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history of the United Nations as an international organization has its origins in World War II. Since then its aims and activities have expanded to make it the archetypal international body in the early 21st century. Contents 1 Origins 1.1 1942 "Declaration of United Nations" 1.2 Planning 1.3 Founding the United Nations 2 Establishment 3 Activities 4 Facilities 5 Structure and associated organizations 6 Milestones 7 See also 8 Further reading 8.1 Primary sources 9 References 10 External links Origins The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization to replace the ineffective League of Nations began under the aegis of the US State Department in 1939.[1] On 12 June 1941, representatives of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, and of the exiled governments of Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and Yugoslavia, as well as a representative of General de Gaulle of France, met in London and signed the Declaration of St. James's Palace. This was the first of six conferences that led up to the founding of the United Nations and the Charter of the United Nations.[2] U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt first suggested using the name United Nations, to refer to the Allies of World War II, to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill during the latter's three-week visit to the White House in December 1941. Roosevelt suggested the name as an alternative to "Associated Powers", a term the U.S. used in the First World War (the U.S. was never formally a member of the Allies of World War I but entered the war in 1917 as a self-styled "Associated Power"). Churchill accepted the idea and cited Lord Byron's use of the phrase "United Nations" in the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, which referred to the Allies at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
1942 "Declaration of United Nations" Poster for the founding of the United Nations Main article: Declaration by United Nations The text of the "Declaration of United Nations" was drafted by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins, while meeting at the White House on 29 December 1941. It incorporated Soviet suggestions, but left no role for France. The first official use of the term "United Nations" was on 12 January 1942 when 26 Governments signed the Declaration. One major change from the Atlantic Charter was the addition of a provision for religious freedom, which Stalin approved after Roosevelt insisted.[5][6] By early 1945 it had been signed by 21 more states.[7] A JOINT DECLARATION BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, CHINA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, CANADA



COSTA RICA, CUBA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, EL SALVADOR, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HONDURAS, INDIA, LUXEMBOURG, NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NICARAGUA, NORWAY, PANAMA, POLAND, SOUTH AFRICA, YUGOSLAVIA The Governments signatory hereto, Having subscribed to a common program of purposes and principles embodied in the Joint Declaration of the President of the United States of America and the Prime Minister of Great Britain dated August 14, 1941, known as the Atlantic Charter, Being convinced that complete victory over their enemies is essential to defend life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice in their own lands as well as in other lands, and that they are now engaged in a common struggle against savage and brutal forces seeking to subjugate the world, DECLARE: (1) Each Government pledges itself to employ its full resources, military or economic, against those members of the Tripartite Pact and its adherents with which such government is at war. (2) Each Government pledges itself to cooperate with the Governments signatory hereto and not to make a separate armistice or peace with the enemies. The foregoing declaration may be adhered to by other nations which are, or which may be, rendering material assistance and contributions in the struggle for victory over Hitlerism.[8] During the war, the United Nations became the official term for the Allies. To join countries had to sign the Declaration and declare war on the Axis.[9] Planning Early United Nations official's passport from World War Two - working for UNRRA, issued in 1944 for the Middle East US President Franklin D. Roosevelt considered his most important legacy the creation of the United Nations, making a permanent organization out of the wartime Alliance of the same name. He was the chief promoter of the United Nations idea. The first plans for the future international organization emerged in declarations signed at the wartime Allied conferences: the Moscow Conference and the Tehran Conference on 30 October 1943. Roosevelt had been a strong supporter of the League of Nations back in 191920, but was determined to avoid the mistakes Woodrow Wilson had made. The United Nations was FDR's highest postwar priority. He insisted on full coordination with the Republican leadership. He made sure that leading Republicans were on board, especially Senators Arthur Vandenberg of Michigan,[10] and Warren Austin of Vermont.[11] In a broad sense, Roosevelt believed that the UN could solve the minor problems and provide the chief mechanism to resolve any major Issues that arose among the great powers, all of whom had a veto. For FDR creating the UN was the most important goal for the entire war effort.[12] Roosevelt was especially interested in international protection of human right, and in this area his wife played a major role as well.[13][14] The Allies had agreed to the basic structure of the new body at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in 1944.[15] At Yalta, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to the establishment of the United Nations, as well as the structure of the United Nations Security Council. Stalin insisted on having a veto and FDR finally agreed. The participants at Yalta also agreed that the United Nations would convene for the first time in San Francisco in April 1945 in the United Nations Conference on International Organization. Roosevelt considered the United Nations to be his most important legacy. He provided continuous backstage political support at home and with Churchill and Stalin abroad. The Big Four of the United States, Britain, Soviet Union and China would make the major decisions, with France added later to provide permanent members of the all-powerful Security Council. Each had a veto power, thus avoiding the fatal weakness of the League of Nations, which had theoretically been able to order its members to act in defiance of their own parliaments.