detention judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary rape torture and other cruel inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners detainees and suspects harsh and Å“threatening prison and detention centre conditions human trafficking for prostitution and forced labour societal violence and vigilante killings child labour child abuse and child sexual exploitation domestic violence discrimination based on ethnicity region and religion Nigeria is a state party of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women It also has signed the Maputo Protocol an international treaty on women's rights and the African Union Women's Rights Framework Discrimination based on sex is a significant human rights issue Forced marriages are common Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria of girls are married before age although the Marriage Rights Act banning marriage of girls below years old was introduced on a federal level in There is rampant polygamy in Northern Nigeria Submission of the wife to her husband and domestic violence are common Women have fewer land rights Maternal mortality was at per live births in Female genital mutilation is common although a ban was implemented in In Nigeria at least half a million suffer from vaginal fistula largely as a result of lack of medical care Early marriages can result in the fistula Women face a large amount of inequality politically in Nigeria being subjugated to a bias that is sexist and reinforced by socio cultural economic and oppressive ways Women throughout the country were only politically emancipated in Yet husbands continue to dictate the votes for many women in Nigeria which upholds the patriarchal system Most workers in the informal sector are women Women's representation in government since independence from Britain is very poor Women have been reduced to sideline roles in appointive posts throughout all levels of government and still make up a tiny minority of elected officials But nowadays with more education available to the public Nigerian women are taking steps to have more active roles in the public and with the help of different initiatives more businesses are being started by women Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states offences such as alcohol consumption homosexuality infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences including amputation lashing stoning and long prison terms According to a survey by the Pew Research Center of Nigerians believe homosexuality should not be accepted by society Culture Main article Culture of Nigeria Cuisine Nigerian cuisine like West African cuisine in general is known for its richness and variety Many different spices herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chilli peppers Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish while aromatic market and roadside snacks

Alexander I as Governor of Odessa in 1803. In the mid-19th century Odessa became a resort town famed for its popularity among the Russian upper classes. This popularity prompted a new age of investment in the building of hotels and leisure projects. In the period from 1795 to 1814 the population of Odessa increased 15 times over and reached almost 20 thousand people. The first city plan was designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century.[5] Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the former colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, Moldavanka emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained unchanged.[15] The new city quickly became a major success although initially it received little state funding and privileges.[17] Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure, and is considered[by whom?] one of the founding fathers of Odessa, together with another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, who succeeded him in office. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos. His contributions to the city are mentioned by Mark Twain in his travelogue Innocents Abroad: "I mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story. Richelieu founded Odessa – watched over it with paternal care – labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best interests – spent his fortune freely to the same end – endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World". By the early 1900s Odessa had become a large, thriving city, complete with European architecture and electrified urban transport. In 1819, the city became a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for example Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards, Grecheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823 and 1824. In his letters he wrote that Odessa was a city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read". Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 1853–1856, during which it was bombarded by British and Imperial French naval forces.[18] It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866, the city was linked by rail with Kiev and Kharkiv as well as with Iasi in Romania. The 142-metre-long Potemkin Stairs (constructed 1837–1841) The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. The community, however, was repeatedly subjected to anti-Semitism and anti-Jewish agitation from almost all Christian segments of the population.[19] Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad after 1882, particularly to the Ottoman region that became Palestine, and the city became an important base of support for Zionism. Beginnings of revolution Bolshevik troops entering Odessa In 1905, Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin and the Menshevik's Iskra. Sergei Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union. Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet War, Odessa saw two Bolshevik armed insurgencies, the second of which succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the following months the city became a center of the Odessa Soviet Republic. After signing of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty all Bolshevik forces were driven out by 13 March 1918 by the combined armed forces of the Austro-Hungarian Army, providing support to the Ukrainian People's Republic.[20] With the end of the World War I and withdrawal of armies of Central Powers, the Soviet forces fought for control over the country with the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic. A few months later the city was occupied by the French Army and the Greek Army that supported the Russian White Army in its struggle with the Bolsheviks. The Ukrainian general Nikifor Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome Triple Entente forces out of the city, but Odessa was soon retaken by the Russian White Army. Finally, by 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city. The people of Odessa suffered badly from a famine that resulted from the Russian Civil War in 1921–1922 due to the Soviet policies of prodrazverstka. Revolutionary soldiers, Odessa - 1916 World War II Odessa was attacked by Romanian and German troops in August 1941. The defense of Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October 1941. The defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of trenches, anti-tank ditches and pillboxes. The first line was 80 kilometres (50 miles) long and situated some 25 to 30 kilometres (16 to 19 miles) from the city. The second and main line of defense was situated 6 to 8 kilometres (3.7 to 5.0 miles) from the city and was about 30 kilometres (19 miles) long. The third and last line of defense was organized inside the city itself. A medal, "For the Defence of Odessa", was established on 22 December 1942. Approximately 38,000 medals were awarded to servicemen of the Soviet Army, Navy, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and civil citizens who took part in the city's defense. It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1945. (These others were Leningrad, Stalingrad, and Sevastopol). Lyudmila Pavlichenko, the famous female sniper, took part in the battle for Odessa. Her first two kills were effected near Belyayevka using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a P.E. 4-power scope. She recorded 187 confirmed kills during the defense of Odessa. Pavlichenko's confirmed kills during World War II totaled 309 (including 36 enemy snipers). Before being occupied by Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR and the retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa's remaining harbour facilities. The city was land mined in the same way as Kiev.