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Movie Title Year Distributor Notes Rev Formats Big Tit MILF: Maiko Tanimoto 2013 Momotoro Japan A tensiometer as it applies to physics is a measuring instrument used to measure the surface tension ({\displaystyle \scriptstyle \gamma }\scriptstyle\gamma) of liquids or surfaces. Tensiometers are used in research and development laboratories to determine the surface tension of liquids like coatings, lacquers or adhesives. A further application field of tensiometers is the monitoring of industrial production processes like parts cleaning or electroplating. Contents 1 Types 1.1 Goniometer/Tensiometer 1.2 Du NoŁy ring tensiometer 1.3 Wilhelmy plate tensiometer 1.4 Du NoŁy-Padday method 1.5 Bubble pressure tensiometer 2 See also 3 References 4 External links
Types Goniometer/Tensiometer Surface tension with pendant drop Surface tension can be automatically calculated from the pendant shape of a liquid droplet. Surface scientists use a goniometer/tensiometer to measure contact angle, surface tension, and interfacial tension. Surface scientists commonly use an optical goniometer/tensiometer to measure the surface tension and interfacial tension of a liquid using the pendant or sessile drop methods. A drop is produced and captured using a CCD camera. The drop profile is subsequently extracted, and sophisticated software routines then fit the theoretical Young-Laplace equation to the experimental drop profile. The surface tension can then be calculated from the fitted parameters. Unlike other methods, this technique requires only a small amount of liquid making it suitable for measuring interfacial tensions of expensive liquids.[1]



Du NoŁy ring tensiometer Main article: Du NoŁy ring method A du NoŁy tensiometer Du NoŁy tensiometer in liquid. This type of tensiometer uses a platinum ring which is submersed in a liquid. As the ring is pulled out of the liquid, the force required is precisely measured in order to determine the surface tension of the liquid. The method is well-established as shown by a number of international standards on it such as ASTM D971. This method is widely used for interfacial tension measurement between two liquids but care should be taken to make sure to keep the platinum ring undeformed.[2] Wilhelmy plate tensiometer Main article: Wilhelmy plate An automated Wilhemy plate / Du NoŁy tensiometer. An automated Wilhemy plate / Du NoŁy tensiometer. The Wilhelmy plate tensiometer requires a plate to make contact with the liquid surface. It is widely considered the simplest and most accurate method for surface tension measurement. Due to a large wetted length of the platinum plate, the surface tension reading is typically very stable compared to alternative methods. As an additional benefit, the Wilhelmy plate can also be made from paper for disposable use. For interfacial tension measurements, buoyancy of the probe needs to be taken into account which complicates the measurement.[2] Du NoŁy-Padday method Main article: Du NoŁy-Padday method This method uses a rod which is lowered into a test liquid. The rod is then pulled out of the liquid and the force required to pull the rod is precisely measured. The method isn't standardized but is sometimes used. The Du NoŁy-Padday rod pull tensiometer will take measurements quickly and will work with liquids with a wide range of viscosities. Interfacial tensions cannot be measured. Bubble pressure tensiometer Bubble pressure method to measure the dynamic surface tension of liquids Due to internal attractive forces of a liquid, air bubbles within the liquids are compressed. The resulting pressure (bubble pressure) rises at a decreasing bubble radius. The bubble pressure method makes use of this bubble pressure which is higher than in the surrounding environment (water). A gas stream is pumped into a capillary that is immersed in a fluid. The resulting bubble at the end of the capillary tip continually becomes bigger in surface; thereby, the bubble radius is decreasing. The pressure rises to a maximum level. At this point the bubble has achieved its smallest radius (the capillary radius) and begins to form a hemisphere. Beyond this point the bubble quickly increases in size and soon bursts, tearing away from the capillary, thereby allowing a new bubble to develop at the capillary tip. It is during this process that a characteristic pressure pattern develops (see picture), which is evaluated for determining the surface tension. Because of the easy handling and