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Movie Title Year Distributor Notes Rev Formats Let My Puppets Come 1976 Ivy Classics Inc NonSex 1 DRO Smash'd 1976 Caballero Home Video NonSex Budget During the first half of the 20th century, the IOC ran on a small budget.[110][111] As president of the IOC from 1952 to 1972, Avery Brundage rejected all attempts to link the Olympics with commercial interest.[109] Brundage believed the lobby of corporate interests would unduly impact the IOC's decision-making.[109] Brundage's resistance to this revenue stream meant the IOC left organising committees to negotiate their own sponsorship contracts and use the Olympic symbols.[109] When Brundage retired the IOC had US$2 million in assets; eight years later the IOC coffers had swelled to US$45 million.[109] This was primarily due to a shift in ideology toward expansion of the Games through corporate sponsorship and the sale of television rights.[109] When Juan Antonio Samaranch was elected IOC president in 1980 his desire was to make the IOC financially independent.
The 1984 Summer Olympics became a watershed moment in Olympic history. The Los Angeles-based organising committee, led by Peter Ueberroth, was able to generate a surplus of US$225 million, which was an unprecedented amount at that time.[112] The organising committee had been able to create such a surplus in part by selling exclusive sponsorship rights to select companies.[112] The IOC sought to gain control of these sponsorship rights. Samaranch helped to establish The Olympic Programme (TOP) in 1985, in order to create an Olympic brand.[110] Membership in TOP was, and is, very exclusive and expensive. Fees cost US$50 million for a four-year membership.[111] Members of TOP received exclusive global advertising rights for their product category, and use of the Olympic symbol, the interlocking rings, in their publications and advertisements.[113] Effect of television



A cartoon from the 1936 Olympics imagines the year 2000 when spectators will have been replaced by television and radio, their cheers coming from loudspeakers. The 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin were the first Games to be broadcast on television, though only to local audiences.[114] The 1956 Winter Olympics were the first internationally televised Olympic Games,[115] and the following Winter Games had their broadcasting rights sold for the first time to specialised television broadcasting networksóCBS paid US$394,000 for the American rights.[116][110] In the following decades the Olympics became one of the ideological fronts of the Cold War, and the IOC wanted to take advantage of this heightened interest via the broadcast medium.[116] The sale of broadcast rights enabled the IOC to increase the exposure of the Olympic Games, thereby generating more interest, which in turn created more appeal to advertisers time on television. This cycle allowed the IOC to charge ever-increasing fees for those rights.[116] For example, CBS paid US$375 million for the American broadcast rights of the 1998 Nagano Games,[117] while NBC spent US$3.5 billion for the American rights of all the Olympic Games from 2000 to 2012.[110] In 2011, NBC agreed to a $4.38 billion contract with the International Olympic Committee to broadcast the Olympics through the 2020 games, the most expensive television rights deal in Olympic history.[118] NBC then agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on May 7, 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games.[119] NBC also acquired the American television rights to the Youth Olympic Games, beginning in 2014,[120] and the Paralympic Games.[121] More than half of the Olympic Committee's global sponsors are American companies,[122] and NBC is one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC.[122] Viewership increased exponentially from the 1960s until the end of the century. This was due to the use of satellites to broadcast live television worldwide in 1964, and the introduction of colour television in 1968.[123] Global audience estimates for the 1968 Mexico City Games was 600 million, whereas at the Los Angeles Games of 1984, the audience numbers had increased to 900 million; that number swelled to 3.5 billion by the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.[124][125][126][127][128] With such high costs charged to broadcast the Games, the added pressure of the internet, and increased competition from cable, the television lobby demanded concessions from the IOC to boost ratings. The IOC responded by making a number of changes to the Olympic program. At the Summer Games, the gymnastics competition was expanded from seven to nine nights, and a Champions Gala was added to draw greater interest.[129] The IOC also expanded the swimming and diving programs, both popular sports with a broad base of television viewers.[129] Due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximize U.S. television ratings when possible.[130][127][131][132] Olympic marketing The sale of the Olympic brand has been controversial. The argument is that the Games have become indistinguishable from any other commercialised sporting spectacle.[113][133][133] Another criticism is that the Games are funded by host cities and national governments; the IOC incurs none of the cost, yet controls all the rights and profits from the Olympic symbols. The IOC also takes a percentage of all sponsorship and broadcast income.[113] Host cities continue to compete ardently for the right to host the Games, even though there is no certainty that they will earn back their investments.[134] Research has shown that trade is around 30 percent higher for countries that have hosted the Olympics.[135] Symbols Main article: Olympic symbols The Olympic flag The Olympic Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Olympic Charter. The Olympic symbol, better known as the Olympic rings, consists of five intertwined rings and represents the unity of the five inhabited continents (Africa, the Americas (when considered one continent), Asia, Europe, and Oceania). The coloured version of the ringsóblue, yellow, black, green, and redóover a white field forms the Olympic flag. These colours were chosen because every nation had at least one of them on its national flag. The flag was adopted in 1914 but flown for the first time only at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. It has since been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.[136][137] The Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius, a Latin expression meaning "Faster, Higher, Stronger" was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 and has been official since 1924. The motto was coined by Coubertin's friend, the Dominican priest Henri Didon OP, for a Paris youth gathering of 1891.