[citation needed] During World War II, from 1941–1944, Odessa was subject to Romanian administration, as the city had been made part of Transnistria.[21] Partisan fighting continued, however, in the city's catacombs. Soviet gun crew in action at Odessa in 1941 Following the Siege of Odessa, and the Axis occupation, approximately 25,000 Odessans were murdered in the outskirts of the city and over 35,000 deported; this came to be known as the Odessa massacre. Most of the atrocities were committed during the first six months of the occupation which officially began on 17 October 1941, when 80% of the 210,000 Jews in the region were killed,[22] compared to Jews in Romania proper where the majority survived.[23] After the Nazi forces began to lose ground on the Eastern Front, the Romanian administration changed its policy, refusing to deport the remaining Jewish population to extermination camps in German occupied Poland, and allowing Jews to work as hired labourers. As a result, despite the events of 1941, the survival of the Jewish population in this area was higher than in other areas of occupied eastern Europe.[22] The city suffered severe damage and sustained many casualties over the course of the war. Many parts of Odessa were damaged during both its siege and recapture on 10 April 1944, when the city was finally liberated by the Red Army. Some of the Odessans had a more favourable view of the Romanian occupation, in contrast with the Soviet official view that the period was exclusively a time of hardship, deprivation, oppression and suffering – claims embodied in public monuments and disseminated through the media to this day.[24] Subsequent Soviet policies imprisoned and executed numerous Odessans (and deported most of the German population) on account of collaboration with the occupiers.[25] Postage stamp of the USSR 1965 “Hero-City Odessa 1941-1945” Obverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa" Reverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa"; inscription reads “For our Soviet homeland” Certificate "For taking part in the heroic defense of Odessa" Logvinov Petr Leontievich was awarded the Medal for the Defense of Odessa. Sniper Lyudmila Pavlichenko Postwar history Ships at anchor in Odessa – the USSR's largest port, 1960 During the 1960s and 1970s, the city grew. Nevertheless, the majority of Odessa's Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States and other Western countries between the 1970s and 1990s. Many ended up in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Brighton Beach, sometimes known as "Little Odessa". Domestic migration of the Odessan middle and upper classes to Moscow and Leningrad, cities that offered even greater opportunities for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. Despite this, the city grew rapidly by filling the void of those left with new migrants from rural Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from all over the Soviet Union. Nowadays the city is undergoing a phase of widespread urban restoration. As a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the city preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of Russian/Ukrainian/Jewish culture and a predominantly Russophone environment with the uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in the city. The city's unique identity has been formed largely thanks to its varied demography; all the city's communities have influenced aspects of Odessan life in some way or form. Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, chemicals, metalworking, and food processing. Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a fishing fleet. It is known for its large Oskar von Unge adr recordist unknown episodes Nerses Gezalyan foley mixer uncredited episodes Steve Papagiannis sound effects editor uncredited episode Series Special Effects by Thomas Walters special effects technician episodes William Dawson special effects coordinator episodes Walter Kiesling special effects foreman episodes Brandonn S Petri special effects technician episodes Ray Bivins special effects coordinator unknown episodes Sam Chronic special effects technician uncredited episode Series Visual Effects by Ron Barr visual effects artist episodes Eric Bacus visual effects artist episode Steve Fong visual effects artist episodes Ikuo Saito visual effects artist episode Robert Short visual effects artist episode David Cole digital colourist unknown episodes Robert Hall visual effects designer uncredited episode Series Stunts Mike Massa stunt coordinator episodes Alex Benevent stunt driver stunt performer stunts episodes Jennifer Cobb stunt double chloe sevigny stunt driver episodes Tommy Shields stunt driver episode Richard Fike stunt performer episode Samantha MacIvor stunt double Vinessa Shaw episode Amber Whelan stunt double Chloe Sevigny stunts episodes Tom Dziak stunt performer episode Garrett Hammond stunt double Brandon Michael Taylor episode Anthony Martins stunts episode Jason Silvis stunt performer episode Rob Stanley stunt double Bruce Davison episode Carol Tresan stunt double Chloë Sevigny episode Shauna Duggins stunt double Chloe Sevigny unknown episodes Ben Hernandez Bray stunt coordinator unknown episodes Eric Norris stunt coordinator unknown episodes Winston West stunt player unknown episodes Joe Fishel stunt driver uncredited episode Panuvat Anthony Nanakornpanom stunt performer uncredited episode Series Camera and Electrical Department Darrell Abbott rigging electric episodes Matthew Bulleri key grip second unit episodes Richard S Crumrine Jr camera assistant b camera first assistant b camera b camera operator first assistant camera first assistant camera b camera episodes Kevin Matz dimmer board operator lighting technician episodes Jon D Morrison chief lighting technician episodes Sean Murray set lighting technician gaffer second unit episodes Brian Powers key rigging grip episodes Amishjim Schulze lighting technician best boy grip episodes Rich Schutte b camera operator steadicam operator b camera steadicam episodes Keith Seymour key grip episodes Colin Sheehy second assistant camera episodes Jon Thurner dolly grip second unit episodes Don Yockey grip episodes David A Dwyer rigging grip episodes Josh Kubizne best boy rigging electric episodes Ashley Marze video playback episodes Doug Michaels epk episodes Thomas Shields Morrison electrician episodes Brian S Osmond camera operator a camera