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Movie Title Year Distributor Notes Rev Formats Lass jucken Kumpel 3: Maloche, Bier+Bett 1974 The nirvana state has been described in Buddhist texts partly in a manner similar to other Indian religions, as the state of complete liberation, enlightenment, highest happiness, bliss, fearlessness, freedom, permanence, non-dependent origination, unfathomable, and indescribable.[147][148] It has also been described in part differently, as a state of spiritual release marked by "emptiness" and realisation of non-self.[149][150][151][note 21] While Buddhism considers the liberation from sa?sara as the ultimate spiritual goal, in traditional practice, the primary focus of a vast majority of lay Buddhists has been to seek and accumulate merit through good deeds, donations to monks and various Buddhist rituals in order to gain better rebirths rather than nirvana.[154][108][note 22] Dependent arising
Main articles: Pratityasamutpada and Twelve Nidanas Pratityasamutpada, also called "dependent arising, or dependent origination", is the Buddhist theory to explain the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. Buddhism asserts that there is nothing independent, except the state of nirvana.[155] All physical and mental states depend on and arise from other pre-existing states, and in turn from them arise other dependent states while they cease.[156] The 'dependent arisings' have a causal conditioning, and thus Pratityasamutpada is the Buddhist belief that causality is the basis of ontology, not a creator God nor the ontological Vedic concept called universal Self (Brahman) nor any other 'transcendent creative principle'.[157][158] However, the Buddhist thought does not understand causality in terms of Newtonian mechanics, rather it understands it as conditioned arising.[159][160] In Buddhism, dependent arising is referring to conditions created by a plurality of causes that necessarily co-originate a phenomenon within and across lifetimes, such as karma in one life creating conditions that lead to rebirth in one of the realms of existence for another lifetime.[161][162][163] Buddhism applies the dependent arising theory to explain origination of endless cycles of dukkha and rebirth, through its Twelve Nidanas or "twelve links" doctrine. It states that because Avidya (ignorance) exists Sa?skaras (karmic formations) exists, because Sa?skaras exists therefore Vij˝ana (consciousness) exists, and in a similar manner it links Namarupa (sentient body), ?a?ayatana (six senses), Sparsa (sensory stimulation), Vedana (feeling), Ta?ha (craving), Upadana (grasping), Bhava (becoming), Jati (birth), and Jaramara?a (old age, death, sorrow, pain).[164][165]



By breaking the circuitous links of the Twelve Nidanas, Buddhism asserts that liberation from these endless cycles of rebirth and dukkha can be attained.[166] Not-Self and Emptiness The Five Aggregates (pa˝ca khandha) according to the Pali Canon. form (rupa) 4 elements (mahabhuta) ? contact (phassa) ? ? consciousness (vi˝˝ana) ? ? ? mental factors (cetasika) feeling (vedana) perception (sa˝˝a) formation (sa?khara) Form is derived from the Four Great Elements. Consciousness arises from other aggregates. Mental Factors arise from the Contact of Consciousness and other aggregates. Source: MN 109 (Thanissaro, 2001) | diagram details Main articles: Anatman and Sunyata A related doctrine in Buddhism is that of anatta (Pali) or anatman (Sanskrit). It is the view that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in phenomena.[167] The Buddha and Buddhist philosophers who follow him such as Vasubandhu and Buddhaghosa, generally argue for this view through by analyzing the person through the schema of the five aggregates, and then attempting to show that none of these five components of personality can be permanent or absolute.[168] This can be seen in Buddhist discourses such as the Anattalakkhana Sutta. "Emptiness" or "voidness" (Skt: Sunyata, Pali: Su˝˝ata), is a related concept with many different interpretations throughout the various Buddhisms. In early Buddhism, it was commonly stated that all five aggregates are void (rittaka), hollow (tucchaka), coreless (asaraka), for example as in the Phe?api??upama Sutta (SN 22:95).[169] Similarly, in Theravada Buddhism, it often simply means that the five aggregates are empty of a Self.[170] Emptiness is a central concept in Mahayana Buddhism, especially in Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka school, and in the Praj˝aparamita sutras. In Madhyamaka philosophy, emptiness is the view which holds that all phenomena (dharmas) are without any svabhava (literally "own-nature" or "self-nature"), and are thus without any underlying essence, and so are "empty" of being independent. This doctrine sought to refute the heterodox theories of svabhava circulating at the time.