion, bronze[26] Roman Kantor, Poland (épée), Nordic champion & Soviet champion, killed by the Nazis[26] Dan Kellner, US (foil), US champion[86] Byron Krieger, US[87] Grigory Kriss, Soviet (épée), Olympic champion, 2x silver[26] Allan Kwartler, US (saber), 3x Pan American Games champion[10] Alexandre Lippmann, France (épée), 2x Olympic champion, 2x silver, bronze[8] Helene Mayer, Germany & US (foil), Olympic champion[26] Ljubco Georgievski ????? ??????????? Kiro Gligorov ???? ???????? Nikola Gruevski ?????? ???????? Gjorge Ivanov ????? ?????? Gordana Jankuloska ??????? ?????????? Zoran Jolevski ????? ???????? Srgjan Kerim ????? ????? Lazar Koliševski ????? ?????????? Hari Kostov ???? ?????? Trifun Kostovski ?????? ????????? Ilinka Mitreva ?????? ??????? Lazar Mojsov ????? ?????? Tito Petkovski ???? ????????? Lui Temelkovski ??? ??????????? Boris Trajkovski ????? ?????????? Vasil Tupurkovski ????? ??????????? Zoran Zaev ????? ???? Partisans World War II freedom fighters edit Mirce Acev ????? ???? Mihajlo Apostolski ????j?? ?????????? Cede Filipovski Dame ???? ?????????? ???? Blagoj Jankov Muceto ?????? ?????? ?????? Orce Nikolov ???? ??????? Strašo Pindžur ?????? ?????? Hristijan Todorovski Karpoš ????????? ?????????? ?????? Revolutionaries edit Yordan Piperkata ?????? ???????? ????????? Goce Delcev ???? ????? Petar Pop Arsov ????? ??? ????? Dame Gruev ???? ????? Jane Sandanski ???? ????????? Dimitar Pop Georgiev Berovski ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? Ilyo Voyvoda ???? ??? ?????????? Pere Tošev ???? ????? Pitu Guli ???? ???? Dimo Hadži Dimov ???? ???? ????? Hristo Uzunov ?????? ?????? Literature edit Gjorgji Abadžiev ????? ??????? Petre M Andreevski ????? ? ?????????? Maja Apostoloska ???? ??????????? Dimitrija Cupovski ????????? ???????? Jordan Hadži Konstantinov Džinot ?????? ???? ???????????? ????? Vasil Iljoski ????? ?????? Slavko Janevski ?????? ???????? Blaže Koneski ????? ??????? Risto Krle ????? ???? Vlado Maleski ????? ??????? Mateja Matevski ?????? ???????? Krste Misirkov ????? ????????? Kole Nedelkovski ???? ??????????? Olivera Nikolova Anton Panov ????? ????? Gjorche Petrov ????? ?????? Vidoe Podgorec ????? ???????? Aleksandar Prokopiev ?????????? ????????? Koco Racin ???? ????? Jovica Tasevski Eternijan ?????? ???????? ????????? Gane Todorovski ???? ?????????? Stevan Ognenovski ?????? ?????????? Music edit Classical music edit Composers edit Atanas Badev ?????? ????? Dimitrije Bužarovski ????????? ?????????? Kiril Makedonski ????? ?????????? Toma Prošev ???? ?????? Todor Skalovski ????? ????????? Stojan Stojkov ?????? ??????? Aleksandar Džambazov ?????????? ???????? Conductors edit Borjan Canev ?????? ????? Instrumentalists edit Pianists Simon Trpceski ????? ???????? Opera singers edit Blagoj Nacoski ?????? ??????? Boris Trajanov ????? ???????? Popular and folk music edit Composers edit Darko Dimitrov ????? ???????? Slave Dimitrov ????? ???????? Jovan Jovanov ????? ??????? Ilija Pejovski ????? ???????? Musicians edit Bodan Arsovski ????? ???????? Goran Trajkoski ????? ????????? Ratko Dautovski ????? ????????? Kiril Džajkovski ????? ????????? Tale Ognenovski ???? ?????????? Vlatko Stefanovski ?????? ??????????? Stevo Teodosievski ????? ???????????? Aleksandra Popovska ?????????? ???????? Singers and Bands edit Lambe Alabakoski ????? ?????????? Anastasia ????????? Arhangel ???????? Kristina Arnaudova ???????? ????????? Kaliopi Bukle ??????? Dani Dimitrovska ???? ??????????? Riste Tevdoski ????? ???????? Karolina Goceva ???????? ?????? Vaska Ilieva ????? ?????? Andrijana Janevska ????????? ???????? Vlado Janevski ????? ???????? Jovan Jovanov ????? ??????? Leb i sol ??? ? ??? Aleksandar Makedonski ?????????? ?????????? Elvir Mekic ????? ????? Mizar ????? Jasmina Mukaetova ??????? ????e???? The Malagasy French Malgache are the ethnic group that forms nearly the entire population of Madagascar They are divided into two subgroups the "Highlander" Merina Sihanaka and Betsileo of the central plateau around Antananarivo Alaotra Ambatondrazaka and Fianarantsoa and the "coastal dwellers" elsewhere in the country This