steadicam operator episodes Amanda Rotzler second assistant a camera second assistant camera a camera episodes Benedict Baldauff digital loader episodes David Pipik best boy grip episodes Allan Barch gaffer second unit episodes Brennan Reilly rigging grip episodes Doug Stanczak video playback assistant episodes Sean Flaherty grip episodes David 'Yoko' Jose additional grip episodes David Litz camera operator episodes Travis Cadalzo first assistant camera episodes Sam Giambroni camera pa episodes Adam Grant electrician episode Pete Klingenberg electrician second unit rigging electric best boy episodes Colleen Mleziva second assistant camera episodes Travis Cleary second assistant camera episode Bob Dodd electrician second unit episode Benjamin Macensky electrician second unit episode Chris Moran non record video assist utility episode Jarrod Oswald first assistant camera a camera episode Michael Otis Ropert camera operator a camera episode Nick Yost best boy second unit episode Curtis Abbott digital imaging technician unknown episodes Brian 'Buzz' Buzzelli dolly grip unknown episodes Jason Cianella second assistant camera unknown episodes Isaac Denair set lighting technician unknown episodes John Donaldson rigging electrician unknown episodes Jason Jouver grip unknown episodes Ben Mathus second assistant camera unknown episodes Joseph Edward Myers grip unknown episodes Brad Robinson grip unknown episodes John Alan Roush rigging gaffer unknown episodes Matt Schafer best boy electric unknown episodes David Swiech rigging electrician unknown episodes Ryan Washlaski set lighting technician unknown episodes Nick Zinobile best boy grip unknown episodes Donald Lee Rager still photographer uncredited episodes Eliott Acevedo additional electrician uncredited episodes Marque DeWinter additional assistant camera uncredited episodes Dante Ludovici camera operator uncredited episode Chris Wagganer video engineer uncredited episode Series Casting Department Donna Belajac casting Pittsburgh episodes Sharon Bialy original casting episodes Kim Krakauer casting associate additional casting episodes Ross Meyerson casting additional casting episodes Russell Scott original casting episodes Katie Shenot extras casting director episodes Sherry Thomas original casting episodes Julie Tucker casting additional casting episodes Leila Elhilal extras casting assistant episodes Kristin Genszler extras casting assistant episode Stephanie Bertoni extras casting assistant unknown episodes Sonya 'Sonny' Tormoen extras casting director unknown episodes Series Costume and Wardrobe Department Alison Evans set costumer episodes Tori Musial costume coordinator episodes Darcie Buterbaugh costume supervisor episodes Kelli French costumer episodes Cate Adams costumer episodes Paul John Carli set costumer episodes Angela Vesco additional set costumer episodes Lindsay Mayfield additional costumer episode Kacie Guggia costume assistant episode Krista Guggia costumer unknown episodes Barbie Pastorik costumer unknown episodes Series Editorial Department Jay Robinson on line editor episodes Todd Bochner colorist episodes Brad Flick post production assistant episodes Trevor Baker assistant editor episodes Addison Donnell assistant editor episodes Lissette Rodriguez assistant editor episodes Curtis Thurber assistant editor episode Glenise Mullins first assistant editor unknown episodes Glenise Brathwaite assistant editor uncredited episode Series Location Management Greg Felmley assistant location manager episodes Shawn Boyachek supervising location manager location manager episodes Eric Dilucente assistant location manager episodes Chris Rupps Ruppenthal location assistant episodes David Hall assistant location manager episodes Chris Hinton assistant location manager episodes Joe Stargensky key assistant location manager episodes Matthew M McCloskey location assistant episodes James A Mahathey location manager episode Jennifer Manypenny assistant location manager unknown episodes Cait Murray locations coordinator unknown episodes Kim Fouche Tipton assistant location manager unknown episodes Series Music Department Gary Calamar music supervisor episodes Johnny Jewel composer theme music episodes Series Script and Continuity Department Barry L Caldwell script supervisor script supervisor reshoots episodes Brent Beath script and clearance coordinator episodes Belle Francisco script supervisor nd unit script supervisor second unit episodes Megan Graham script supervisor second unit episode Hilary Momberger Powers script supervisor episode Sarah Willgrube script supervisor episode Series Transportation Department Eddie Coennen driver episodes Terence Mahoney truck driver episodes Calley Matthews transportation driver episodes Dominic Mecchia driver cast episodes Patrick Roland production van driver episodes Katie Scott dispatcher dot transportation coordinator episodes Drew Smith driver episodes Marc Scott transportation coordinator episodes Mike Bearer driver generator operator unknown episodes Albert Cuneo driver unknown episodes Kevin Powers driver unknown episodes Byron Roland driver honeywagon unknown episodes Robert Bowen driver uncredited episodes Series Additional Crew Alex Case digital dailies episodes Ray Cervenak security captain episodes Paula Collins craft service episodes Ciara D'Altorio set production assistant episodes Larry Geyer production coordinator episodes Vito Grassi stand in episodes Jay


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gloria-todd golden-jade greta-carlson greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade hazel-young heather-deeley heather-ellis heather-hart heather-lere heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray isabella-dior isabella-soprano isabelle-allay isabelle-brell isabelle-marchall isobel-wren iveta ivette-blanche jackie-right jacqueline-lorians jacy-allen jada-stevens jade-east jade-hsu jade-marcela jade-summers jade-wong jahn-gold jamie-brooks jamie-james jamie-summers jana-irrova jana-mrazkova jane-baker jane-darling jane-iwanoff jane-lindsay jane-lixx janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold jean-afrique jeanette-littledove jeanie-marie-sullivan jean-jennings jeanna-fine jeannie-pepper jenna-jameson jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante jennifer-noxt jennifer-stewart jennifer-welles jennifer-west jenny jenny-feeling jenny-fields jenny-wings jersey-jaxin jesie-st-james jesse-capelli jessica-bangkok jessica-bogart jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde jessi-foster jill-ferari jill-kelly joana-redgrave joan-devlon joanna-storm joanna-sweet jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black jordana-james jordan-green jordan-nevaeh jordan-star josephine-carrington joslyn-james julia-chanel julia-dal-fuoco juliana-grandi julia-paes julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde kristina-king kristina-klevits kristina-soderszk kristine-heller kristin-steen krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie lacy-rose lady-amanda-wyldefyre lady-stephanie laetitia-bisset lana-burner lana-cox lana-wood lara-amour lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya laura-clair laura-lazare laura-lion laura-may laura-orsolya laura-paouck laura-zanzibar lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith lauryl-canyon lauryn-may leah-wilde lea-magic lea-martini leanna-foxxx lee-caroll leigh-livingston leilani lenora-bruce leslie-winston lesllie-bovee letizia-bruni lexi-lane lexi-matthews lezley-zen lia-fire liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau lily-rodgers lily-valentine linda-shaw linda-vale linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring lisa-lake lisa-melendez lisa-sue-corey lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz maryanne-fisher mary-hubay mary-ramunno mary-stuart mascha-mouton maud-kennedy mauvais-denoir maxine-tyler maya-black maya-france megan-leigh megan-martinez megan-reece mei-ling melanie-hotlips melanie-scott melba-cruz melinda-russell melissa-bonsardo melissa-del-prado melissa-golden melissa-martinez melissa-melendez melissa-monet mercedes-dragon mercedes-lynn merle-michaels mesha-lynn mia-beck mia-lina mia-smiles michele-raven michelle-aston michelle-ferrari michelle-greco michelle-maren michelle-maylene michelle-monroe micki-lynn mika-barthel mika-tan mikki-taylor mimi-morgan mindy-rae ming-toy miranda-stevens miss-bunny miss-meadow miss-pomodoro missy missy-graham missy-stone missy-vega misti-jane mistress-candice misty-anderson misty-dawn misty-rain misty-regan mona-lisa mona-page moni monica-baal monica-swinn monika-peta monika-sandmayr monika-unco monique-bruno monique-cardin monique-charell monique-demoan monique-gabrielle monique-la-belle morgan-fairlane morrigan-hel moxxie-maddron mulani-rivera mysti-may nadege-arnaud nadia-styles nadine-bronx nadine-proutnal nadine-roussial nadi-phuket nanci-suiter nancy-hoffman nancy-vee natacha-delyro natalia-wood natalli-diangelo natascha-throat natasha-skyler naudia-nyce nessa-devil nessy-grant nesty nicki-hunter nicky-reed nicole-berg nicole-bernard nicole-black nicole-grey nicole-london nicole-parks nicole-scott nicole-taylor nicolette-fauludi nicole-west nika-blond nika-mamic niki-cole nikita-love nikita-rush nikki-charm nikki-grand nikki-king nikki-knight nikki-randall nikki-rhodes nikki-santana nikki-steele nikki-wilde niko nina-cherry nina-deponca nina-hartley nina-preta oana-efria obaya-roberts olesja-derevko olga-cabaeva olga-conti olga-pechova olga-petrova olivia-alize olivia-del-rio olivia-flores olivia-la-roche olivia-outre ophelia-tozzi orchidea-keresztes orsolya-blonde paige-turner paisley-hunter pamela-bocchi pamela-jennings pamela-mann pamela-stanford pamela-stealt pandora paola-albini pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn sabrina-jade sabrina-johnson sabrina-love-cox sabrina-mastrolorenzi sabrina-rose sabrina-scott sabrina-summers sacha-davril sahara sahara-sands sai-tai-tiger samantha-fox samantha-ryan samantha-sterlyng samantha-strong samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco sandra-kalermen sandra-russo sandy-lee sandy-pinney sandy-reed sandy-samuel sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills sarah-shine sara-sloane sasha sasha-hollander sasha-ligaya sasha-rose satine-phoenix satin-summer savannah-stern savanna-jane scarlet-scarleau scarlet-windsor seka selena serena serena-south severine-amoux shana-evans shanna-mccullough shannon-kelly shannon-rush shantell-day sharon-da-vale sharon-kane sharon-mitchell shaun-michelle shawna-sexton shawnee-cates shay-hendrix shayne-ryder sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin shelly-lyons sheri-st-clair sheyla-cats shonna-lynn shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white tammy tammy-lee tammy-reynolds tania-lorenzo tantala-ray tanya-danielle tanya-fox tanya-foxx tanya-lawson tanya-valis tara-aire tasha-voux tatjana-belousova tatjana-skomorokhova tawnee-lee tawny-pearl tayla-rox taylor-wane teddi-austin teddi-barrett tera-bond tera-heart tera-joy teresa-may teresa-orlowski teri-diver teri-weigel terri-dolan terri-hall tess-ferre tess-newheart thais-vieira tia-cherry tianna tiara tiffany-blake tiffany-clark tiffany-duponte tiffany-rayne tiffany-rousso tiffany-storm tiffany-towers tiffany-tyler tiger-lily tigr timea-vagvoelgyi tina-blair tina-burner tina-evil tina-gabriel tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose tonisha-mills topsy-curvey tori-secrets tori-sinclair tori-welles tracey-adams traci-lords traci-topps traci-winn tracy-duzit tracy-love tracy-williams tricia-devereaux tricia-yen trinity-loren trisha-rey trista-post trixie-tyler ultramax ursula-gaussmann ursula-moore uschi-karnat valentina valerie-leveau valery-hilton vanessa-chase vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville velvet-summers veri-knotty veronica-dol veronica-hart veronica-hill veronica-rayne veronica-sage veronika-vanoza via-paxton vicky-lindsay vicky-vicci victoria-evans victoria-gold victoria-knight victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok viper virginie-caprice vivian-valentine vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears whitney-wonders wonder-tracey wow-nikki xanthia-berstein yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies




Achim Schmidtchen the Obergruppenführer Adam Pawlikowski Don Pedro Uzeda Adele DeGarde At Laundry Adolf Manz Bürgermeister Aeschbacher Mayor Aeschbacher Adolph Lestina Bethulian Adrian Hoven Herr Müller ihr Mann Adriana Roel Alicia Aileen Manning Aunt Cynthia Whitney Akim Tamiroff Spyros Acebos Al Ernest Garcia his butler credited Allan Garcia Al Shean Simeon Hamburgher Al St John Hiram Perkins' son Alan Curtis Driver Alan Hoskins Jan Agnes Neilson Alan Mowbray Captain Christopher Brent Alan Winnington chief of the reconnaissance Albert Austin street sweeper burglar Albert Conti producer Albert Gran Duke Travina Albertina R ch Dancers Aleksander Fogiel Macko z Bogdanca Aleksander Sewruk Lawyer Alexa von Porembsky Wirtin Gumpers Alexander Allerson Hans von Gluck Alexander Gray Otto Stirner Alfred Allen Silent Jake Alfred Lucca Gerber Alfred Müller Wolfgang Langhoff Alfred Neugebauer Josef Greiner Alfred Paget Bethulian syrian Soldier Alfred R ser Leblanc Küchenchef Alfred Struwe Bellini Alice Day Barbara Elsa's granddaughter Alison Skipworth Emily La Rue Allen Jenkins Jake Edgall Sadie's dimwitted plumber boyfriend Allen Pomeroy Tom Reed a Boxer Althea Gibson Lukey Miss Hunter's maid Amelia Summerville Olive Connal Anatol Kobylinski Un contrebandier Anders Randolf William Vandermuellen André Versini Le marquis d'Ulrich Andrew Dillon John Jacob tor Andrzej Szalawski Jurand ze Spychowa Angie Dickinson Beatrice Ocean Anita Hendrie Jessie Marshall Anita Höfer Hanna Lauretz Ann Dere Matron Anna Lee Mrs Buford Anna Q Nilsson Mrs Michael Ramsay Anna Townsend Harry's Mother credited Mrs Townsend Anne Schaefer Martha Meilke Annekathrin Bürger Eileen Anneliese Betschart Bach Bäuerin Anne Marie Blanc Frau von Richenau Annemarie Düringer Luise Müller Anne Marie Hanschke Fräulein Reuter Annie Rosar Lilli Schneiders Mutter Anthony O'Sullivan Trapper Antonina Girycz Ewa Antonio Moreno Dantan Antrim Short Tommy Arkadiusz Bazak Marian Armin Schweizer Gottlieb Ellenberger Arnold Marlé Joseph Arnold Müdespacher Art Acord Alice Brady Arthur Donaldson Sir Henry Brandon Arthur Earle Mr Stull Arthur Forrest Cardinal Wolsey Arthur Hoyt Mr Cuddleton Arthur Jurado Angel Arthur Lake Boy Throwing Roses Arthur Rankin Tommy Corbin Arthur Treacher Sir Harry Arthur V Johnson Jack Stanford Artur Mlodnicki Le sergent Arturo de Córdova Mario Athole Shearer Extra Barbara Adolph Greta Kuckhoff Barbara Krafftówna Camilla de Tormez Barbara Polomska Zosia Barbara Sabin Little Girl Barbara Werle Charley Adams Barry Atwater George Dennison Bart Patton Kramer Barton MacLane Pinkerton Agent Clyde O'Connell B il Ruysdael the Reverend Jefferson Military Academy Beata Tyszkiewicz Donna Rebecca Uzeda Bela Lugosi Count von Ratz Hungarian Amb sador Ben Alexander