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are often regarded as naive and superficial ("suckers"); they lack discernment, they are prone to being deceived and tricked, because they readily believe all kinds of things, which they should not accept just like that, for their own good. If they thought more critically, they would not give in so easily to what others say or do. The idea here is that "one should not be so open-minded that one's brains fall out." An important reason why balanced criticism is desirable is, that if things get totally out of proportion, the critics or their targets can lose their balance themselves. Criticism can wreak havoc, and therefore people have to know how to handle it from both ends. If the criticism is balanced, it is more likely to be successful, or, at any rate, it has more credibility.
Effect on others This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Criticism" news newspapers books scholar JSTOR (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) When psychologists analyze the effect of criticism on others, they are concerned with how people respond to criticism (cognitively and emotionally), and how criticism influences the recipient's behavior. Positive and negative effects When people criticize, it can have a fruitful, enriching and constructive effect on the recipient, because new ideas and viewpoints may be generated in trying to solve a problem.



People can also be hurt by criticisms, when they experience the criticism as a personal attack. Psychologists concerned with human communication, such as therapists, therefore often recommend that people should choose the right words to express their criticism. The same criticism can be raised in different ways, some more successful than others. Formulation If people formulate their criticism in the right way, it is more likely that other people will accept it. If the criticism is badly expressed, people might reject it, not because it is wrong in itself, but because they do not like being talked to in that way. Even if the content of a criticism is quite valid, the form in which it is expressed may be so counter-productive, that the criticism is not accepted. The content may be something that people can work out on their own, but the form concerns the social relationship between people. Feedback fallacy Main article: Feedback Social sciences The term "feedback" is often used instead of criticism, because "feedback" may sound more neutral, while criticism may seem to be about "finding fault". A more polite language may be used when there are issues of authority and obedience ("who has to follow whom"), as well as the need for cooperative teamwork to get a job done ("constructive collegial attitude"). The question is often "who controls the feedback", "who is allowed to criticize", "who owns the problem" and "who is to do something about the problem". It may be that managers educate employees to employ a more positive and professional language, in order to get them to see things in a way that is more productive for the enterprise. Quality This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Criticism" news newspapers books scholar JSTOR (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Especially educators, but also e.g. lawyers, managers and politicians are very concerned with the quality of criticisms. People might raise all kinds of objections and criticisms, but how good are they? Criticisms can be just "noise". They can also be a nuisance if they are misdirected, they get in the way of getting things done. Good Ideally, a criticism should be: timely, not too early nor too late. brief and succinct, with a clear start and a finish, not endless. relevant and to the point, not misplaced. clear, specific and precise, not vague. well-researched, not based on hear-say or speculative thought. sincere and positively intended, not malicious. articulate, persuasive and actionable, so that the recipient can both understand the criticism and be motivated to act on the message.[4][5] Not all criticisms have all these features, but if one or more of them is missing, the criticism is less likely to achieve its goal. Almost all guidelines for criticism mention these seven points, although in particular contexts their meaning may be more exactly specified (for example, what it means to be "articulate and persuasive" can vary according to the circumstances). Lousy Logically, there are just as many ways to get a criticism wrong as to get the criticism right. Criticism is made at the wrong time and place: people might accept that the critic has a point, but "they can't do anything about it now." Criticism is too long: people get confused over what it is all about, they get lost in it, and become disoriented. Criticism is vague: people are likely to say, "so what"? Criticism is inappropriate, or the critic is not really in a position to make it: people will say "you're way out of line". Criticism has no clear target: people are likely just to conclude that "so-and-so is in a bad mood right now" or "he's had too much of it." Criticism assigns blame or states problems without suggesting solutions ("empty criticism"): people are likely to conclude this information is not very useful.[6] Critic did no research before making the criticism: people will say, "very interesting, but this cuts no ice." Criticism has no clear motivation: "why are you telling me this, and why are you telling me about it now?". Critic makes bad criticisms regularly: it discredits the critic. The main effect of lousy criticism is usually that, rather than clarifying things, it becomes disorienting or confusing to people. Therefore, lousy criticism is usually regarded as unhelpful, or as an unwanted distraction getting in the way of things. The only thing a lousy criticism achieves is to make it clear that somebody has an objection (although the objection is not well-taken). Techniques of constructive criticism Techniques of constructive criticism aim to improve the behavior or the behavioral results of a person, while consciously avoiding personal attacks and blaming. This kind of criticism is carefully framed in language acceptable to the target person, often acknowledging that the critics themselves could be wrong. Insulting language and hostile language are avoided, and phrases are used like "I feel..." and "It's my understanding that..." and so on. Constructive critics try to stand in the shoes of the person criticized, and consider what things would look like from their perspective.[7] Giving and receiving the message Some people are not open to any criticism at all, even constructive criticism.