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Movie Title Year Distributor Notes Rev Formats Her First Lesbian Sex 21 2011 Pink Visual LezOnly 1 between the three realms of heaven, earth and man. The mission of a shaman (? wu) is "to repair the dis-functionalities occurred in nature and generated after the sky had been separated from earth":[132] "The female shamans called wu as well as the male shamans called xi represent the voice of spirits, repair the natural dis-functions, foretell the future based on dreams and the art of divination ... "a historical science of the future", whereas shamans are able to observe the yin and the yang ..." Since the 1980s the practice and study of shamanism has undergone a massive revival in Chinese religion as a means to repair the world to a harmonious whole after industrialisation.[132] Shamanism is viewed by many scholars as the foundation for the emergence of civilisation, and the shaman as "teacher and spirit" of peoples. The Chinese Society for Shamanic Studies was founded in Jilin City in 1988.[133] Nuo folk religion is a system of the Chinese folk religion with distinct institutions and cosmology present especially in central-southern China. It arose as an exorcistic religious movement, and it is interethnic but also intimately connected to the Tujia people.[134]
Confucianism, Taoism and orders of ritual masters Temple of Fortune and Longevity, at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji, Xinjiang. It is an example of Taoist temple which hosts various chapels dedicated to popular gods.[note 9] Folk ritual masters conducting a ceremony. The Temple of the God of Culture (?? wnmio) of Jiangyin, Wuxi, Jiangsu. In this temple the Wnd (??, "God of Culture") enshrined is Confucius. Main articles: Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese ritual mastery traditions Confucianism and Taoismwhich are formalised, ritual, doctrinal or philosophical traditionscan be considered both as embedded within the larger category of Chinese religion, or as separate religions. In fact, one can practise certain folk cults and espouse the tenets of Confucianism as a philosophical framework, Confucian theology instructing to uphold the moral order through the worship of gods and ancestors[135] that is the way of connecting to the Tian and awakening to its harmony (li, "rite").[136] Folk temples and ancestral shrines on special occasions may choose Confucian liturgy (that is called ? r, or sometimes ?? zhngtong, meaning "orthoprax" ritual style) led by Confucian "sages of rites" (?? lisheng) who in many cases are the elders of a local community. Confucian liturgies are alternated with Taoist liturgies and popular ritual styles.[137]



There are many organised groups of the folk religion that adopt Confucian liturgy and identity, for example the Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition or phoenix churches (Luanism), or the Confucian churches, schools and fellowships such as the Yidan xutng (????) of Beijing,[138] the Mngmutng (???) of Shanghai,[139] the Confucian Fellowship (???? Rjio Dotn) in northern Fujian, and ancestral temples of the Kong (Confucius) lineage operating as well as Confucian-teaching churches.[139] In November 2015 a national Holy Confucian Church was established with the contribution of many Confucian leaders. Scholar and Taoist priest Kristofer Schipper defines Taoism as a "liturgical framework" for the development of local religion.[140] Some currents of Taoism are deeply interwoven with the Chinese folk religion, especially the Zhengyi school, developing aspects of local cults within their doctrines;[140] however Taoists always highlight the distinction between their traditions and those which aren't Taoist. Priests of Taoism are called daoshi (??), literally meaning "masters of the Tao", otherwise commonly translated simply the "Taoists", as common followers and folk believers who are not part of Taoist orders are not identified as such. Taoists of the Zhengyi school, who are called sanju doshi (????) or huoju doshi (????), respectively meaning "scattered daoshi" and "daoshi living at home (hearth)", because they can get married and perform the profession of priests as a part-time occupation, may perform rituals of offering (jiao), thanks-giving, propitiation, exorcism and rites of passage for local communities' temples and private homes.[141] Local gods of local cultures are often incorporated into their altars.[141] The Zhengyi Taoists are trained by other priests of the same sect, and historically received formal ordination by the Celestial Master,[142] although the 63rd Celestial Master Zhang Enpu fled to Taiwan in the 1940s during the Chinese Civil War. Lineages of ritual masters (?? fashi), also referred to as practitioners of "Faism", also called "Folk Taoism" or (in southeast China) "Red Taoism", operate within the Chinese folk religion but outside any institution of official Taoism.