division has its roots in historical patterns of settlement The original Austronesian settlers from Borneo arrived between the third and tenth centuries and established a network of principalities in the Central Highlands region conducive to growing the rice they had carried with them on their outrigger canoes Sometime later a large number of settlers arrived from East Africa and established kingdoms along the relatively unpopulated coastlines The difference in ethnic origins remains somewhat evident between the highland and coastal regions In addition to the ethnic distinction between highland and coastal Malagasy one may speak of a political distinction as well Merina monarchs in the late th and early th century united the Merina principalities and brought the neighboring Betsileo people under their administration first They later extended Merina control over the majority of the coastal areas as well The military resistance and eventual defeat of most of the coastal communities assured their subordinate position vis ŕ vis the Merina Betsileo alliance During the th and th centuries the French colonial administration capitalized on and further exacerbated these political inequities by appropriating existing Merina governmental infrastructure to run their colony This legacy of political inequity dogged the people of Madagascar after gaining independence in candidates ethnic and regional identities have often served to help or hinder their success in democratic elections Within these two broad ethnic and political groupings the Malagasy were historically subdivided into specifically named ethnic groups who were primarily distinguished from one another on the basis of cultural practices These were namely agricultural hunting or fishing practices construction style of dwellings music hair and clothing styles and local customs or taboos the latter known in the Malagasy language as fady citation needed The number of such ethnic groups in Madagascar has been debated The practices that distinguished many of these groups are less prevalent in the st century than they were in the past But many Malagasy are proud to proclaim their association with one or several of these groups as part of their own cultural identity "Highlander" ethnic groups Merina Sihanaka Betsileo Zafimaniry Coastal ethnic groups Antaifasy or Antefasy Antaimoro or Temoro or Antemoro Antaisaka or Antesaka Antambahoaka Antandroy or Tandroy Antankarana Antanosy or Tanosy Academia edit Afifi al Akiti Khasnor Johan historian Khoo Kay Kim Jomo Kwame Sundaram Danny Quah Harith Ahmad Architects edit Main article List of Malaysian architects Artists edit Main article List of Malaysian artists Business edit Tan Sri Syed Mokhtar Al Bukhary born Tan Sri Dato Loh Boon Siew – Tan Sri Jeffrey Cheah Tan Sri William Cheng Dato Choong Chin Liang born Tan Sri Dato Tony Fernandes born Lim Goh Tong – Tan Sri Tiong Hiew King Tan Sri Teh Hong Piow born Chung Keng Quee – Tan Sri Ananda Krishnan born Robert Kuok born Tan Sri Quek Leng Chan born Shoba Purushothaman Shah Hakim Zain Halim Saad Tan Sri Mohd Saleh Sulong Tan Sri Vincent Tan born Lillian Too born Tan Sri Dr Francis Yeoh Tun Daim Zainuddin born Tan Sri Kong Hon Kong Designers edit Bernard Chandran fashion designer Jimmy Choo born shoe designer Poesy Liang born artist writer philanthropist jewellery designer industrial designer interior architect music composer Inventors edit Yi Ren Ng inventor of the Lytro Entertainers edit Yasmin Ahmad – film director Stacy Angie Francissca Peter born Jamal Abdillah born Sudirman Arshad – Loganathan Arumugam died Datuk David Arumugam Alleycats Awal Ashaari Alvin Anthons born Asmawi bin Ani born Ahmad Azhar born Ning Baizura born Kasma Booty died Marion Caunter host of One In A Million and the TV Quickie Ella born Erra Fazira born Sean Ghazi born Fauziah Latiff born Angelica Lee born Daniel Lee Chee Hun born Fish Leong born Sheila Majid born Amy Mastura born Mohamad Nasir Mohamad born Shathiyah Kristian born Meor Aziddin Yusof born Ah Niu born Dayang Nurfaizah born Shanon Shah born Siti Nurhaliza born Misha Omar born