[16] Roosevelt went public with strong advocacy in the 1944 presidential campaign, and turned detailed planning over to the State Department, where Sumner Welles and Secretary Cordell Hull worked on the project. It was his ideas that "four policemen" would collaborate to keep and enforce the peace. The United States, Britain, Soviet Union and China made the major decisions and became permanent members of the all-powerful Security Council; France was added to make five policemen.[17] Stalin insisted on a veto power. Roosevelt finally agreed, thus avoiding the fatal weakness of the League of Nations, which theoretically could order its members to act in defiance of their own parliaments.[18] From 21 September to 7 October 1944, representatives of the Republic of China, Britain, the US and the USSR met to elaborate plans at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference in Washington, D.C. Those and later talks produced proposals outlining the purposes of the United Nations organization, its membership and organs, as well as arrangements to maintain international peace and security and international economic and social cooperation. Governments and private citizens worldwide discussed and debated these proposals.[19] Winston Churchill urged Roosevelt to restore France to its status of a major Power after the liberation of Paris in August 1944. At the Yalta Conference it was agreed that membership would be open to nations that had joined the Allies by 1 March 1945.[20] Brazil, Syria and a number of other countries qualified for membership by declarations of war on either Germany or Japan in the first three months of 1945 in some cases retroactively. Founding the United Nations Further information: History of the United Nations Establishment Insignia of the Conference of San Francisco, prototype of the current logo of the United Nations The UN in 1945. In light blue, the founding members. In dark blue, protectorates and colonies of the founding members. On 25 April 1945, the United Nations Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco. In addition to Governments, a number of non-government organizations, including Rotary International and Lions Clubs International received invitations to assist in the drafting of a charter. After working for two months, the fifty nations represented at the conference signed the Charter of the United Nations on 26 June. Poland, which was unable to send a representative to the conference due to political instability, signed the charter on 15 October 1945. The charter stated that before it would come into effect, it must be ratified by the Governments of the Republic of China, France, the USSR, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. This occurred on 24 October 1945, and the United Nations was officially formed.[21] The date each founding member state deposited their ratification of the UN Charter is as follows:[22] USA 8 Aug 1945 France 31 Aug 1945 Dominican Rep. 4 Sep 1945 Nicaragua 6 Sep 1945 New Zealand 19 Sep 1945 Brazil 21 Sep 1945 Argentina 24 Sep 1945 El Salvador 26 Sep 1945 Haiti 27 Sep 1945 China 28 Sep 1945 Turkey 28 Sep 1945 Denmark 9 October 1945 Chile 11 Oct 1945 Philippines 11 Oct 1945 Paraguay 12 Oct 1945 Cuba 15 Oct 1945 Lebanon 15 Oct 1945 Iran 16 Oct 1945 Luxembourg 17 Oct 1945 Saudi Arabia 18 Oct 1945 Czechoslovakia 19 Oct 1945 Syria 19 Oct 1945 Yugoslavia 19 Oct 1945 UK 20 Oct 1945 Egypt 22 Oct 1945 Byelorussia 24 Oct 1945 Poland 24 Oct 1945 Ukraine 24 Oct 1945 USSR 24 Oct 1945 (note - the United Nations was established on this date) Greece 25 Oct 1945 India 30 Oct 1945 Peru 31 Oct 1945 Australia 1 Nov 1945 Costa Rica 2 Nov 1945 Liberia 2 Nov 1945 Colombia 5 Nov 1945 Mexico 7 Nov 1945 South Africa 7 Nov 1945 Canada 9 Nov 1945 Ethiopia 13 Nov 1945 Panama 13 Nov 1945 Bolivia 14 Nov 1945 Venezuela 15 Nov 1945 Honduras 17 Nov 1945 Guatemala 21 Nov 1945 Norway 27 Nov 1945 Netherlands 10 Dec 1945 Uruguay 18 Dec 1945 Ecuador 21 Dec 1945 Iraq 21 Dec 1945 Belgium 27 Dec 1945 Plaques unveiled in 1996 to commemorate the first meeting of the General Assembly The first meeting of the General Assembly was held in Westminster Central Hall, London, on 10 January 1946.[23] The Security Council met for the first time a week later in Church House, Westminster.[24] The League of Nations formally dissolved itself on 18 April 1946 and transferred its mission to the United Nations. Activities See also: History of United Nations Peacekeeping The United Nations has achieved considerable prominence in the social arena, fostering human rights, economic development, decolonization, health and education, for example, and interesting itself in refugees and trade. The leaders of the UN had high hopes that it would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible. Those hopes have obviously not fully come to pass. From about 1947 until 1991 the division of the world into hostile camps during the Cold War made agreement on peacekeeping matters extremely difficult. Following the end of the Cold War, renewed calls arose for the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace and co-operation, as several dozen active military conflicts continued to rage across the globe. The breakup of the Soviet Union has also left the United States in a unique position of global dominance, creating a variety of new problems for the UN (See the United States and the United Nations). Facilities Two skyscraper buildings on the bank of a river. UN headquarters in New York City Huge complex of skyscrapers and other large buildings interlaced with trees and gardens. The surrounding area as far as the horizon is filled with trees and large rivers. In the foreground a crane and small building site show that a new construction is underway. UN building in Vienna In June 1945, delegates from around the world gathered in San Francisco to draft the charter for the United Nations.[25] Potential sites for the UN Headquarters included Vienna, Switzerland, Berlin, Quebec, and the Netherlands before the delegation decided on a headquarters in the United States by December 1945.[26] Many U.S. cities vied for the honor of hosting the UN Headquarters site, such as Marin County, California, St. Louis, Boston, Chicago, Fairfield County, CT, Westchester County, NY, Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in Queens, Tuskahoma,


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