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Judas Iscariot (/'d?u?d?s ?'skr??t/; Biblical Hebrew: ????? ???-??????, romanized: Yehdh Ish-Kerayot; Greek: ???da? ?s?a???t??) (died c.?30 c.?33 AD) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. According to all four canonical gospels, Judas betrayed Jesus to the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane by kissing him and addressing him as "rabbi" to reveal his identity to the crowd who had come to arrest him.[1] His name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason. Judas's epithet Iscariot most likely means he came from the village of Kerioth, but this explanation is not universally accepted and many other possibilities have been suggested. The Gospel of Mark, the earliest gospel, gives no motive for Judas's betrayal, but does present Jesus predicting it at the Last Supper, an event also described in all the later gospels. The Gospel of Matthew 26:15 states that Judas committed the betrayal in exchange for thirty pieces of silver. The Gospel of Luke 22:3 and the Gospel of John 13:27 suggest that he was possessed by Satan. According to Matthew 27:110, after learning that Jesus was to be crucified, Judas attempted to return the money he had been paid for his betrayal to the chief priests and committed suicide by hanging. The priests used the money to buy a field to bury strangers in, which was called the "Field of Blood" because it had been bought with blood money. The Book of Acts 1:18 quotes Peter as saying that Judas used the money to buy the field himself and, he "[fell] headlong... burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out." His place among the Twelve Apostles was later filled by Matthias.
Due to his notorious role in all the gospel narratives, Judas remains a controversial figure in Christian history. For instance, Judas's betrayal is seen as setting in motion the events that led to Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection, which, according to traditional Christian theology, brought salvation to humanity. The Gnostic Gospel of Judas rejected by the proto-orthodox Church as heretical portrays Judas's actions as done in obedience to instructions given to him by Jesus, and that he alone amongst the disciples knew Jesus's true teachings. Since the Middle Ages, Judas has sometimes been portrayed as a personification of the Jewish people and his betrayal has been used to justify Christian antisemitism.[2] Contents 1 Historicity 2 Life 2.1 Name and background 2.2 Role as an apostle 2.3 Death 3 Theology 3.1 Betrayal of Jesus 4 Role in apocrypha 4.1 The Syriac Infancy Gospel 4.2 Gospel of Judas 4.3 Gospel of Barnabas 5 Representations and symbolism 6 Art and literature 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 9.1 Bibliography 10 External links Historicity



Although Judas Iscariot's historical existence is generally widely accepted among secular historians,[3][4][5][6] this relative consensus has not gone entirely unchallenged.[4] The earliest possible allusion to Judas comes from the First Epistle to the Corinthians 11:23-24, in which Paul the Apostle does not mention Judas by name,[7][8] but uses the passive voice of the Greek word paraddomi (pa?ad?d??), which most Bible translations render as "was betrayed":[7][8] "...the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took a loaf of bread..."[7] Nonetheless, many biblical scholars argue that the word paraddomi should be translated as "was handed over".[7][8] This translation could still refer to Judas,[7][8] but it could also instead refer to God metaphorically "handing Jesus over" to the Romans.[7] In his book Antisemitism and Modernity (2006), the Jewish scholar Hyam Maccoby suggests that, in the New Testament, the name "Judas" was constructed as an attack on the Judaeans or on the Judaean religious establishment held responsible for executing Jesus.[9][10] In his book The Sins of Scripture (2009), John Shelby Spong concurs with this argument,[11][12] insisting, "The whole story of Judas has the feeling of being contrived ... The act of betrayal by a member of the twelve disciples is not found in the earliest Christian writings. Judas is first placed into the Christian story by the Gospel of Mark (3:19), who wrote in the early years of the eighth decade of the Common Era."[11] Most scholars reject these arguments for non-historicity,[5][13][14][15] noting that there is nothing in the gospels to associate Judas with Judeans except his name, which was an extremely common one for Jewish men during the first century,[13][16][8] and that numerous other figures named "Judas" are mentioned throughout the New Testament, none of whom are portrayed negatively.[13][16][8] Positive figures named Judas mentioned in the New Testament include the prophet Judas Barsabbas (Acts 15:22-33), Jesus's brother Jude (Mark 6:3; Matt 13:55; Jude 1), and the apostle Judas the son of James (Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13; John 14:22).[13] B. J. Oropeza argues that Christians should not repeat the historic tragedy of associating Judas Iscariot with the Judeans but regard him instead as an emergent Christian apostate, and hence, one of their own.[13] His betrayal over a sum of money warns auditors against the vice of greed.[13] Life Name and background Judas Iscariot (between 1886 and 1894) by James Tissot The name Judas (???da?) is a Greek rendering of the Hebrew name Judah (?????, Yehdh, Hebrew for "God is thanked"), which was an extremely common name for Jewish men during the first century AD, due to the renowned hero Judas Maccabeus.[16][8] Consequently, numerous other figures with this name are mentioned throughout the New Testament.[13][16][8] In the Gospel of Mark 3:13-19, the earliest of all the gospels, which was written in the mid 60s or early 70s AD, Judas Iscariot is the only apostle named Judas.[8] Matthew 10:2-4 follows this portrayal.[8] The Gospel of Luke 6:12-19, however, replaces the apostle whom Mark and Matthew call "Thaddeus" with "Judas son of James".[8] Peter Stanford suggests that this renaming may represent an effort by the author of the Gospel of Luke to create a "good Judas" in contrast to the betrayer Judas Iscariot.[8] Judas's epithet Iscariot (?s?????? or ?s?a???t??), which distinguishes him from the other people named Judas in the gospels, is usually thought to be a Greek rendering of the Hebrew phrase ?????????, (Κ-Qryt), meaning "the man from Kerioth".