Bill Stanton Ben Horning Maud's Father Ben Turpin Banana Peel Victim Bernard Berger Lew Fields Bert Lytell Arthur Tovey Bert Roach Gus S cher Bertha Danegger Mutter Aeschbacher Mother Aeschbacher Berton Churchill Mr Yates Bess Flowers Dance Extra Bessie Barriscale Lillian Henry Betsy Ann Hisle Little Girl Betty Compson Bessie Love Beulah Bondi Madame Letizia Billie Dove Lottie Callahan Lurline Cavanaugh Billy Armstrong Dying Man's Nurse Biltmore Trio Trio in Nightclub singing Here We Are Bing Crosby Bill 'Billy' Williams Bing Russell Dunker Yankee Soldier Amputee Blanche Sweet Judith Bob Burns Cowhand Bob Kortman 'Hawk' Decker Bob Reeves Lynch Mob Member Bob Steele Bebe Daniels Bobby Watson Jack Thompson the Press Agent Bodil Rosing Widow Gorman Bogumil Kobiela Lt Dabecki Bogumil Kobiela Senor Toledo Boleslaw Abart Driver Sosin Boy Gobert Chief of Police Müller II Boyce Combe Hobart Bozena Kurowska Buck Connors Bradley Barker Eve's Admirer Brian Keith Harry Connerly Brigitte Ratz Brigitte Schneider Buck Black Young Teddy Roosevelt Bud Jamison Contractor Bud Osborne Henchman Buddy Lester Vince M sler Buddy Smith Dirk de Rhonde a child Bum Krüger Stefan Walicki Burton McEvilly Alexander Hamilton Buzz Barton Six Bits C Aubrey Smith Bishop James Northcott Cactus Mack Lynch Mob Member Carl 'Major' Roup Extra Carl Miller Bulmer Meade Carleton Young Col Jonathan Miles CSA Carlyle Blackwell Oswald Grismer Carmel Myers Ir Carmencita Johnson Baby Carrie Daumery Chaperon Cecil Cunningham friend of Emily La Rue Cesar Romero Duke Santos Cezary Julski Zawisza Czarny Chariklia Baxevanos Hertha Engelberger Charles Arling Charles Avery Man at Brothel Charles Belcher Balthazar Charles Clary Mr Calhoun Charles Giblyn Dennison Charles Hill Mailes Bethulian Soldier Charles Inslee The Professor Party Guest Charles Jackson Johnny a boy ?Charles R Jackson Charles K Gerrard Sir Adam Judson Charles Kennedy Reilly Charles King Henchman Duke Rollins Charles Lane John Cleland Charles Laughton Phine V Lambert Charles McHugh Shamus O'Tandy Charles Murray M Balmer Undertaker Charles Newton Carlo Bertozza Charles Peyton Butler Charles Regnier Gregor Palinin Charles Reisner Howard Huntington ali Nitro Nick ali Picking Pete Charles Ruggles Senator Henry Ruggles Charles Stevens Lieutenant Charles Teske a Dancer Charles West Young Father Chet Ryan Ivan the Cossack Chick Morrison Christian Rub Chip Carson Telegraph Operator Chris Robinson Patcher Christian Wolff Nikl Lauretz Christine Kaufmann Sylvia Lauretz Chuck Hayward Captain Winters Claire McDowell Maude Jones Clara Blandick Aunt Ellen Patterson Clara T Bracy Bethulian Clarence Burton Cave Man Clarence Geldart James Kilkenna Clark Comstock Indian Chief Clark Gable Reverend John Hartley Clark Marshall Don Alvarez Claude Carliez Un aristocrate Claude Payton Jesus Christ Claude Rains Napoleon Bonaparte Claus Wilcke Henry Scherz Clem Harvey Louis Jackson Cliff Bowes Dying Man Cliff Edwards Cliff Lyons Clyde Cook Dancer Colleen Moore Conrad Nagel Dirk de Rhonde Constance Beaumar Mathilda Bussard Constance Towers Miss Hannah Hunter of Greenbriar Conway Tearle Kerry Sarle Corinne Barker Helen Davis Courtenay Foote Robert Fulton Coy Watson messenger boy Creighton Hale Prince Oscar D W Griffith Man on Footpath Dale Fuller Amrah Danny Sullivan Father McGowan credited Daniel J Sullivan David Landau Beef the circus manager who raised Polly David Miles The Robbery Victim Party Guest David Torrence Dr Frank MacDonald De Segurola De Segurola Dean Martin Sam Harmon Dean Riesner Little Boy Dell Henderson Pa Harrington Denver Pyle Jackie Jo rebel deserter Diane Baker Laura Travis Dick Clark Neil Hendry Dick La Reno Sheriff Dick Sutherland Ugly Mug Dietrich Körner de the 'rocket baron' Wernher von Braun Dirk Jungnickel Weatherford Ditta Oesch Tilly Odermatt Don Stewart Donny Davis Donald Crisp At Frazier House Bushwacker Donald Ogden Stewart Skylar Van Dyke Horace Patterson Donna Kee John Ewing Doris Dawson The Girl Doris Lloyd Mrs Julia Webb Dorothy Dalton Dorothy Wood Dorothy Davenport Indian Dorothy Gish The crippled beggar Dorothy Green Princess Naia Dorothy Hammerstein Socialite next to Elsa in theatre box Dorothy Tree Ellen's Mother Dorothy Vernon comedy player at banquet Dorothy West Jenny Baker Doug McClure Jim Charles Brinley Dougl Fairbanks Gerald Dougl Gerrard Lord Lovelace Dougl Kennedy Frank James Dougl Stevenson Captain Mowbrary Dougl s Dumbrille Murchenson Dougl s Montgomery Avery Rarick Kent Dougl s Downing Clarke Lord Chamberlain Duane Eddy and the Rebels Themselves Duke R Lee Slim E Alyn Warren General Ulysses S Grant E E Clive Charles Chuck Fendwick Eagle Eye Yaqui Indian Chief Earl Schenck Joeffrey Vandermuellen Eberhard Esche Kurt Schumacher Ed C sidy Greg Walters Eddie Baker Mr Feniweather Eddie Bartell Radio Rogue Eddie Sturgis 'Parson' Smalley Edgar Kennedy An Innocent Bystander Edgar Norton Bolton The Second Butler Edith Haldeman Indian Child Edith Lyle Fairy Tale Queen Edith Schultze Westrum Mutter Lauretz Edith Shayne Mrs Vandermuellen Edith Shearer Extra Edmund Fetting Rowicki Edna Purviance Miss Brown Edna Thom Mexican Woman Eduardo Fajardo Viceroy Edward Burns credited Ed Burns Edward Dillon Confederate Soldier Edward Dougl Lord Andrew's Edward Dziewonski Dzidzius Edward Everett Horton Senator John Hathaway Edward O'Connor Jeremiah Madden Edwin Argus Louis XVI Edythe Chapman Elisabeth Lauber Edythe Sterling Molly credited Edith Sterling Egon von Jordan Dr Haberer Rechtsanwalt Eleanor Lawson Mrs O'Tandy Eleanor Middleton Bridget Eli z Kuziemski Bien's lawyer Elinor Fair Ruth Garland Elisha Cook Jr Carvey Elizabeth Janes His Child Ellen Widmann An t ia Witschi Elliott Dexter Prof Nathan Reade Elliott Nugent Gordon Smith Elmer Grandin John Bussard Eloise Clement Mrs Durand Else Bötticher Frau Rainer Elmo Lincoln Elsie Ferguson Elzbieta Czyzewska Donna Fr quetta Salero Emil Hoch Steward Emil Karewicz King Wladyslaw Jagiello Émile Chautard Père Joseph Emily Fitzroy Jane Appleby Emmet Foy Male flapper Enrique García Álvarez Member of the Inquisition Enrique Lucero Death Erica Beer Emil Gerber Erna Sellmer Anna Köchin Ernest Glendinning Sir Edwin C koden Ernie Adams Warren the Jewel Cutter Ernst Fritz Fürbringer Prof Altmann Erwin Kohlund Peter H ler Estelle Clark Sadie Etienne Girardot Monsieur Du Fresne Etna Ross Steve a child Eulalie Jensen Mrs Power Eva Calvo Cliente de p telería Eva Campbell Dolly Vernon Evelyn Selbie Miss Witherspoon Everett Sloane Dr Brock Ewa Ciepiela Helena Ewa Wisniewska Hanka Fifi D'Orsay Lili Yvonne Flora Finch Mary Willoughby Florence Auer Juanita Florence Gill Annie The Cleaning Lady Florence La Badie Undetermined Role Florence Lawrence Ruth Simonson Florence Lee Mrs Oaks Florence Turner Maid Forrest Robinson Kramer Forrest Stanley Charles Brandon Francelia Billington Maud Frances Dee Mary Wallace Francis Ford Brown Bear Francis J Grandon Indian Medicine Man Francis X Bushman Messala Franciszek Pieczka Pacheco Frank Brownlee Bill Frank Campeau Spanish Joe Frank Currier Lambert de Rhonde Frank Evans Bethulian Soldier Frank Hayes Mabel's father Frank Jenks Deputy Tom Frank M Thom Dr Charles M on Frank McHugh Edward Olson Frank Opperman The Indian Chief Frank R Mills Bert Werden Frank Shannon Sir John Mansfield Frank Wilcox Gov Crittenden of Missouri Franklin Pangborn Vincent Leach Fred Gamble Innkeeper Fred Gambold Fred Hearn William Kemp Fred Lenox Butler Fred Scott Larry Dixon Singing Movie Cowboy Fred Solm André Robert C tle Freddie Burke Frederick Otto Stirner Jr