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Movie Title Year Distributor Notes Rev Formats Cute Carol Takes Gisele's Shemale Stick In All Holes 2010 Tranny.com Giselly Backer 2010 grooby.com MastOnly Tranny Gisele Takes Extreme Anal Fisting 2011 Tranny.com Fisting Bottom crucial factor for a harmonious "religious ecology" (????), that is the balance of forces in a given community.[33] Professor Han Bingfang ??? has called for a rectification of distorted names (??). Distorted names are "superstitious activities" (????) or "feudal superstition" (????), that were derogatorily applied to the indigenous religion by leftist policies. Christian missionaries also used the propaganda label "feudal superstition" in order to undermine their religious competitor.[34] Han calls for the acknowledgment of the ancient Chinese religion for what it really is, the "core and soul of popular culture" (?????????).[35] According to Chen Jinguo ???, the ancient Chinese religion is a core element of Chinese cultural and religious self-awareness (????, ????).[34] He has proposed a theoretical definition of Chinese indigenous religion in "three inseparable attributes" (????), apparently inspired to Tang Junyi's thought:[36]
substance (ti ?): religiousness (zongjio xng ???); function (yng ?): folkloricity (mns xng ???); quality (xing ?): Chineseness (Zhonghu xng ???). Characteristics See also: Chinese creation myth and Chinese spiritual world concepts Communal ceremony at the Great Temple of Yandi Shennong (?????? Ynd Shnnng ddin) in Suizhou, Hubei. Statue of Mazu at a temple in Chiayi, Taiwan. Diversity and unity Ancient Chinese religious practices are diverse, varying from province to province and even from one village to another, for religious behaviour is bound to local communities, kinship, and environments. In each setting, institution and ritual behaviour assumes highly organised forms. Temples and the gods in them acquire symbolic character and perform specific functions involved in the everyday life of the local community.[37] Local religion preserves aspects of natural beliefs such as totemism,[38] animism, and shamanism.[39] Ancient Chinese religion pervades all aspects of social life. Many scholars, following the lead of sociologist C. K. Yang, see the ancient Chinese religion deeply embedded in family and civic life, rather than expressed in a separate organisational structure like a "church," as in the West.[40] Deity or temple associations and lineage associations, pilgrimage associations and formalised prayers, rituals and expressions of virtues, are the common forms of organisation of Chinese religion on the local level.[37] Neither initiation rituals nor official membership into a church organisation separate from one person's native identity are mandatory in order to be involved in religious activities.[37] Contrary to institutional religions, Chinese religion does not require "conversion" for participation.[40]



The prime criterion for participation in the ancient Chinese religion is not "to believe" in an official doctrine or dogma, but "to belong" to the local unit of an ancient Chinese religion, that is the "association", the "village" or the "kinship", with their gods and rituals.[37] Scholar Richard Madsen describes the ancient Chinese religion, adopting the definition of Tu Weiming,[41] as characterised by "immanent transcendence" grounded in a devotion to "concrete humanity", focused on building moral community within concrete humanity.[42] Inextricably linked to the aforementioned question to find an appropriate "name" for the ancient Chinese religion, is the difficulty to define it or clearly outline its boundaries. Old sinology, especially Western, tried to distinguish "popular" and "lite" traditions (the latter being Confucianism and Taoism conceived as independent systems). Chinese sinology later adopted another dichotomy which continues in contemporary studies, distinguishing "folk beliefs" (minjian xinyang) and "folk religion" (minjian zongjiao), the latter referring to the doctrinal sects.[43] Many studies have pointed out that it is impossible to draw clear distinctions, and since the 1970s several sinologists[who?] swung to the idea of a unified "ancient Chinese religion" that would define the Chinese national identity, similarly to Hinduism for India and Shinto for Japan. Other sinologists who have not espoused the idea of a unified "national religion" have studied Chinese religion as a system of meaning, or have brought further development in C. K. Yang's distinction between "institutional religion" and "diffused religion", the former functioning as a separate body from other social institutions, and the latter intimately part of secular social institutions.[44] History Imperial China By the Han dynasty, the ancient Chinese religion mostly consisted of people organising into sh ? ("group", "body", local community altars) who worshipped their godly principle. In many cases the "lord of the she" was the god of the earth, and in others a deified virtuous person (xian ?, "immortal"). Some cults such as that of Liu Zhang, a king in what is today Shandong, date back to this period.[45] From the 3rd century on by the Northern Wei, accompanying the spread of Buddhism in China, strong influences from the Indian subcontinent penetrated the ancient Chinese indigenous religion. A cult of Ganesha (??? Xingtushn, "Elephant-Head God") is attested in the year 531.[46] Pollination from Indian religions included processions of carts with images of gods or floats borne on shoulders, with musicians and chanting.[45] 19th20th century Zitong altar in a temple of Quanzhou, Fujian. To his left there is a statue of Kuixing. The ancient Chinese religion was subject to persecution in the 19th and 20th centuries. Many ancient temples were destroyed during the Taiping Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion in the late 1800s.[47] After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 "most temples were turned to other uses or were destroyed, with a few changed into schools".[48] During the Japanese invasion of China between 1937 and 1945 many temples were used as barracks by soldiers and destroyed in warfare.[47][49] In the past, popular cults were regulated by imperial government policies, promoting certain deities while suppressing other ones.