[171] The Three Jewels Dharma Wheel and triratna symbols from Sanchi Stupa number 2. Main article: Three Jewels All forms of Buddhism revere and take spiritual refuge in the "three jewels" (triratna): Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. [172] Buddha Main article: Buddhahood While all varieties of Buddhism revere "Buddha" and "buddhahood", they have different views on what these are. Whatever that may be, "Buddha" is still central to all forms of Buddhism. In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha is someone who has become awake through their own efforts and insight. They have put an end to their cycle of rebirths and have ended all unwholesome mental states which lead to bad action and thus are morally perfected.[173] While subject to the limitations of the human body in certain ways (for example, in the early texts, the Buddha suffers from backaches), a Buddha is said to be "deep, immeasurable, hard-to-fathom as is the great ocean," and also has immense psychic powers (abhij˝a).[174] Theravada generally sees Gautama Buddha (the historical Buddha Sakyamuni) as the only Buddha of the current era. While he is no longer in this world, he has left us the Dharma (Teaching), the Vinaya (Discipline) and the Sangha (Community).[175] There are also said to be two types of Buddhas, a sammasambuddha is also said to teach the Dharma to others, while a paccekabuddha (solitary buddha) does not teach.[173] Mahayana Buddhism meanwhile, has a vastly expanded cosmology, with various Buddhas and other holy beings (aryas) residing in different realms. Mahayana texts not only revere numerous Buddhas besides Sakyamuni, such as Amitabha and Vairocana, but also see them as transcendental or supramundane (lokuttara) beings.[176] Mahayana Buddhism holds that these other Buddhas in other realms can be contacted and are able to benefit beings in this world.[177] In Mahayana, a Buddha is a kind of "spiritual king", a "protector of all creatures" with a lifetime that is countless of eons long, rather than just a human teacher who has transcended the world after death.[178] Buddha Sakyamuni's life and death on earth is then usually understood as a "mere appearance" or "a manifestation skilfully projected into earthly life by a long-enlightened transcendent being, who is still available to teach the faithful through visionary experiences."[178][179] Dharma Main article: Dharma "Dharma" (Pali: Dhamma) in Buddhism refers to the Buddha's teaching, which includes all of the main ideas outlined above. While this teaching reflects the true nature of reality, it is not a belief to be clung to, but a pragmatic teaching to be put into practice. It is likened to a raft which is "for crossing over" (to nirvana) not for holding on to.[180] It also refers to the universal law and cosmic order which that teaching both reveals and relies upon.[181] It is an everlasting principle which applies to all beings and worlds. In that sense it is also the ultimate truth and reality about the universe, it is thus "the way that things really are." The Dharma is the second of the three jewels which all Buddhists take refuge in. All Buddhas in all worlds, in the past, present and in the future, are believed by Buddhists to understand and teach the Dharma. Indeed, it is part of what makes them a Buddha that they do so. Sangha Main articles: Sangha, Bodhisattva, and Arhat Buddhist monks and nuns praying in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple of Singapore The third "jewel" which Buddhists take refuge in is the "Sangha", which refers to the monastic community of monks and nuns who follow Gautama Buddha's monastic discipline which was "designed to shape the Sangha as an ideal community, with the optimum conditions for spiritual growth."[182] The Sangha consists of those who have chosen to follow the Buddha's ideal way of life, which is one of celibate monastic renunciation with minimal material possessions (such as an alms bowl and robes).[183] The Sangha is seen as important because they preserve and pass down Buddha Dharma. As Gethin states "the Sangha lives the teaching, preserves the teaching as Scriptures and teaches the wider commmunity. Without the Sangha there is no Buddhism."[184] The Sangha also act as a "field of merit" for laypersons, allowing them to make spiritual merit or goodness by donating to the Sangha and supporting them. In return, they keep their duty to preserve and spread the Dharma everywhere for the good of the world.[185] The Sangha are also supposed to follow the Vinaya (monastic rule) of the Buddha, thereby serving as an spiritual example for the world and future generations. The Vinaya rules also force the Sangha to live in dependence on the rest of the lay community (they must beg for food etc) and thus draw the Sangha into a relationship with the lay community.[186] A depiction of Siddhartha Gautama in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara. After making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood, he becomes a "bodhisatta". There is also a separate definition of Sangha, referring to those who have attained any stage of awakening, whether or not they are monastics. This sangha is called the aryasa?gha "noble Sangha".