Frederick Burton Amos Bussard Fredrick R Clark Alonzo Freddie's suave African American butler Fritz Diez Franklyn Hanna Fritz Heller Herr Kraus Fritz Links Aldington Fuzzy Knight Private Sweeney Stuart's groom G Raymond Nye Val Heywood Gabriele M cher Holzwurm Galina Polskikh Jadwiga Gene Raymond John Wallace Gene Stone Herbert Geoffrey Holder Sailor George Barraud Henry Brevoort George Bell Deputy George Bunny Tony P tor George Connors Tom Fleming George Cooper Mr Brandes George Davis Perkins George Fawcett Mr Simpkins George Field Minister to Moravia George Fitzmaurice Christy Cabanne George Gebhardt Simon Bimberg George Harris Joe Weber George Hupp Howard a Child George Irving President Thom Jefferson George K Arthur Mr whipple George Le Guere Johnny a young man George Melford George Kuwa George N h Lord Howe George Nichols Doctor Van Brum George Raft Eddie Jackson George Siegmann Black Bart George Spink Meade's Butler Georges Aubert Father Mollard Georges Rouquier Voltaire Gerd Funk Parker Gerd Michael Henneberg Albert Speer Gerhard Kempinski President Gerry Wolff Newman Gert Fröbe Jon Lauretz Gertrude Bambrick Lead syrian Dancer Gertrude Robinson Indian Gertrude Short Bubbles Gil Baladou Le ménestrel Gilbert Rooney Male flapper Gino Corrado Lt Br chek Gladden James 'Inky' Ames Gladys Egan Dollie Glen Cavender I Landem Realtor Gojko Mitic Tecumseh Gordon Dooley Doll in charade scene Gordon Griffith Cecil a Child Graciela Doring Empleada de p telería Grant Withers Sheriff Steve Oliver Grazyna Staniszewska Danusia Jurandówna Grete Reinwald Blinde Frau Gudrun Thielemann Garbo Guillermo Orea Fotógrafo Guinn Big Boy Williams Richard Berney Guinn Williams Eric Alvarez Günther Simon John Sieg Gus Edwards Gwen Lee Gus Saville J e Meilk Gustav von Seyffertitz Oliver de Daim Gustaw Holoubek Don Pedro Vel quez Gusti Wolf Hilde Wirtin und falsche Braut Guy Coombs Follower of Buckingham Guy Madison Steve Burden Gypsy O'Brien Ariana du Puyster Hallam Cooley Henry Garrison Halliwell Hobbes Larkin The Butler Hank Henry Mr Kelly the mortician Hank Mann a prizefighter Hank Worden Deacon Clump Hannjo H se guest in the American Emb sy Hans Kaes Polizist Murmann Police officer Murmann Hans Moser Professor Karl Stieglitz Hans Peter Pieper Crane Harlan Knight Theodore Larkin Harrison Ford Charles Fownes Harry Baer Helfritz Harry Benham Harry Twombly Harry Carey syrian Traitor Harry Crocker Pennington Fish Harry Gribbon Jim comedy director Harry Hyde Bethulian Soldier syrian Soldier Harry Jans Jess Henchman Harry L Rattenberry Grant Young credited Harry Rattenbury Harry Langdon Harry Van Housen Harry Myers an eccentric millionaire Harry Pietzsch Walter Küchenmeister Harry Schumm Harry Jackson Harry Shannon Clay Ford Harry Solter First Villain Harry Watson Bully Boy Brewster Harry Woods Traffic Cop Hattie Delaro Mrs Meredith Hedda Hopper Mrs Caldwell Hedda Nova Princess Olga Muratoft Heenan Elliott Mr Morley Heinrich Gretler Amtmann Bonatsch Heinrich Gretler Friedrich Odermatt Heinrich Narenta Heinrich Himmler Heinz Lausch Henry Heinz Rühmann Dr Felix Schneider Heinz Woester Konsul Rainer Heinz Leo Fischer Helen Gibson Billy Louise Helen Jerome Eddy Susan Throssel Helen Lee Worthing Mrs Loring Helen Lindroth Mrs Winthrop Helen Vita Fräulein Lüthi Telefonistin Helena Dabrowska Train Controller Hélène Dalmet Madame Montavon Helmut Schreiber Colonel Procter Henry Armetta Taxi Driver Henry B Walthall Cal Yates Henry Bergman Sheriff on Train Man in Railroad Station Henry Brandon Jesse James Henry Lehrman Union Soldier Henry Silva Roger Corneal Henry Stephenson Charles Patterson Henry Taylor Radio Rogue Henry Wadsworth Captain John Pelham Henryk Bak Lt Krygier Henryk Borowski Zygfryd de Löwe Herbert Köfer Mac Herbert Yost Barry O'Moore Confederate Soldier Union Soldier Hilda Vaughn Alice Peabody Hilde Berndt Lilli Schneider Hilde Körber Lehrerin Hobart Bosworth The Sheriff Hobart Cavanaugh Joe Bonner Holbrook Blinn Juan Fernández Hoot Gibson V sily Ivan's Brother Horace James Gardener Horst Drinda Arvid Harnack Horst Giese Schröder Horst Schulze Adam Kuckhoff Hortensia Santoveña Doctora Howard St John Ellen's Father Huntley Gordon Fairy Tale King Ian Hunter Anton Ian Keith Polini Ian Maclaren Campo B se Iga Cembrzynska Princess Emina Ignacio López Tarso Albino Ignacy Machowski the Home Army Major Ignatz Himself Ida Tenbrook Ilka Ch e Mrs Restes Ilse Steppat Walicka Ingeborg Ottmann Marianne Irene Browne Mrs Chichester Irene Nathusius Äpfelchen Irene Rich Jenny Rarick Irm Hermann Emma Irma Münch Mildred Harnack Isabelle Keith Franz' Rejected Girlfriend Ivor McFadden Buck Olney J Farrell MacDonald Patrick Shamus O'Connell J Frank Glendon Jack Lawford J Herbert Frank Ronald Kenna J Jiquel Lanoe Eunuch Attendant J Morris Foster Harry Beaufort credited Morris Foster J D Cannon Lester Danzig J M Kerrigan John O'Day Jack Connolly Ward Warren Jack Holt Howard Jack Hoxie White Elk Jack Huff Zander M ter Jack Huff Jack Mulhall Jimmy the Eel Jack Oakie Private Mulligan Jack Pennick Sgt Maj Mitch Mitchell Senior member of John Ford's Stock Company Jack Perrin Lynch Mob Member Jack Pratt Army Captain Jack Pratt Black Panther Jack Webb Norm Jack Woods Sheriff Buck Farley Jacques Tourneur Extra Jacqui Chan Toshi Jadwiga Krawczyk Donna Inez Moro Jakob Sulzer Otto Helbling James Bradbury Sr James Darren Himself James Gle on Cool Kelly James Gordon Carson Creswell a lawyer James Holmes Power's Man Saturn James Laffey Ship Captain James M on His Aide James Murray One of Tillie's Admirers in Restaurant Jan Machulski Count Pena Flor Jan Peszek Driver Bakalarzewicz Jane Winton Grace Harrington Janusz Klosinski Don Diego Salero Janusz Klosinski Nowak Janusz Paluszkiewicz Krokus a mechanic Javier Solís Víctor Jean Harlow extra in nightclub scene cut from film Jean Hersholt Herr Hofner Elsa's father Jean Howell Mrs Jesse James Jean Parker Eleanor Shackleford Jean Willes Gracie Bergdorf Jean Claude Dreyfus Zwerg Dwarf Jean Claude Dreyfuss Jeanie MacPherson Bank Customer Jean Paul Le Chanois Le confesseur de la baronne d'Escourt Jennie Lee Bethulian Jerzy Block Porter Kurek Jerzy Kozakiewicz Cztan z Rogowa Jerzy Kr owski Hans Jerzy Pichelski Powala of Taczew Jessy Rameik Sophie Sieg Jetta Goudal Simone Jim Corey Jack Benny Jimmy Bryant Henchman Jimmy Durante Jimmy Jimmy Hollywood Radio Rogue Jirí Vrštala Professor Rahn Joachim Hansen Andre von Richenau Joan Barclay Molly Henderson Joanna Jedryka Zibelda Joaquín Cordero César Domínguez Joe Bordeaux Henchman Joe Ferrante Blacksmith Joe Schorn Round Head Joel McCrea Student Joey Bishop Mushy O'Connors John B O'Brien Marquis of Muckross John Charles Duc de Chavannes John Dierkes Chet John Elliott James Monroe John G Adolfi Ida May John Larkin Isham John Leyton Dr Dougl Rigby John Lowell Director John Mercator Colonel Briggs John Merkyl Robert Ames John P Wade Sir Robert Fennell John Patrick Express Agent John Powers Eve's Admirer John R Cumpson Mr Bibbs John T Dillon Trapper John Wayne Colonel John Marlowe Johnny Arthur Otho Peabody Johnny Dooley Will Sommers Johnny Mack Brown Bob Jolanta Umecka Krystyna Jolante Umecka José Gálvez The Devil José Luis Jiménez God Joseph Burke Dr McNeil Joseph Cawthorn J Horace Freischutz Joseph Crehan Reed's Manager Joseph Hann Mr Kuan Second Mate Joseph Kilgour Theodore True Joseph Offenbach Knecht Jöry Joseph W Girard Judge Cotton Josephine Crowell Orphanage Trustee Josephine Hill Edith Oaks Joyce Compton Marie Waitress Józef Kostecki Lithuanian duke Witold Józef Nowak helper of Orzechowski