Gabrielle Behar : This Is An Un Official Fan Site Tribute
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Gabrielle Behar

Movie Title Year Distributor Notes Rev Formats All American Girls 3: Up Up and Away 1984 Caballero Home Video DRO Blue Vanities 275 1996 Blue Vanities DO Dear Fanny 1985 Metro 1 DRO Hot Shorts: Cara Lott 1986 VCR 1 DO Only the Best of Men's and Women's Fantasies 1988 Metro 1 DRO Pleasure Productions 2 1984 Mark IV Productions DO Radio K-KUM 1984 Filmco Releasing BJOnly O
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.[1][2] It is the business process of identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers' needs and wants. Because marketing is used to attract customers, it is one of the primary components of business management and commerce.[3] Marketers can direct product to other businesses (B2B marketing) or directly to consumers (B2C marketing).[4] Regardless of who is being marketed to, several factors, including the perspective the marketers will use. These market orientations determine how marketers will approach the planning stage of marketing.[5] This leads into the marketing mix, which outlines the specifics of the product and how it will be sold.[6][7] This can in turn be affected by the environment surrounding the product [8], the results of marketing research and market research[9], and the characteristics of the product's target market.[10] Once these factors are determined, marketers must then decide what methods will be used to market the product.[4] This decision is based on the factors analyzed in the planning stage as well as where the product is in the product life cycle.



Contents 1 Definition 2 Concept 3 B2B and B2C Marketing 3.1 B2B marketing 3.2 B2C marketing 3.3 C2B marketing 3.4 C2C marketing 3.5 Differences in B2B and B2C marketing 4 Orientations 4.1 Product 4.2 Sales 4.3 Production 4.4 Marketing 4.5 Societal marketing 5 The Marketing Mix 5.1 The 4Ps 5.1.1 Outline 5.1.2 Criticisms 5.1.3 Modifications and extensions 5.2 The 4Cs 5.2.1 Outline 6 Environment 6.1 Macro 6.2 Micro 6.3 Internal 7 Research 8 Segmentation 9 Promotional Mix 9.1 Personal selling 9.2 Sales promotion 9.3 Public relations 9.4 Advertising 9.5 Social Media 10 The Marketing Plan 10.1 Process 10.2 Levels of marketing objectives within an organization 11 Product life cycle 12 See also 12.1 Types of marketing 12.2 Marketing orientations or philosophies 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links Definition Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large".[11] The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market with goods for sale. From a sales process engineering perspective, marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction".[12] Philip Kotler defined marketing as "Satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process".[13] and a decade later defines it as a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want and need through creating, offering and exchanging products of value with others.[13] The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably".[14] A similar concept is the value-based marketing which states the role of marketing to contribute to increasing shareholder value.[15] In this context, marketing can be defined as "the management process that seeks to maximise returns to shareholders by developing relationships with valued customers and creating a competitive advantage".[15] In the past, marketing practice tended to be seen as a creative industry, which included advertising, distribution and selling. However, because the academic study of marketing makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, economics, anthropology and neuroscience, the profession is now widely recognized as a science,[16] allowing numerous universities to offer Master-of-Science (MSc) programs.[17] The process of marketing is that of bringing a product to market, which includes these steps: broad market research; market targeting and market segmentation; determining distribution, pricing and promotion strategies; developing a communications strategy; budgeting; and visioning long-term market development goals.[18] Many parts of the marketing process (e.g. product design, art director, brand management, advertising, inbound marketing, copywriting etc.) involve use of the creative arts.[citation needed][19] Concept The 'marketing concept' proposes that to complete its organizational objectives, an organization should anticipate the needs and wants of potential consumers and satisfy them more effectively than its competitors. This concept originated from Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations but would not become widely used until nearly 200 years later.[20] Marketing and Marketing Concepts are directly related. Given the centrality of customer needs, and wants in marketing, a rich understanding of these concepts is essential:[21] Needs: Something necessary for people to live a healthy, stable and safe life. When needs remain unfulfilled, there is a clear adverse outcome: a dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as the need for food, water, and shelter; or subjective and psychological, such as the need to belong to a family or social group and the need for self-esteem. Wants: Something that is desired, wished for or aspired to. Wants are not essential for basic survival and are often shaped by culture or peer-groups. Demands: When needs and wants are backed by the ability to pay, they have the potential to become economic demands. Marketing research, conducted for the purpose of new product development or product improvement, is often concerned with identifying the consumer's unmet needs.[22] Customer needs are central to market segmentation which is concerned with dividing markets into distinct groups of buyers on the basis of "distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviors who might require separate products or marketing mixes."[23] Needs-based segmentation (also known as benefit segmentation) "places the customers' desires at the forefront of how a company designs and markets products or services."[24] Although needs-based segmentation is difficult to do in practice, it has been proved to be one of the most effective ways to segment a market.[25][22] In addition, a great deal of advertising and promotion is designed to show how a given product's benefits meet the customer's needs, wants or expectations in a unique way.[26] B2B and B2C Marketing The two major segments of marketing are business-to-business (B2B) marketing and business-to-consumer (B2C) marketing. [4] B2B marketing B2B (business-to-business) marketing refers to any marketing strategy or content that is geared towards a business or organization. Any company that sells products or services to other businesses or organizations (vs. consumers) typically uses B2B marketing strategies. Examples of products sold through B2B marketing include: Major equipment Accessory equipment Raw materials Component parts Processed materials Supplies Business services[4] The four major categories of B2B product purchasers are: Producers- use products sold by B2B marketing to make their own goods (e.g.: Mattel buying plastics to make toys) Resellers- buy B2B products to sell through retail or wholesale establishments (e.g.: Walmart buying vacuums to sell in stores) Governments- buy B2B products for use in government projects (e.g.: purchasing contractor services to repair infrastructure) Institutions- use B2B products to continue operation (e.g.: schools buying printers for office use) [4] B2C marketing Business-to-consumer marketing, or B2C marketing, refers to the tactics and strategies in which a company promotes its products and services to individual people. Traditionally, this could refer to individuals shopping for personal products in a broad sense. More recently the term B2C refers to the online selling of consumer products.[27] C2B marketing Consumer-to-business marketing or C2B marketing is a business model where the end consumers create products and services which are consumed by businesses and organizations. It is diametrically opposed to the popular concept of B2C or Business- to- Consumer where the companies make goods and services available to the end consumers. C2C marketing Customer to customer marketing or C2C marketing represents a market environment where one customer purchases goods from another customer using a third-party business or platform to facilitate the transaction. C2C companies are a new type of model that has emerged with e-commerce technology and the sharing economy


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