[142] The ritual masters, who have the same role of the sanju daoshi within the fabric of society, aren't considered Taoist priests by the daoshi of Taoism who trace their lineage to the Celestial Masters and by Taoists officially registered with the state Taoist Church. Fashi are defined as of "kataphatic" (filling) character in opposition to professional Taoists who are "kenotic" (of emptying, or apophatic, character).[143] Organised folk religious sects A church of Yiguandao in Batam, Indonesia. The Luanist Rebirth Church (??? Chngshengtng) in Taichung, Taiwan. Two influential and competing folk sectarian currents: one in Yiguandao focusing on personal salvation through inner work, considers itself the most valid "Way of Heaven" (?? Tiando) and its own a "Way of Former Heaven" (??? Xiantiando), that is a cosmological definition of the state of things prior to creation, in unity with God; it regards the other Luanism, a cluster of churches which focus on social morality through refined (? r) Confucian ritual to worship the gods, as the "Way of Later Heaven" (??? Hutiando), that is the cosmological state of created things.[144] The City of the Eight Symbols in Qi, Hebi, is the headquarters of the Weixinist Church in Henan. Main article: Chinese salvationist religions China has a long history of sect traditions characterised by a soteriological and eschatological character, often called "salvationist religions" (???? jid zongjio),[145] which emerged from the common religion but are neither ascribable to the lineage cult of ancestors and progenitors, nor to the communal deity religion of village temples, neighbourhood, corporation, or national temples.[146] The 20th-century expression of this religions has been studied under Prasenjit Duara's definition of "redemptive societies" (???? jish tunti),[147][148] while modern Chinese scholarship describes them as "folk religious sects" (???? mnjian zongjio, ???? mnjian jiomn or ???? mnjian jiopi),[149] abandoning the ancient derogatory definition of xijio (??), "evil religion".[150] They are characterised by egalitarianism, a foundation through a charismatic figure and a direct divine revelation, a millenarian eschatology and voluntary path of salvation, an embodied experience of the numinous through healing and cultivation, and an expansive orientation through good deeds, evangelism and philanthropy.[145] Their practices are focused on improving morality, body cultivation, and recitation of scriptures.[145] Many of the redemptive religions of the 20th and 21st century aspire to become the repository of the entirety of the Chinese tradition in the face of Western modernism and materialism.[151] This group of religions includes[152] Yiguandao and other sects belonging to the Xiantiandao (??? "Way of Former Heaven"), Jiugongdao (??? "Way of the Nine Palaces"), various proliferations of the Luo teaching, the Zaili teaching, and the more recent De teaching, Weixinist, Xuanyuan and Tiandi teachings, the latter two focused respectively on the worship of Huangdi and the universal God. Also, the qigong schools are developments of the same religious context.[153] These movements were banned in the early Republican China and later Communist China. Many of them still remain illegal, underground or unrecognised in China, while othersspecifically the De teaching, Tiandi teachings, Xuanyuan teaching, Weixinism and Yiguandaohave developed cooperation with mainland China's academic and non-governmental organisations.[12] The Sanyi teaching is an organised folk religion founded in the 16th century, present in the Putian region (Xinghua) of Fujian where it is legally recognised.[12] Some of these sects began to register as branches of the state Taoist Association since the 1990s.[154] Another category that has been sometimes confused with that of the sects of salvation by scholars, is that of the secret societies (??? hudomn, ???? mm shhu, or ???? mm jish).[155] They are religious communities of initiatory and secretive character, including rural militias such as the Red Spears (???) and the Big Knives (???), and fraternal organisations such as the Green Gangs (??) and the Elders' Societies (???).[156] They became very popular in the early republican period, and often labeled as "heretical doctrines" (???? zongjio yduan).[156] Recent scholarship has created the label of "secret sects" (???? mm jiomn) to distinguish the peasant "secret societies" with a positive dimension of the Yuan, Ming and Qing periods, from the negatively viewed "secret societies" of the early republic that became instruments of anti-revolutionary forces (the Guomindang or Japan).[156] A further distinctive type of sects of the folk religion, that are possibly the same as the positive "secret sects", are the martial sects. They combine two aspects: the wnchang (?? "cultural field"), that is the doctrinal aspect characterised by elborate cosmologies, theologies, initiatory and ritual patterns, and that is usually kept secretive; and the wuchang (?? "martial field"), that is the body cultivation practice and that is usually the "public face" of the sect.