[50] In the 20th century, with the decline of the empire, increasing urbanisation and Western influence, the issue for the new intellectual class was no longer controlling unauthorised worship of unregistered gods, but became the delegitimisation of the ancient Chinese religion as a superstitious obstacle to modernisation.[51] In 1904, a government regulation of the late empire approved for schools to be built through the confiscation of temple property.[51] Various "anti-superstition" campaigns followed. The Kuomingtang government of the Republic of China (Taiwan) intensified the suppression of the ancient Chinese religion with the 1928 "Standards for retaining or abolishing gods and shrines"; the policy abolished all cults of gods with the exception of human heroes such as Yu the Great, Guan Yu and Confucius.[52] These policies were the background of those that were implemented in communist China after the Chinese Civil War between the communist Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the democratic Republic of China (Taiwan) in 1949.[52] The Cultural Revolution, between 1966 and 1976 of the Chairman Mao period in the communist Peoples Republic of China (PRC), was the last systematic effort to destroy the ancient Chinese religion, while in Taiwan the ancient Chinese religion was both preserved and promoted by Republic of China (Taiwan) president Chiang Kai-Shek during his Chinese Cultural Renaissance to counter the Cultural Revolution.[47][52] After 1978 the ancient Chinese religion started to rapidly revive in China,[53][54] with millions of temples being rebuilt or built from scratch.[54] Since the 1980s the central government moved to a policy of benign neglect or wu wei (??) in regard to rural community life, and the local government's new regulatory relationship with local society is characterized by practical mutual dependence; these factors have given much space for popular religion to develop.[54] In recent years, in some cases, local governments have taken an even positive and supportive attitude towards indigenous religion in the name of promoting cultural heritage.[54][55] Instead of signaling the demise of traditional ancient religion, China and Taiwans economic and technological industrialization and development has brought a spiritual renewal.[56] As its images and practices integrate the codes of the ancient Chinese culture, the ancient Chinese religion provides the Han Chinese people in both China and Taiwan a means to face the challenges of modernisation.[56] Texts Further information: Chinese classics Eastern Han (25-220 AD) Chinese stone-carved que pillar gates of Dingfang, Zhong County, Chongqing that once belonged to a temple dedicated to the Warring States era general Ba Manzi Ancient Chinese religion draws from a vast heritage of sacred books, which according to the general worldview treat cosmology, history and mythology, mysticism and philosophy, as aspects of the same thing. Historically, the revolutionary shift toward a preference for textual transmission and text-based knowledge over long-standing oral traditions first becomes detectable in the 1st century CE.[57] The spoken word, however, never lost its power. Rather than writing replacing the power of the spoken word, both existed side by side. Scriptures had to be recited and heard in order to be efficacious, and the limitations of written texts were acknowledged particularly in Taoism and folk religion.[58] There are the classic books (? jing, "warp") such as the Confucian canon including the "Four Books and Five Classics" (???? Sshu wujing) and the "Classic of Filial Piety" (?? Xiojing), then there are the Mozi (Mohism), the Huainanzi, the Shizi and the Xunzi. The "Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind" (???? Tianrn Ganyng) is a set of Confucianised doctrines compiled in the Han dynasty by Dong Zhongshu, discussing politics in accordance with a personal Tian of whom mankind is viewed as the incarnation. Taoism has a separate body of philosophical, theological and ritual literature, including the fundamental Daodejing (??? "Book of the Way and its Virtue"), the Daozang (Taoist Canon), the Liezi and the Zhuangzi, and a great number of other texts either included or not within the Taoist Canon. Vernacular literature and the folk religious sects have produced a great body of popular mythological and theological literature, the baojuan (?? "precious scrolls"). Recent discovery of ancient books, such as the "Guodian texts" in the 1990s and the Huangdi sijing (???? "Four Books of the Yellow Emperor") in the 1970s, has given rise to new interpretations of the ancient Chinese religion and new directions in its post-Maoist renewal. Many of these books overcome the dichotomy between Confucian and Taoist traditions.[59] The Guodian texts include, among others, the Taiyi Shengshui (???? "The Great One Gives Birth to Water"). Another book attributed to the Yellow Emperor is the Huangdi yinfujing (????? "Yellow Emperor's Book of the Hidden Symbol"). Classical books of mythology include the "Classic of Mountains and Seas" (??? Shanhaijing), the "Record of Heretofore Lost Works" (??? Shyj), "The Peach Blossom Spring" (???? Tohuayunj), the "Investiture of the Gods" (???? Fengshn yany), and the "Journey to the West" (??? Xiyuj) among others. Core concepts of theology and cosmology See also: Chinese theology and Chinese philosophy Fan and Chen summarise four spiritual, cosmological, and moral concepts:[4] Tian (?), Heaven, the source of moral meaning; qi (?), the breath or substance of which all things are made; the practice of jingzu (??), the veneration of ancestors; bao ying (??), moral reciprocity. Tian, its li and qi Tian or Di as the square of the north astral pole.[60] "Tian is dian ? ("top"), the highest and unexceeded. It derives from the characters yi ?, "one", and da ?, "big"."[note 1] Main articles: Tian and Qi Confucians, Taoists, and other schools of thought share basic concepts of Tian. Tian is both the physical heavens, the home of the sun, moon, and stars, and also the home of the gods and ancestors. Tian by extension is source of moral meaning, as seen in the political principal, Mandate of Heaven, which holds that Tian, responding to human virtue, grants the imperial family the right to rule and withdraws it when the dynasty declines in virtue.[68] This creativity or virtue (de), in humans is the potentiality to transcend the given conditions


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