the low cleaning effort of the capillary, bubble pressure tensiometers are a common alternative for monitoring the detergent concentration in cleaning or electroplating processes. See also Surface tension Young-Laplace equation Capillary action Piezometer Pierre Lecomte du Nouy Interfacial rheology Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity. The effect can be seen in the drawing up of liquids between the hairs of a paint-brush, in a thin tube, in porous materials such as paper and plaster, in some non-porous materials such as sand and liquefied carbon fiber, or in a biological cell. It occurs because of intermolecular forces between the liquid and surrounding solid surfaces. If the diameter of the tube is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension (which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and adhesive forces between the liquid and container wall act to propel the liquid.[1] Contents 1 History 2 Phenomena and physics 3 In plants and animals 4 Examples 5 Height of a meniscus 6 Liquid transport in porous media 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading History The first recorded observation of capillary action was by Leonardo da Vinci.[2][3] A former student of Galileo, NiccolÚ Aggiunti, was said to have investigated capillary action.[4] In 1660, capillary action was still a novelty to the Irish chemist Robert Boyle, when he reported that "some inquisitive French Men" had observed that when a capillary tube was dipped into water, the water would ascend to "some height in the Pipe". Boyle then reported an experiment in which he dipped a capillary tube into red wine and then subjected the tube to a partial vacuum. He found that the vacuum had no observable influence on the height of the liquid in the capillary, so the behavior of liquids in capillary tubes was due to some phenomenon different from that which governed mercury barometers.[5] Others soon followed Boyle's lead.[6] Some (e.g., Honorť Fabri,[7] Jacob Bernoulli[8]) thought that liquids rose in capillaries because air could not enter capillaries as easily as liquids, so the air pressure was lower inside capillaries. Others (e.g., Isaac Vossius,[9] Giovanni Alfonso Borelli,[10] Louis Carrť,[11] Francis Hauksbee,[12] Josia Weitbrecht[13]) thought that the particles of liquid were attracted to each other and to the walls of the capillary. Although experimental studies continued during the 18th century,[14] a successful quantitative treatment of capillary action[15] was not attained until 1805 by two investigators: Thomas Young of the United Kingdom[16] and Pierre-Simon Laplace of France.[17] They derived the YoungĖLaplace equation of capillary action. By 1830, the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss had determined the boundary conditions governing capillary action (i.e., the conditions at the liquid-solid interface).[18] In 1871, the British physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin determined the effect of the meniscus on a liquid's vapor pressureóa relation known as the Kelvin equation.[19] German physicist Franz Ernst Neumann (1798Ė1895) subsequently determined the interaction between two immiscible liquids.[20] Albert Einstein's first paper, which was submitted to Annalen der Physik in 1900, was on capillarity.[21][22] Phenomena and physics Capillary flow experiment to investigate capillary flows and phenomena aboard the International Space Station Capillary penetration in porous media shares its dynamic mechanism with flow in hollow tubes, as both processes are resisted by viscous forces.[23] Consequently, a common apparatus used to demonstrate the phenomenon is the capillary tube. When the lower end of a glass tube is placed in a liquid, such as water, a concave meniscus forms. Adhesion occurs between the fluid and the solid inner wall pulling the liquid column along until there is a sufficient mass of liquid for gravitational forces to overcome these intermolecular forces. The contact length (around the edge) between the top of the liquid column and the tube is proportional to the radius of the tube, while the weight of the liquid column is proportional to the square of the tube's radius. So, a narrow tube will draw a liquid column along further than a wider tube will, given that the inner water molecules cohere sufficiently to the outer ones. In plants and animals Capillary action is seen in many plants. Water is brought high up in trees by branching; evaporation at the leaves creating depressurization; probably by osmotic pressure added at the roots; and possibly at other locations inside the plant, especially when gathering humidity with air roots.