[157] They were outlawed by Ming imperial edicts that continued to be enforced until the fall of the Qing dynasty in the 20th century.[157] An example of martial sect is Meihuaism (??? Mihuajio, "Plum Flowers"), that has become very popular throughout northern China.[157][158] In Taiwan, virtually all of the "redemptive societies" operate freely since the late 1980s. Tiandi teachings The Tiandi teachings is a religion that encompasses two branches, the Holy Church of the Heavenly Virtue (???? Tiand shngjio) and the Church of the Heavenly Deity (??? Tiandjio), both emerged from the techings of Xiao Changming and Li Yujie, disseminated in the early 20th century.[159] The latter is actually an outgrowth of the former established in the 1980s.[159] The religions focus on the worship of Tiandi (??), the "Heavenly Deity" or "Heavenly Emperor",[159] on health through the proper cultivation of qi,[159] and teach a style of qigong named Tianren qigong.[160] According to scholars, Tiandi teachings derive from the Taoist tradition of Huashan,[161] where Li Yujie studied for eight years.[162] The Church of the Heavenly Deity is very active both in Taiwan and mainland China, where it has high-level links.[159] Weixinism Main article: Weixinism Weixinism (Chinese: ????; pinyin: Wixin shngjio; lit.: 'Holy Religion of the Only Heart' or simply ???; Wixinjio) is a religion primarily focused on the "orthodox lineages of Yijing and feng shui",[163] the Hundred Schools of Thought,[164] and worship of the "three great ancestors" (Huangdi, Yandi and Chiyou).[165] The movement promotes the restoration of the authentic roots of the Chinese civilization and Chinese reunification.[164] The Weixinist Church, whose headquarters are in Taiwan, is also active in Mainland China in the key birthplaces of the Chinese culture. It has links with the government of Henan where it has established the "City of Eight Trigrams" templar complex on Yunmeng Mountain (of the Yan Mountains),[166] and it has also built temples in Hebei.[167] Geographic and ethnic variations North and south divides The Temple of the Mother Goddess of the Yellow River (???? Hungh Nushn), a folk religious focus of a new residential suburb of the city of Qingtongxia, Ningxia, is possibly one of the biggest temples in China. Altar to Baoshengdadi, whose cult is mostly Fujianese and Taiwanese. Vincent Goossaert has recently (2011) published a review of scholarly works which study "north China folk religion" as a distinct phenomenon.[168] In contrast to the folk religion of southern and southeastern provinces which is primarily focused on the lineages and their churches (zongz xihu ????) focusing on ancestral gods, the folk religion of central-northern China (North China Plain) predominantly hinges on the communal worship of tutelary deities of creation and nature as identity symbols by villages populated by families of different surnames,[125] structured into "communities of the god(s)" (shnsh ??, or hu ?, "association"),[119] which organise temple ceremonies (miaohui ??), involving processions and pilgrimages,[169] and led by indigenous ritual masters (fashi) who are often hereditary and linked to secular authority.[note 10] Northern and southern folk religions also have a different pantheon, of which the northern one is composed of more ancient gods of Chinese mythology.[170] Furthermore, folk religious sects have historically been more successful in the central plains and in the northeastern provinces than in southern China, and central-northern folk religion shares characteristics of some of the sects, such as the heavy importance of mother goddess worship and shamanism,[171] as well as their scriptural transmission.[168]:92 Confucian churches as well have historically found much resonance among the population of the northeast; in the 1930s the Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue alone aggregated at least 25% of the population of the state of Manchuria[172] and contemporary Shandong has been analysed as an area of rapid growth of folk Confucian groups.[173] Along the southeastern coast, ritual functions of the folk religion are reportedly dominated by Taoism, both in registered and unregistered forms (Zhengyi Taoism and unrecognised fashi orders), which since the 1990s has developed quickly in the area.[174][175] Goossaert talks of this distinction, although recognising it as an oversimplification, of a "Taoist south" and a "village-religion/Confucian centre-north",[168]:47 with the northern context also characterised by important orders of "folk Taoist" ritual masters, one of which are the ??? yinyngsheng ("sages of yin and yang"),[176][168]:86 and sectarian traditions,[168]:92 and also by a low influence of Buddhism and official Taoism.[168]:90 The folk religion of northeast China has unique characteristics deriving from the interaction of Han religion with Tungus and Manchu shamanisms; these include chumaxian (??? "riding for the immortals") shamanism, the worship of foxes and other zoomorphic deities, and the Fox Gods (?? Hshn)Great Lord of the Three Foxes (???? Hsan Tiy) and the Great Lady of the Three Foxes (???? Hsan Tinai)at the head of pantheons.