Hani Mohsin – Aziz M Osman born Azmyl Yunor born P Ramlee born Aziz Sattar born Fasha Sandha born Ku Nazhatul Shima Ku Kamarazzaman born Nicholas Teo born Pete Teo Penny Tai born Hannah Tan born Jaclyn Victor born Chef Wan Adira Suhaimi Michael Wong born Victor Wong born Dato Michelle Yeoh Hollywood actress born James Wan director of Hollywood films like several Saw films Insidious The Conjuring Fast and Furious born Ziana Zain born Zee Avi Shila Amzah Yunalis Zarai Zamil Idris born Military edit Leftenan Adnan – Warrior from mainland Malaya Antanum Warrior from Sabah Borneo Rentap Warrior from Sarawak Syarif Masahor Warrior from Sarawak Monsopiad Warrior from Sabah Borneo Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong Warrior from Telemong Terengganu Mat Salleh Warrior from Sabah Borneo Rosli Dhobi Warrior from Sarawak Politicians edit Parameswara founder of Sultanate of Malacca Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj st Prime Minister of independent Malaya Tun Abdul Razak nd Prime Minister V T Sambanthan Founding Fathers of Malaysia along with Tunku Abdul Rahman and Tan Cheng Lock Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock Founder of MCA Tun Hussein Onn rd Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad th Prime Minister Father of Modernisation Abdullah Ahmad Badawi th Prime Minister since Najib Tun Razak Current Prime Minister since Dato Seri Ong Ka Ting Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim Dato Wan Hisham Wan Salleh Nik Aziz Nik Mat Raja Nong Chik Zainal Abidin Federal Territory and Urban Wellbeing Minister Wan Azizah Wan Ismail Karpal Singh Lim Kit Siang Lim Guan Eng Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah Religious edit Antony Selvanayagam Roman Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Penang Anthony Soter Fernandez Archbishop Emeritus of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur and Bishop Emeritus of the Diocese of Penang Gregory Yong – Second Roman Catholic Archbishop of Singapore Tan Sri Datuk Murphy Nicholas Xavier Pakiam Metropolitan archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kuala Lumpur president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of Malaysia Singapore and Brunei and publisher of the Catholic weekly newspaper The Herald Datuk Ng Moon Hing the fourth and current Anglican Bishop of West Malaysia Sportspeople edit Squash edit Datuk Nicol Ann David Ong Beng Hee Azlan Iskandar Low Wee Wern Badminton edit Chan Chong Ming men s doubles Dato Lee Chong Wei Chew Choon Eng men s doubles Wong Choong Hann Chin Eei Hui women s doubles Hafiz Hashim Roslin Hashim Wong Pei Tty women s doubles Choong Tan Fook men s doubles Lee Wan Wah men s doubles Koo Kien Keat men s doubles Tan Boon Heong men s doubles Retired edit Tan Aik Huang Eddy Choong Punch Gunalan Yap Kim Hock Foo Kok Keong Jalani Sidek Misbun Sidek Rashid Sidek Razif Sidek Cheah Soon Kit Lee Wan Wah Football soccer edit Brendan Gan Sydney FC Shaun Maloney Wigan Athletic Akmal Rizal Perak FA Kedah FA RC Strasbourg FCSR Haguenau Norshahrul Idlan Talaha Kelantan FA Khairul Fahmi Che Mat Kelantan FA Mohd Safiq Rahim Selangor FA Mohd Fadzli Saari Selangor FA PBDKT T Team FC SV Wehen Rudie Ramli Selangor FA PKNS F C SV Wehen Mohd Safee Mohd Sali Selangor FA Pelita Jaya Baddrol Bakhtiar Kedah FA Mohd Khyril Muhymeen Zambri Kedah FA Mohd Azmi Muslim Kedah FA Mohd Fadhli Mohd Shas Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlaté Moravce Mohd Irfan Fazail Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlaté Moravce Wan Zack Haikal Wan Noor Harimau Muda A FC ViOn Zlaté Moravce F C Ryukyu Nazirul Naim Che Hashim Harimau Muda A F C Ryukyu Khairul Izuan Abdullah Sarawak FA Persibo Bojonegoro PDRM FA Stanley Bernard Stephen Samuel Sabah FA Sporting Clube de Goa Nazmi Faiz Harimau Muda A SC Beira Mar Ahmad Fakri Saarani Perlis FA Atlético S C Chun Keng Hong Penang FA Chanthaburi F C Retired edit Serbegeth Singh owner founder of MyTeam Blackburn Rovers F C Global dvisor Mokhtar Dahari former Selangor FA and Malaysian player Lim Teong Kim former Hertha BSC player