[24][25] Capillary action for uptake of water has been described in some small animals, such as Ligia exotica[26] and Moloch horridus.[27] Examples In the built environment, evaporation limited capillary penetration is responsible for the phenomenon of rising damp in concrete and masonry, while in industry and diagnostic medicine this phenomenon is increasingly being harnessed in the field of paper-based microfluidics.[23] In physiology, capillary action is essential for the drainage of continuously produced tear fluid from the eye. Two canaliculi of tiny diameter are present in the inner corner of the eyelid, also called the lacrimal ducts; their openings can be seen with the naked eye within the lacrymal sacs when the eyelids are everted. Wicking is the absorption of a liquid by a material in the manner of a candle wick. Paper towels absorb liquid through capillary action, allowing a fluid to be transferred from a surface to the towel. The small pores of a sponge act as small capillaries, causing it to absorb a large amount of fluid. Some textile fabrics are said to use capillary action to "wick" sweat away from the skin. These are often referred to as wicking fabrics, after the capillary properties of candle and lamp wicks. Capillary action is observed in thin layer chromatography, in which a solvent moves vertically up a plate via capillary action. In this case the pores are gaps between very small particles. Capillary action draws ink to the tips of fountain pen nibs from a reservoir or cartridge inside the pen. With some pairs of materials, such as mercury and glass, the intermolecular forces within the liquid exceed those between the solid and the liquid, so a convex meniscus forms and capillary action works in reverse. In hydrology, capillary action describes the attraction of water molecules to soil particles. Capillary action is responsible for moving groundwater from wet areas of the soil to dry areas. Differences in soil potential ({\displaystyle \Psi _{m}}\Psi_m) drive capillary action in soil. A practical application of capillary action is the capillary action siphon. Instead of utilizing a hollow tube (as in most siphons), this device consists of a length of cord made of a fibrous material (cotton cord or string works well). After saturating the cord with water, one (weighted) end is placed in a reservoir full of water, and the other end placed in a receiving vessel. The reservoir must be higher than the receiving vessel. Due to capillary action and gravity, water will slowly transfer from the reservoir to the receiving vessel. This simple device can be used to water houseplants when nobody is home. Height of a meniscus Water height in a capillary plotted against capillary diameter The height h of a liquid column is given by Jurin's law[28] {\displaystyle h={{2\gamma \cos {\theta }} \over {\rho gr}},}h={{2 \gamma \cos{\theta}}\over{\rho g r}}, where {\displaystyle \scriptstyle \gamma }\scriptstyle \gamma is the liquid-air surface tension (force/unit length), ? is the contact angle, ? is the density of liquid (mass/volume), g is the local acceleration due to gravity (length/square of time[29]), and r is the radius of tube. Thus the thinner the space in which the water can travel, the further up it goes. For a water-filled glass tube in air at standard laboratory conditions, ? = 0.0728 N/m at 20 įC, ? = 1000 kg/m3, and g = 9.81 m/s2. For these values, the height of the water column is {\displaystyle h\approx {{1.48\times 10^{-5}\ {\mbox{m}}^{2}} \over r}.}{\displaystyle h\approx {{1.48\times 10^{-5}\ {\mbox{m}}^{2}} \over r}.} Thus for a 2 m (6.6 ft) radius glass tube in lab conditions given above, the water would rise an unnoticeable 0.007 mm (0.00028 in). However, for a 2 cm (0.79 in) radius tube, the water would rise 0.7 mm (0.028 in), and for a 0.2 mm (0.0079 in) radius tube, the water would rise 70 mm (2.8 in). Liquid transport in porous media Capillary flow in a brick, with a sorptivity of 5.0 mm∑min-1/2 and a porosity of 0.25. When a dry porous medium is brought into contact with a liquid, it will absorb the liquid at a rate which decreases over time. When considering evaporation, liquid penetration will reach a limit dependent on parameters of temperature, humidity and permeability. This process is known as evaporation limited capillary


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