[177] Otherwise, in the religious context of Inner Mongolia there has been a significant integration of Han Chinese into the traditional folk religion of the region. In recent years there has also been an assimilation of deities from Tibetan folk religion, especially wealth gods.[178] In Tibet, across broader western China, and in Inner Mongolia, there has been a growth of the cult of Gesar with the explicit support of the Chinese government, a cross-ethnic Han-Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu deity (the Han identify him as an aspect of the god of war analogically with Guandi) and culture hero whose mythology is embodied as a culturally important epic poem.[179] "Taoised" indigenous religions of ethnic minorities The pan-Chinese Sanxing (Three Star Gods) represented in Bai iconographic style at a Benzhu temple on Jinsuo Island, in Dali, Yunnan. Chinese religion has both influenced, and in turn has been influenced by, indigenous religions of ethnic groups that the Han Chinese have encountered along their ethnogenetic history. Seiwert (1987) finds evidence of pre-Chinese religions in the folk religion of certain southeastern provinces such as Fujian and Taiwan, especially in the local wu and lineages of ordained ritual masters.[180]:44 A process of sinicization, or more appropriately a "Taoisation", is also the more recent experience of the indigenous religions of some distinct ethnic minorities of China, especially southwestern people. Chinese Taoists gradually penetrate within the indigenous religions of such peoples, in some cases working side by side with indigenous priests, in other cases taking over the latter's function and integrating them by requiring their ordination as Taoists.[180]:45 Usually, indigenous ritual practices remain unaffected and are adopted into Taoist liturgy, while indigenous gods are identified with Chinese gods.[180]:47 Seiwert discusses this phenomenon of "merger into Chinese folk religion" not as a mere elimination of non-Chinese indigenous religions, but rather as a cultural re-orientation. Local priests of southwestern ethnic minorities often acquire prestige by identifying themselves as Taoists and adopting Taoist holy texts.[180]:47 Mou (2012) writes that "Taoism has formed an indissoluble bond" with indigenous religions of southwestern ethnic minorities, especially the Tujia, Yi and Yao.[181] Seiwert mentions the Miao of Hunan.[180]:45 "Daogongism" is Taoism among the Zhuang, directed by the dogong (?? "lords of the Tao") and it forms an established important aspect of the broader Zhuang folk religion.[182] On the other hand, it is also true that in more recent years there has been a general revival of indigenous lineages of ritual masters without identification of these as Taoists and support from the state Chinese Taoist Church. An example is the revival of lineages of bimo ("scripture sages") priests among the Yi peoples. Bimoism has a tradition of theological literature and though clergy ordination, and this is among the reasons why it is taken in high consideration by the Chinese government.[183] Bamo Ayi (2001) attests that "since the early 1980s ... minority policy turned away from promoting assimilation of Han ways".[184]:118 Features "Chief Star pointing the Dipper" ???? Kuxing dian Du Kui Xing pointing the Big Dipper.svg Kuixing ("Chief Star"), the god of exams, composed of the characters describing the four Confucian virtues (Sde ??), standing on the head of the ao (?) turtle (an expression for coming first in the examinations), and pointing at the Big Dipper (?)".[note 11] Theory of hierarchy and divinity Further information: Chinese gods and immortals Chinese religions are polytheistic, meaning that many deities are worshipped as part of what has been defined as yuzhu shnln (????), translated as "cosmotheism", a worldview in which divinity is inherent to the world itself.[79] The gods (shen ?; "growth", "beings that give birth"[186]) are interwoven energies or principles that generate phenomena which reveal or reproduce the way of Heaven, that is to say the order (li) of the Greatnine(Tian).[note 2] In Chinese tradition, there is not a clear distinction between the gods and their physical body or bodies (from stars to trees and animals);[187] the qualitative difference between the two seems not to have ever been emphasised.[187] Rather, the disparity is said to be more quantitative than qualitative.[187] In doctrinal terms, the Chinese view of gods is related to the understanding of qi, the life force,[187] as the gods and their phenomenal productions are manifestations of it.[187] In this way, all natural bodies are believed to be able to attain supernatural attributes by acting according to the universal oneness.[187] Meanwhile


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