Judson Pratt Sergeant Major Kirby Julia Faye Eleanor Forbes Julia Hurley Fairy tale crone Julia Swayne Gordon Mrs de Rhonde Juliette Compton Ethel Chichester Julissa Lidia Johnny Judd June Elvidge Amy Tillson June Purcell Mary a Singer on the atage Jutta Wachowiak Libert Schulze Boysen Kalla P ha comic chef Kans Moehring Karin Lesch Elfriede Paul Karl Dane Capt Jacop Van Goop Karl Hackett Banker Steve Lynch Karl Malden Mitch Karl Supper Dr Rudd Kate Bruce At Lambert House Kate Price Patty Kate Toncray One of Judith's Servants Katharina Lind Oda Schottmüller Katharine Alexander Pauline Cushman Operator Katherine MacDonald The Girl Kathleen Butler Bethulian Kathleen Key Tirzah Katy Jurado Maria Longworth Kay Deslys Skater Kazimierz Opalinski the Home Army commander of Mokotów Kazimierz Rudzki Lt Turek Kazimierz Talarczyk Olaf Peterson Kazimierz Wilamowski Ken Curtis Cpl Wilkie Ken Maynard Paul Revere Kim Hunter Stella Kit Wain Pe ant boy Kitty Bradbury Mrs Brown Kitty de Hoyos Sonia Klaus Löwitsch Jude Broker Klaus Piontek Harro Schulze Boysen Krzysztof Litwin Don Lopez Soarez L Rogers Lytton George Blair Larry Duran Chico Modesto Lawrence Gray Billy Caldwell Leatrice Joy Kid Wagner Lee Beggs Benjamin Franklin Lee Beranger Leslie Leo D Maloney Sandy Sands Leo White Sanballat Leon Errol Innkeeper Leon Gordon Clinton Dewitt Leon Niemczyk Vincente Dougl Leopold R Nowak Un contrebandier Leslie Howard Berry Rhodes Lester Vail Roger Baldwin Leszek Drogosz Stefan Jaksonek Lew Gallo Jealous Young Man Lew Meehan Rockin U Cowhand Lew Liliane Yvernault Arlette Lillian Elliott Mrs McNamara a friend of the Hartleys Lillian Gish The young mother Lillian Langdon Mary's Monther Lillian Lawrence comedy player at banquet Lillian Leighton Housekeeper Linda Arvidson Daisy Harcourt Linda Watkins Frances McCalla Lionel Adams Thom Jefferson Lionel Belmore Adolph Van Housen Little Billy Rhodes Half Pint Lon Chaney Bud an oil prospector Lorne Greene Rice Martin Lotte Lang Marie Dienstmädchen Lou Costello Extra Louis Wolheim The Hoboken Terror Louise Carter Ma Callahan Louise Emmons Faggot Carrier Louise Fazenda Abigail Belldon Loyal Underwood Small Deacon Luciano Simioni David Lucien Littlefield Zeb Hamburger Stand Owner Lucyna Winnicka Marta Luella Gear Julie Dewitt Luis Lomelí Carlos Luk Ammann Lila Lee Luke the Dog himself Lydia Knott Aunt Sarah Lydia Yeamans Titus Jane Lyle Latell Policeman Lyle Talbot Slattery Lyn Harding Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy Lys sia Schlager Sängerin Lyubov Sokolova postman Lyudmila Ivanova Nadezhda Lyudmila K atkina Zinaida Grigorievna Vorobyova Mabel Normand Mabel Macey Harlam Duc de Longueville Maciej Rayzacher Wanata Mack Sennett Customer In Bookstore Doctor Mack Swain Deacon Jones Mack V Wright Macklyn Arbuckle Squire Meredith Maclyn Arbuckle Bishop La Balue Madeleine Carroll Magda Madeline Marshall Lady Diana Mannister Madeline West Gypsy's wife Madge Hunt Mrs Adolph van Housen Mae Marsh Naomi Mae Murray Mugsy Mulane Mahlon Hamilton W hington Irving Mai Wells Idylwood Resident Manfred Karge Hans Coppi Marc Lawrence Mr Jacobs First Mate Marcelle Corday Henrietta Turnbull Marcia Ralston Camille Lansing Marco Antonio Muñiz Bruno Marga López Olga Margaret Callahan Sally M on Margaret Seddon Nancy Willoughby Margarete Haagen Adelheid Margarete Hoff Maria Margarete Slezak Rosi Stieglitz Margarita Cordova Nika Flamenco Dancer Margrit Rainer Hilde Staub Telefonistin Margrit Weiler Kunigunde Meier Marie Burke Mrs Schuyler Marie Dressler Ma Harrington Marie Prevost Annie Ostrom Marin Sais Silver Waters Marina Ried Sylvia Mario Alberto Rodríguez Don Ramiro Marion Davies Prudence Cole Marion Leonard Wedding Guest Marion Sunshine Guest Marjorie Gateson Mrs Shackleford Mark Dignam Sir John Mark Hamilton Conductor Marshall Neilan Marilu Marini Martha Mattox Aunt Elizabeth Whitney Martin Faust Count Galli Mary tor Gladys Russell Mary Boland Mrs Peabody Mary Duncan Muriel Preston Mary Forbes Mrs Fish Pennington's Mother Mary Gordon Minor Role Mary Kennedy Antoinette C tleman Mary McAllister Lucy Cavanaugh Mary Miles Minter Mary Richards Mrs Brooks her mother Mary Thurman Mrs Croaker The Doctor's Wife Mary Treen Employment Clerk Marylu Poolman Elisabeth Schumacher Mathilde Danegger Frau Hofmann Matt Moore Bud H kell Matthew Betz Red Hawkins Maude Eburne Mrs Jennings Maude Lowe Maid Maude Turner Gordon Mrs Leigh Maura Monti César's blonde lover Max Barwyn Saranoff Max Haufler Frederick Max Haufler Hunziker Oberheizer Max Knapp Fritz Gubler Maximilian Schell Captain Chris Hanson Maxine Jennings Billings's Secretary May McAvoy Esther May Robson Mrs Mary Walker May Vokes Susie Maya Levare Maya Michael Callan Griff Rimer Michael McKeag Roger Michael Rennie Rudolph Michal Gazda pl P senger Flirting with Lawyer's Wife Mickey Kuhn sailor Midori Arimoto Midori Mieczyslaw Kalenik Zbyszko z Bogdanca Mieczyslaw Voit Kuno von Lichtenstein Mikhail Ulyanov General Alexander Gorbatov Milan Beli Raffael Millard K Wilson Jim Calvert credited M K Wilson Milt Dougl Bill Jones a Stage Performer Milton Sills Michael Ramsay Min Johnson At Laundry Mincho Nikolov Red Hawk Minja Vojvodic Black Eagle Míriam Colón Redhead Miroslawa Lombardo Van Worden's mother Mitchell Lewis Sheik Ilderim Molly Malone Molly Young Monroe Salisbury Mary's Cousin Morris Ankrum Wheeler Murdock MacQuarrie Martin Shaler Myrna Dell Ruth Hampton Myron Healey Cole Younger Nadja Tiller Olga Fellmeier Nanine Wright Mrs John Brant Natalia Szymanska wife of Orzechowski Natalie Warfield Nautauka Ned Sparks Mr Bert Conroy Director Nelson McDowell Wild Horse Henderson Niall Macginnis Harbor M ter David Nick Dennis Pablo Nicolai Koesberg Lafayette Nigel Barrie Philip Romilly Nigel de Brulier Simonides Nils ther Andre Nina Quartero Maria Credaro Nita Naldi Mary Gish Noble Johnson Trovio Valdez Norma Shearer Extra Norman Fell Peter Rheimer Norman Kerry Jim Neeland Norval Keedwell Fitz Greene Halleck O Z Whitehead Otis 'Hoppy' Hopkins medical sistant Oleg Vidov Elliot Olin Howland Philemon Onslow Stevens Sir Gerald Markham Ormi Hawley Anitra St Clair Orville Caldwell Tony Anderson Oscar Apfel Major Oscar Shaw Stagg Otto Lederer Colonel Bormsk Otto Zehnder Walter Emilies Sohn Owen Moore Rich Patron Pat Harmon studio Gateman Pat O'Brien Daniel Click Wiley Pat Wing Little Girl Patrice Wymore Adele Elkstrom Patricia Palmer Countess Irsky Patsy Kelly Jill Barker Paul Albert Krumm Paul Paul Henckels Dr Gutknecht Paul Hurst Chris Doble Paul McAllister Jules d'Humbercourt Paul Panzer Captain of the Guard Paul Ralli Andre Telfair Paul Weigel Man in Vienna opera box Paulette Duval Carlotta Pauline Garon Mathilda Ramsay Pedro de Cordoba Duke of Buckingham Peg Hilli Eunice Peggie C tle Paula Collins Peggy Parr The Fiancée Pepi Lederer Peppy Percy Ames Lord Andrew Gordon Pert Kelton Toddy Williams Pete Morrison Sheriff Pete Larkin Peter Doherty squadron commander Peter Kowalski Peter Travis Peter Lawford Jimmy Foster Peter Sturm Krapotschkin Philip Ahn Uncle Philip Coolidge Mr Rimer Philipp Lothar Mayring Baron von Renner Franz' father Pina Pellicer Irma Polly Moran Peggy's maid Ralph Byrd Pilot Ralph Forbes John hley Ralph Graves Maximillian of Styria Ralph Kellard Jim Cleland Ramon Novarro Ben Hur Ramón Valdés Juan mesero Raúl Gimenez Adrian Ray Cooke director's sistant Ray Mayer Henchman Ray Milland Geoffrey Trent Ray Teal Barney Raymond Bloomer Jack Bronson Raymond Hackett Willie Parker Raymond Hatton Downey Hartley's servant Reed Howes Bart Hunter Reginald Barker Perry Murdock