[16][8][17] This interpretation is supported by the statement in the Gospel of John 6:71 that Judas was "the son of Simon Iscariot".[8] Nonetheless, this interpretation of the name is not fully accepted by all scholars.[16][8] One of the most popular alternative explanations holds that Iscariot (??????? 'Skaryota' in Syriac Aramaic, per the Peshitta text) may be a corruption of the Latin word sicarius, meaning "dagger man",[16][8][18][19] which referred to a member of the Sicarii (??????? in Aramaic), a group of Jewish rebels who were known for committing acts of terrorism in the 40s and 50s AD by assassinating people in crowds using long knives hidden under their cloaks.[16][8] This interpretation is problematic, however, because there is nothing in the gospels to associate Judas with the Sicarii,[8] and there is no evidence that the cadre existed during the 30s AD when Judas was alive.[20][8] A possibility advanced by Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg is that Iscariot means "the liar" or "the false one," perhaps from the Aramaic ????????????.[21] Stanford rejects this, noting that the gospel-writers follow Judas's name with the statement that he betrayed Jesus, so it would be redundant for them to call him "the false one" before immediately stating that he was a traitor.[8] Some have proposed that the word derives from an Aramaic word meaning "red color," from the root ???.[22] Another hypothesis holds that the word derives from one of the Aramaic roots ??? or ???. This would mean "to deliver," based on the LXX rendering of Isaiah 19:4 a theory advanced by J. Alfred Morin.[21] The epithet could also be associated with the manner of Judas's death, i.e., hanging. This would mean Iscariot derives from a kind of Greek-Aramaic hybrid: ???????????????, Iskarioutha, "chokiness" or "constriction." This might indicate that the epithet was applied posthumously by the remaining disciples, but Joan E. Taylor has argued that it was a descriptive name given to Judas by Jesus, since other disciples such as Simon Peter/Cephas (Kephas "rock") were also given such names.[21] Role as an apostle Calling of the Apostles (1481) by Domenico Ghirlandaio Although the canonical gospels frequently disagree on the names of some of the minor apostles,[23] all four of them list Judas Iscariot as one of them.[23][8] The Synoptic Gospels state that Jesus sent out "the twelve" (including Judas) with power over unclean spirits and with a ministry of preaching and healing: Judas clearly played an active part in this apostolic ministry alongside the other eleven.[24] However, in John's Gospel, Judas's outlook was differentiated - many of Jesus' disciples abandoned him because of the difficulty of accepting his teachings, and Jesus asked the twelve if they would also leave him. Simon Peter spoke for the twelve: "Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life," but Jesus observed then that despite the fact that he himself had chosen the twelve, one of them (unnamed by Jesus, but identified by the narrator) was "a devil" who would betray him.[25] One of the best-attested and most reliable statements made by Jesus in the gospels comes from the Gospel of Matthew 19:28, in which Jesus tells his apostles: "in the new world, when the Son of Man shall sit on his glorious throne, you will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."[23] New Testament scholar Bart D. Ehrman concludes, "This is not a tradition that was likely to have been made up by a Christian later, after Jesus's deathsince one of these twelve had abandoned his cause and betrayed him. No one thought that Judas Iscariot would be seated on a glorious throne in the Kingdom of God. That saying, therefore appears to go back to Jesus, and indicates, then, that he had twelve close disciples, whom he predicted would reign in the coming Kingdom."[23] A 16th century fresco depicting Judas being paid the 30 pieces of silver Matthew directly states that Judas betrayed Jesus for a bribe of "thirty pieces of silver"[26][27] by identifying him with a kiss "the kiss of Judas" to arresting soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas, who then turned Jesus over to Pontius Pilate's soldiers. Mark's Gospel states that the chief priests were looking for a way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast [of the Passover], since they were afraid that people would riot;[28] instead, they chose the night before the feast to arrest him. According to Luke's account, Satan entered Judas at this time.[29] According to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples' money bag or box (Greek: ???ss?????, glossokomon),[30] but John's Gospel makes no mention of the thirty pieces of silver as a fee for betrayal. The evangelist comments in John 12:56 that Judas spoke fine words about giving money to the poor, but the reality was "not that he cared for the poor, but [that] he was a thief, and had the money box; and he used to take what was put in it." However, in John 13:2730, when Judas left the gathering of Jesus and his disciples with betrayal in mind,[31] some [of the disciples] thought that Judas might have been leaving to buy supplies or on a charitable errand. Ehrman argues that Judas's betrayal "is about as historically certain as anything else in the tradition",[3][16] pointing out that the betrayal is independently attested in the Gospel of Mark, in the Gospel of John, and in the Book of Acts.[3][16] Ehrman also contends that it is highly unlikely that early Christians would have made the story of Judas's betrayal up, since it reflects poorly on Jesus's judgement in choosing him as an apostle.[3][32] Nonetheless, Ehrman argues that what Judas actually told the authorities was not Jesus's location, but rather Jesus's secret teaching that he was the Messiah.[3] This, he holds, explains why the authorities did not try to arrest Jesus prior to Judas's betrayal.[3] John P. Meier sums up the historical consensus, stating, "We only know two basic facts about [Judas]: (1) Jesus chose him as one of the Twelve, and (2) he handed over Jesus to the Jerusalem authorities, thus precipitating Jesus' execution."[33] Death 16th-century fresco from Tarzhishte Monastery, Strupets, Bulgaria, showing Judas hanging himself as described in Matthew 27:110 Many different accounts of Judas' death have survived from antiquity, both within and outside the New Testament.[34][35] Matthew 27:110 states that, after learning


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