[8] Also, there is an art to truly constructive criticism: being well-intentioned is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for constructively criticizing, since one can have good intentions but poor delivery ("I don't know why my girlfriend keeps getting mad when I tell her to stop with the fries already; I'm just concerned about her weight"), or egocentric intentions but appropriate delivery ("I'm sick of my subordinate coming in late for work, so I took her aside and we had a long, compassionate talk about her work-life balance. I think she bought it."). As the name suggests, the consistent and central notion is that the criticism must have the aim of constructing, scaffolding, or improving a situation, something which is generally obstructed by hostile language or personal attacks. People can sometimes be afraid to express a criticism, or afraid to be criticized. Criticism can "press all the wrong buttons." The threat of criticism can be sufficient to silence people, or cause them to stay away. So self-confidence can play a big role in criticism the confidence to criticize, and the confidence to face criticism. If people's emotions are not properly considered, criticism can fail to succeed, even although it is well-intentioned, or perfectly sensible. Hence criticism is often considered an "art", because it involves human insight into "what one can say and cannot say" in the given situation. Hamburger method One style of constructive criticism employs the "hamburger method",[9] in which each potentially harsh criticism (the "meat") is surrounded by compliments (the "buns"). The idea is to help the person being criticized feel more comfortable, and assure the person that the critic's perspective is not entirely negative. This is a specific application of the more general principle that criticism should be focused on maintaining healthy relationships, and be mindful of the positive as well as the negative.[10] Psychopathology The psychopathology of criticism refers to the study of unhealthy forms of criticism, and of unhealthy kinds of response to criticism. Psychologists often associate these with particular categories of mental disorders, especially personality disorders, as classified in the U.S. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (this manual is also used in other countries, although the forms of personality disorders can be somewhat different in different countries, reflecting ethnic differences and differences in social systems). Low self-esteem: emotionally vulnerable individuals that are often excessively sensitive to criticism, or to being defeated, they can't handle it. Narcissistic personality disorder: although they may not show it outwardly, criticism may "haunt" or leave them feeling humiliated, degraded, hollow, and empty. They may react with disdain, revenge, narcissistic rage, or defiance.[11] Narcissists are extremely sensitive to personal criticism and extremely critical of other people. They think they must be seen as perfect or superior or infallible or else they are worthless. There's no middle ground.[12] Paranoid personality disorder: these people are often rigidly critical of others, but have great difficulty accepting criticism themselves.[13] Avoidant personality disorder: these people are hypersensitive to criticism or rejection. They build up a defensive shell. If the criticism seems to imply something bad about them, a defensive shell immediately snaps into place. Dependent personality disorder: individuals that will often apologize and "self-correct" in response to criticism at the drop of a hat. Hypercriticism: these people are often regarded as anal retentive or nitpickers (see nagging). Nitpickers engage in minute, trivial, and unjustified faultfinding to excess.[14] Nagging means endless scolding, complaints, and faultfinding.[15] Hypocriticism: these individuals are hypocrites who criticize and accuse others about the vice that they are guilty of themselves.[16] Hypocrisy contains some kind of deception, and therefore involves a kind of lying.[16] To understand pathological criticism and pathological responses to criticism, it is often not sufficient to see the individuals concerned in isolation they should be placed in the total context in which the criticism or the response to it occurs. Particular situations can "bring out" the "bad side" of people, which in the normal run of events would not occur. Pathological criticism occurs especially in situations of intense conflict or competition, where the normal internal and external controls on people's behaviour begin to break down. Not just personal change but also a "change of scene" may be required to get rid of the disorder. A term describing pathologic criticism may be used as argumentum ad hominem without proven diagnosis (see also anti-psychiatry movement). Anti-psychiatry movement Main articles: Anti-psychiatry and Political abuse of psychiatry The anti-psychiatry movement opposes labeling persons who engage in criticism as having a "disease" (or "abuse" or "addiction"). The medicalization of criticism rejects the criticism as a disease. The critics are silenced, and their viewpoint is denied. They are regarded as incapable of sensible criticism, but their disease often cannot be proved other than saying that voicing a criticism in a certain way is proof of a disease. Why exactly a criticism is "unhealthy" can be difficult to prove, nevermind its rights or wrongs it could be subjective interpretation, a matter of personal likes and dislikes, or a matter of point of view. What is "healthy" or "unhealthy" might depend on the context, or on how it is understood. People labelled as "ill" cannot be held morally responsible for their critical utterances, but people can often choose their own behaviour with regard to criticism, and they should take responsibility for their own behaviour, if they can practically do so. Even if it is possible to kill the criticism with a pill, the cause or the target of the criticism may not go away. A bad situation may remain; the only difference is that somebody is doped sufficiently, so that no overt criticism is made or received. Confronted with unhealthy criticism or unhealthy responses to criticism, it may be unwise to get scared, and it may be unnecessary to run to the doctor straightaway. It may be sufficient to talk it out, even if it is not the most pleasant discussion. If people are simply labelled "ill", they get away with behaviour[citation needed] that, arguably, they ought to be taking responsibility for, themselves. It should not be too easily assumed that people are incapable of making conscious choices about their own behaviour, unless they are deranged (crazy), in great pain, extraordinarily confused, heavily intoxicated, or in some way trapped or locked down


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