[187] All forms of Buddhism generally reveres these aryas (Pali: ariya, "noble ones" or "holy ones") who are spiritually attained beings. Aryas have attained the fruits of the Buddhist path.[188] Becoming an arya is a goal in most forms of Buddhism. The aryasa?gha includes holy beings such as bodhisattvas, arhats and stream-enterers. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Pakistan (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art. In early Buddhism and in Theravada Buddhism, an arhat (literally meaning "worthy") is someone who reached the same awakening (bodhi) of a Buddha by following the teaching of a Buddha.[189] They are seen as having ended rebirth and all the mental defilements. A bodhisattva ("a being bound for awakening") meanwhile, is simply a name for someone who is working towards awakening (bodhi) as a Buddha. According to all the early buddhist schools as well as Theravada, to be considered a bodhisattva one has to have made a vow in front of a living Buddha and also has to have received a confirmation of one's future Buddhahood.[190] In Theravada, the future Buddha is called Metteya (Maitreya) and he is revered as a bodhisatta currently working for future Buddhahood.[190] Mahayana Buddhism generally sees the attainment of the arhat as an inferior one, since it is seen as being done only for the sake of individual liberation. It thus promotes the bodhisattva path as the highest and most worthwhile.[191] While in Mahayana, anyone who has given rise to bodhicitta (the wish to become a Buddha that arises from a sense of compassion for all beings) is considered a bodhisattva,[192] some of these holy beings (such as Maitreya and Avalokiteshvara) have reached very high levels of spiritual attainment and are seen as being very powerful supramundane beings who provide aid to countless beings through their advanced powers.[193] Other key Mahayana views Main articles: Yogachara and Buddha-nature Mahayana Buddhism also differs from Theravada and the other schools of early Buddhism in promoting several unique doctrines which are contained in Mahayana sutras and philosophical treatises. One of these is the unique interpretation of emptiness and dependent origination found in the Madhyamaka school. Another very influential doctrine for Mahayana is the main philosophical view of the Yogacara school variously, termed Vij˝aptimatrata-vada ("the doctrine that there are only ideas" or "mental impressions") or Vij˝anavada ("the doctrine of consciousness"). According to Mark Siderits, what classical Yogacara thinkers like Vasubandhu had in mind is that we are only ever aware of mental images or impressions, which may appear as external objects, but "there is actually no such thing outside the mind."[194] There are several interpretations of this main theory, many scholars see it as a type of Idealism, others as a kind of phenomenology.[195] Another very influential concept unique to Mahayana is that of "Buddha-nature" (buddhadhatu) or "Tathagata-womb" (tathagatagarbha). Buddha-nature is a concept found in some 1st-millennium CE Buddhist texts, such as the Tathagatagarbha sutras. According to Paul Williams these Sutras suggest that 'all sentient beings contain a Tathagata' as their 'essence, core inner nature, Self'.[196][note 23] According to Karl Brunnholzl "the earliest mahayana sutras that are based on and discuss the notion of tathagatagarbha as the buddha potential that is innate in all sentient beings began to appear in written form in the late second and early third century."[198] For some, the doctrine seems to conflict with the Buddhist anatta doctrine (non-Self), leading scholars to posit that the Tathagatagarbha Sutras were written to promote Buddhism to non-Buddhists.[199][200] This can be seen in texts like the La?kavatara Sutra, which state that Buddha-nature is taught to help those who have fear when they listen to the teaching of anatta.[201] Buddhist texts like the Ratnagotravibhaga clarify that the "Self" implied in Tathagatagarbha doctrine is actually "not-Self".[202][203] Various interpretations of the concept have been advanced by Buddhist thinkers throughout the history of Buddhist thought and most attempt to avoid anything like the Hindu Atman doctrine. These Indian Buddhist ideas, in various synthetic ways, form the basis of subsequent Mahayana philosophy in Tibetan Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism. Paths to Liberation Main article: Buddhist Paths to liberation While the Noble Eightfold Path is best-known in the West, a wide variety of paths and models of progress have been used and described in the different Buddhist traditions. However, they generally share basic practices such as sila (ethics), samadhi (meditation, dhyana) and praj˝a (wisdom), which are known as the three trainings. An important additional practice is a kind and compassionate attitude toward every living being and the world. Devotion is also important in some Buddhist traditions, and in the Tibetan traditions visualisations of deities and mandalas are important. The value of textual study is regarded differently in the various Buddhist traditions. It is central to Theravada and highly important to Tibetan Buddhism, while the Zen tradition takes an ambiguous stance. An important guiding principle of Buddhist practice is the Middle Way (madhyamapratipad). It was a part of Buddha's first sermon, where he presented the Noble Eightfold Path that was a 'middle way' between the extremes of asceticism and hedonistic sense pleasures.