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The first European visitor to New Zealand, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, named the islands Staten Land, believing they were part of the Staten Landt that Jacob Le Maire had sighted off the southern end of South America.[11][12] Hendrik Brouwer proved that the South American land was a small island in 1643, and Dutch cartographers subsequently renamed Tasman's discovery Nova Zeelandia, from Latin, after the Dutch province of Zeeland.[11][13] This name was later anglicised to "New Zealand".[14][15] Aotearoa (pronounced /?a?t??'ro?.?/; often translated as "land of the long white cloud")[16] is the current Maori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Maori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to just the North Island.[17] Maori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Maui (the fish of Maui) for the North Island and Te Waipounamu (the waters of greenstone) or Te Waka o Aoraki (the canoe of Aoraki) for the South Island.[18] Early European maps labelled the islands North (North Island), Middle (South Island) and South (Stewart Island / Rakiura).[19] In 1830, mapmakers began to use "North" and "South" on their maps to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm
The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, and names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu.[20] For each island, either its English or Maori name can be used, or both can be used together.[20] History Main article: History of New Zealand One set of arrows point from Taiwan to Melanesia to Fiji/Samoa and then to the Marquesas Islands. The population then spread, some going south to New Zealand and others going north to Hawai'i. A second set start in southern Asia and end in Melanesia. The Maori people most likely descend from Polynesians whose ancestors emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia between 3000 and 1000 BCE and then travelled east, reaching the Society Islands c. 1000 CE. After a pause of 70 to 265 years, a new wave of exploration led to the discovery and settlement of New Zealand.[21] New Zealand is one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation[22] and mitochondrial DNA variability within Maori populations[23] suggest that Eastern Polynesians first settled the New Zealand archipelago between 1250 and 1300,[18][24] although newer archaeological and genetic research points to a date no earlier than about 1280, with at least the main settlement period between about 1320 and 1350,[25][26] consistent with traditions from genealogy.[27][28] This represented a culmination in a long series of voyages through the Pacific islands.[29] Over the centuries that followed, the Polynesian settlers



developed a distinct culture now known as Maori. The population formed different iwi (tribes) and hapu (subtribes) which would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other.[30] At some point a group of Maori migrated to Rekohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture.[31][32] The Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862, largely because of Taranaki Maori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases also contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, and the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933.[33] An engraving of a sketched coastline on white background Map of the New Zealand coastline as Cook charted it on his first visit in 176970. The track of the Endeavour is also shown. The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and his crew in 1642.[34] In a hostile encounter, four crew members were killed and at least one Maori was hit by canister shot.[35] Europeans did not revisit New Zealand until 1769 when British explorer James Cook mapped almost the entire coastline.[34] Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded European food, metal tools, weapons and other goods for timber, Maori food, artefacts and water.[36] The introduction of the potato and the musket transformed Maori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes provided a reliable food surplus, which enabled longer and more sustained military campaigns.[37] The resulting intertribal Musket Wars encompassed over 600 battles between 1801 and 1840, killing 30,00040,000 Maori.[38] From the early 19th century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Maori population.[39] The Maori population declined to around 40% of its pre-contact level during the 19th century; introduced diseases were the major factor.[40] A torn sheet of paper The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi In 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip assumed the position of Governor of the new British colony of New South Wales which according to his commission included New Zealand.[41] The British Government appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832 following a petition from northern Maori.[42] In 1835, following an announcement of impending French settlement by Charles de Thierry, the nebulous United Tribes of New Zealand sent a Declaration of Independence to King William IV of the United Kingdom asking for protection.[42] Ongoing unrest, the proposed settlement of New Zealand by the New Zealand Company (which had already sent its first ship of surveyors to buy land from Maori) and the dubious legal standing of the Declaration of Independence prompted the Colonial Office to send Captain William Hobson to claim sovereignty for the United Kingdom and negotiate a treaty with the Maori.[43] The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840.[44] In response to the New Zealand Company's attempts to establish an independent settlement in Wellington[45] and French settlers purchasing land in Akaroa,[46] Hobson declared British sovereignty over all of New Zealand on 21 May 1840, even though copies of the Treaty were still circulating throughout the country for Maori to sign.[47] With the signing of the Treaty and declaration of sovereignty the number of immigrants, particularly from the United Kingdom, began to increase.[48] New Zealand, still part of the colony of New South Wales, became a separate Colony of New Zealand on 1 July 1841.[49] Armed conflict began between the Colonial government and Maori in 1843 with the Wairau Affray over land and disagreements over sovereignty. These conflicts, mainly in the North Island, saw thousands of imperial troops and the Royal Navy come to New Zealand and became known as the New Zealand Wars. Following these armed conflicts, large amounts of Maori land was confiscated by the government to meet settler demands.[50] Black and white engraving depicting a crowd of people A meeting of European and Maori inhabitants of Hawke's Bay Province. Engraving, 1863. The colony gained a representative government in 1852 and the first Parliament met in 1854.[51] In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters other than native policy.[51] (Control over native policy was granted in the mid-1860s.[51]) Following concerns that the South Island might form a separate colony, premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution to transfer the capital from Auckland to a locality near Cook Strait.[52] Wellington was chosen for its central location, with Parliament officially sitting there for the first time in 1865.[53] In 1891 the Liberal Party came to power as the first organised political party.[54] The Liberal Government, led by Richard Seddon for most of its period in office,[55] passed many important social and economic measures. In 1893 New Zealand was the first nation in the world to grant all women the right to vote[54] and in 1894 pioneered the adoption of compulsory arbitration between employers and unions


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