[138] Coubertin's Olympic ideals are expressed in the Olympic creed: The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.[136] Months before each Games, the Olympic Flame is lit at the Temple of Hera in Olympia in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals. A female performer, acting as a priestess joined by ten female performers as Vestal Virgins, ignites a torch by placing it inside a parabolic mirror which focuses the sun's rays; she then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Olympic torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city's Olympic stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony.[139] Though the flame has been an Olympic symbol since 1928, the torch relay was only introduced at the 1936 Summer Games to promote the Third Reich.[136][140] The Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the Games' identity promotion since the 1980 Summer Olympics, when the Soviet bear cub Misha reached international stardom. The mascot of the Summer Olympics in London was named Wenlock after the town of Much Wenlock in Shropshire. Much Wenlock still hosts the Wenlock Olympian Games, which were an inspiration to Pierre de Coubertin for the Olympic Games.[141] Ceremonies Main article: Olympic Games ceremony Opening Opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London As mandated by the Olympic Charter, various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games. This ceremony takes place before the events have occurred.[142][143] Most of these rituals were established at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp.[144] The ceremony typically starts with the entrance of the president of the host country followed by the hoisting of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem.[142][143] The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theatre representative of its culture.[144] The artistic presentations have grown in scale and complexity as successive hosts attempt to provide a ceremony that outlasts its predecessor's in terms of memorability. The opening ceremony of the Beijing Games reportedly cost $100 million, with much of the cost incurred in the artistic segment.[145] After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. Greece is traditionally the first nation to enter in order to honour the origins of the Olympics. Nations then enter the stadium alphabetically according to the host country's chosen language, with the host country's athletes being the last to enter. During the 2004 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Athens, Greece, the Greek flag entered the stadium first, while the Greek delegation entered last. Speeches are given, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Olympic torch is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final torch carrier, often a successful Olympic athlete from the host nation, who lights the Olympic flame in the stadium's cauldron.[142][143] Closing Athletes gather in the stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The closing ceremony of the Olympic Games takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction.[146] Three national flags are hoisted while the corresponding national anthems are played: the flag of the current host country; the flag of Greece, to honour the birthplace of the Olympic Games; and the flag of the country hosting the next Summer or Winter Olympic Games.[146] The president of the organising committee and the IOC president make their closing speeches, the Games are officially closed, and the Olympic flame is extinguished.[147] In what is known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the mayor of the city that organised the Games transfers a special Olympic flag to the president of the IOC, who then passes it on to the mayor of the city hosting the next Olympic Games.[148] The next host nation then also briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of its culture.[146] As is customary, the last medal presentation of the Games is held as part of the closing ceremony. Typically, the marathon medals are presented at the Summer Olympics,[146][149] while the cross-country skiing mass start medals are awarded at the Winter Olympics.[150] Medal presentation Medal ceremony with the Danish flag, the Union Jack of the United Kingdom, and the New Zealand flag from left to right during the 2008 Summer Olympics A medal ceremony is held after each Olympic event is concluded. The winner, second and third-place competitors or teams stand on top of a three-tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective medals.[151] After the medals are given out by an IOC member, the national flags of the three medallists are raised while the national anthem of the gold medallist's country plays.[152] Volunteering citizens of the host country also act as hosts during the medal ceremonies, as they aid the officials who present the medals and act as flag-bearers.[153] While in the Summer Olympics this ceremony is held on the ground where the event is played,[154] in the Winter Games it is usually held in a special "plaza".[155] Sports Main article: Olympic sports The Olympic Games programme consists of 35 sports, 30 disciplines and 408 events. For example, wrestling is a Summer Olympic sport, comprising two disciplines: Greco-Roman and Freestyle. It is further broken down into fourteen events for men and four events for women, each representing a different weight class.[156] The Summer Olympics programme includes 26 sports, while the Winter Olympics programme features 15 sports.[157] Athletics, swimming, fencing, and artistic gymnastics are the only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic programme. Cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and speed skating have been featured at every Winter Olympics programme since its inception in 1924. Current Olympic sports, like badminton, basketball, and volleyball, first appeared on the programme as demonstration sports, and were later promoted to full Olympic sports. Some sports that were featured in earlier Games were later dropped from the programme.[158] Olympic sports are governed by international sports federations (IFs) recognised by the IOC as the global supervisors of those sports. There are 35 federations represented at the IOC.[159] There are sports recognised by the IOC that are not included on the Olympic program. These sports are not considered Olympic sports, but they can be promoted to this status during a programme revision


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