[204][205] In Buddhism, states Harvey, the doctrine of "dependent arising" (conditioned arising, pratityasamutpada) to explain rebirth is viewed as the 'middle way' between the doctrines that a being has a "permanent soul" involved in rebirth (eternalism) and "death is final and there is no rebirth" (annihilationism).[206][207] Paths to liberation in the early texts A common presentation style of the path (marga) to liberation in the Early Buddhist Texts is the "graduated talk", in which the Buddha lays out a step by step training.[208] In the early texts, numerous different sequences of the gradual path can be found.[209] One of the most important and widely used presentations among the various Buddhist schools is The Noble Eightfold Path, or "Eightfold Path of the Noble Ones" (Skt. 'arya??a?gamarga'). This can be found in various discourses, most famously in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (The discourse on the turning of the Dharma wheel). Other suttas such as the Tevijja Sutta, and the Cula-Hatthipadopama-sutta give a different outline of the path, though with many similar elements such as ethics and meditation.[209] According to Rupert Gethin, the path to awakening is also frequently summarized by another a short formula: "abandoning the hindrances, practice of the four establishings of mindfulness, and development of the awakening factors."[210] Noble Eightfold Path Main article: Noble Eightfold Path The Eightfold Path consists of a set of eight interconnected factors or conditions, that when developed together, lead to the cessation of dukkha.[211] These eight factors are: Right View (or Right Understanding), Right Intention (or Right Thought), Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. This Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Four Noble Truths, and asserts the path to the cessation of dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness).[212][213] The path teaches that the way of the enlightened ones stopped their craving, clinging and karmic accumulations, and thus ended their endless cycles of rebirth and suffering.[214][215][216] The Noble Eightfold Path is grouped into three basic divisions, as follows:[217][218][219] Division Eightfold factor Sanskrit, Pali Description Wisdom (Sanskrit: praj˝a, Pali: pa˝˝a) 1. Right view samyag d???i, samma ditthi The belief that there is an afterlife and not everything ends with death, that Buddha taught and followed a successful path to nirvana;[217] according to Peter Harvey, the right view is held in Buddhism as a belief in the Buddhist principles of karma and rebirth, and the importance of the Four Noble Truths and the True Realities.[220] 2. Right intention samyag sa?kalpa, samma sa?kappa Giving up home and adopting the life of a religious mendicant in order to follow the path;[217] this concept, states Harvey, aims at peaceful renunciation, into an environment of non-sensuality, non-ill-will (to lovingkindness), away from cruelty (to compassion).[220] Moral virtues[218] (Sanskrit: sila, Pali: sila) 3. Right speech samyag vac, samma vaca No lying, no rude speech, no telling one person what another says about him, speaking that which leads to salvation.[217] 4. Right action samyag karman, samma kammanta No killing or injuring, no taking what is not given; no sexual acts in monastic pursuit,[217] for lay Buddhists no sensual misconduct such as sexual involvement with someone married, or with an unmarried woman protected by her parents or relatives.[221][222][223] 5. Right livelihood samyag ajivana, samma ajiva For monks, beg to feed, only possessing what is essential to sustain life.[224] For lay Buddhists, the canonical texts state right livelihood as abstaining from wrong livelihood, explained as not becoming a source or means of suffering to sentient beings by cheating them, or harming or killing them in any way.[225][226] Meditation[218] (Sanskrit and Pali: samadhi) 6. Right effort samyag vyayama, samma vayama Guard against sensual thoughts; this concept, states Harvey, aims at preventing unwholesome states that disrupt meditation.[227] 7. Right mindfulness samyag sm?ti, samma sati Never be absent minded, conscious of what one is doing; this, states Harvey, encourages mindfulness about impermanence of the body, feelings and mind, as well as to experience the five skandhas, the five hindrances


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