Reginald Barlow Power's Man Friday Reimar Baur John Dr Kummerow Renata Vanni Juanita Renate Blume Ingrid Renate Feuereisen Rösli Hausmädchen Ricardo Fuentes Dibujante Richard Bennett John Glidden Richard Carle Mr Pepper Richard Conte Tony Bergdorf Richard Cummings John Barrett Richard Erdman Leo Richard Garrick Doctor Richard H Cutting Gen William Tecumseh Sherman Riley Hatch Philip Schuyler Rita Liechti Serviertochter Robert Ames Soapy Robert Bichler Erwin Schlumpf Robert Bradbury Baron Kovsky credited Ronald Bradbury Robert Brower Hugo Kermaier Robert Burton Sheriff Hacker Robert Dunbar Alec Werden Robert Foulk Sheriff Wimmer Robert G Vignola Robert Gordon Johnny Brant Robert Greig Jarvis the butler Robert Harron Nathan Robert McWade Colonel Sharpe Robert Middlem s Mr George Cafe Proprietor Robert Montgomery Freddie Matthews Robert Paige Ronny Cauldwell credited David Carlyle Robert Parrish newsboy Robert Trösch Armin Witschi Robert Vaughn Bob Ford Robert Vivian Chilsmer Grismer Roberta Shore Ricky Summers Rob't Hall Guard spelled Robert in opening credits Rodolfo Acosta Mexican Rurale Captain Roger Williams Rockin U Cowhand Johnnie Roland Glowacki pl Murderer Rolf Ripperger Barry Rolf Römer Col Simon McKew Rolfe Sedan portrait photographer Roman Klosowski Szpakowski Ron Hagerthy Bugler Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle Fatty Roscoe Karns Aloysius K Reilly Rossano Brazzi Giovanni Borghese Roy Applegate Sir Karl Pitti Roy D'Arcy General Marlanax Ruby Lafayette Grandma Rudolf Bernhard Schwomm Rudolf Bernhard René Gengenbach Rudolf Forster Maler Matthi Rudolf Ulrich O'Brian Rudolph Valentino Marjorie Daw Rudy Bond John Rodman Rupert Julian Cecil Russ Powell Herr Schultz Russell Hardie Lieutenant Gus Littledale Russell Hopton Sheriff Arthur Billings Russell Simpson Acting Sheriff Henry Goodbody Ruth Donnelly Aunt Mimi Ruth Fischer Pariser Freundin Ruth Selwyn Mitzi Ruth Shepley Lady Jane Bolingbroke Ryszard Kotys Mechanic Bulaga Ryszarda Hanin Halina Trushinska Sal Mineo Leoncavallo Borghese Sally Eilers Skater Sally Starr Angela Forbes Sam Gilman Harvey Johnson Sam Hardy Cornelius Vanderbilt Sam McDaniel R putin the Train Porter Sammy Davis Jr Josh Howard Sammy White singer in Coney Island Samuel S Hinds Officer Price Sarah Padden Ma McClune Schaggi Streuli Buol Präsident eines Sportvereins Schaggi Streuli Gustav Hannart Scott Kolk Lieutenant Frane Scotty Mattraw Cook Seena Owen Mary Sidney Franklin Shirley Mitchell Mrs Summers Sid Grauman Robert Rogalski Sidney Blackmer Steve Sidney Bracey dramatic director Sidney Toler Major Allan Pinkerton Siegfried Weiss Wilhelm Canaris Sigfrit Steiner Gloor Buchhalter Sigfrit Steiner Untersuchungsricher Steffen Examining magistrate Steffen Slawomir Lindner Van Worden's father Slim Pickens Lon Dedrick Snitz Edwards Caesar Rinkle Spencer Charters Squire Hennion Stan Jones Gen Ulysses S Grant Stanislav Ledinek Küster Stanislaw Bareja a Home Army soldier Stanislaw Igar Don G par Soarez Stanislaw Jaworski Franek a friend of Orzechowski Stanley Blystone Jailer Steffen Klaus Colpi Stephen Carr Patrick O'Day Stephen McNally Victor 'Vic' Rodell Stephen Talbot Eric Steve Clemente Pedro the Foreman credited Steve Clement Strother Martin Virgil rebel deserter Stuart Erwin Ernest Pratt Baker Picture Producer Sumi Haru Sumi Sydney Chaplin Eloper Train Conductor Little Boy's Father T Roy Barnes Adam Smith The Salesman Hero Tadeusz Bartosik Le gitan Marco Tadeusz Bialoszczynski Duke Janusz I of Warsaw Tadeusz Borowski Eugeniusz Trushinsky Gena Vorobyov Tadeusz Gwiazdowski Train Controller Tadeusz Lomnicki Grzegorz Walicki Tadeusz Lomnicki Lt Zawistowski Ted Healy Doctor Hitchcock Tenen Holtz c ting director Teresa Maxwell Conover Queen Catherine credited Theresa Maxwell Conover Teresa Szmigielówna Lawyer's Wife Teresa Wright Ellen Thea Talbot Sybil Thelma Hill Rose Thelma Percy Theodore Roberts Theo Lingen Paul Fellmeier Theodore Kosloff Monsieur Joromir King of Moravia Theodore Von Eltz Ramon Theresa Maxwell Conover Queen Margaret Thom Findley Antoinette's father Thom Jefferson Peter Thom Meighan The Brox Sisters Three Radio Rogues Group Performing Imitations Timothy Carey Howard Tetley Toby Wing Little Girl Tom Kennedy White Hopeless Tom Lewis James King Tom London credited Leonard Clapham Tom Moore Man in Office Wedding Guest Tom Murray Sheriff Bryan Tom Tyler Al Goss Tom Webb Farmer's Son Trevor Bardette Mitch Willis Truly Shattuck Lucy Hillary Tuesday Weld Ann Gregor Turner Savage Bill Sadie's Chubby Boy Tyrell Davis Alaric Chichester Tyrone Power Sr Lord Cornwallis Ulli Lommel Der kleine Prinz Little Prince Ullrich Haupt Hugo Elsa's rejected suitor Ursula Karusseit Hilde Coppi Urszula Modrzynska Jagienka ze Zgorzelic Valentina Telegina nurse in hospital Valerie French Fern Martin Vera Oelschlegel secretary Verner Clarges Union Officer Vester Pegg Ben Kent Victor Beaumont chief of British intelligence Victoria Shaw Joan Dietrich Victoria Young Kiko Violet Mersereau Willi Ackermann Virginia Cherrill a blind girl Virginia Farmer Nurse Robbins Virginia Sale Emma Stirner Vivienne Osborne Marie Cliff Vivienne Segal Elsa Hofner Vladimir Iv hov major W C Fields Rollo La Rue W C Robinson Bethulian Soldier W Chrystie Miller Grandfather at Farewell W Scott Moore Dougl Romilly W C Fields A British Sergeant W C Robinson Indian W W Bitner Zelaya Chief of the Gypsies Wade Boteler Officer G ton Walburga Gmür Frau Muffler Putzfrau Wallace McCutcheon Jr Wallace Reid Tom Grimes Walo Lüönd Hotelpage Walter Catlett Jake Sherman Walter Janssen Wanda Hawley Walter Kingsford Monsieur Pichon Walter Law General Charles Lee Walter Long Operator Walter Pidgeon Franz von Renner Walter Reed Union officer Ward Crane French Secret Service Agent Warren Berlinger Buddy McCalla Warren Cook Earle of Mannister Wayland Tr k Dr Milton Croaker Undertaker's Neighbor Wedgwood Nowell Graham Henderson Wendell Holmes Principal Donlan Werner Buttler Gendarm Dieterli Werner Hahn Logan Werner Lierck Private First Cl s Draeger Wharton James Jim Garland Whitehorse John Oaks Wiktor Grotowicz Director Rozner Wilbur Higby Fowler Wilfred Luc Hugh Frazier Wilfred Noy Dr Joseph Warren Wilfried Pucher Ellis Willard Cooley Frank Raymond Willard Robertson Captain Cornelius Channing Willette Kershaw Mary Jeremiah's wife William A Carroll syrian Soldier William Carroll William B Davidson Dr Delamater William Boyd William Brotherhood Steward William C deMille Zoe Rae Maud William Collier Sr Pat Pop Walters William De Vaull De Rhonde's Butler William E Lowery Yaqui Indian Chief William Forrest Gen Steve Hurlburt William Haines Billy Boone William Henry Confederate lieutenant William Holden Charles Roger Forbes William J Butler Confederate Soldier William Kent King's tailor William Leslie Maj Richard Gray William McCall John Cavanaugh William Norris Uncle Horace William Orlamond Governor William Powell Francis I credited William H Powell William Steele The Foreman credited Bill Gettinger William Welsh Ben Hanfer Willis Bouchey Col Phil Secord Willy Frey Pfarrer Willy Fueter Bernard Benny Willy Maertens Hausmeister Wagner Winter Hall Joseph Witold Pyrkosz Inspector Witold Roszak Witold Skaruch Priest Wladyslaw Pawlowicz Un soldat Wojciech Siemion Lt Marianek Wolfgang Greese Governor William Harrison Wright King a collector Wyndham Standing Sir Fergus C sidy Wynne Gibson Violet Smith Xenia Pörtner Gabriele Yvette Mitchell Conchita Zarli Carigiet Schreier Zarli Carigiet Luzi Caviezel Z u Pitts Gertie Zbigniew Cybulski Alfonse Van Worden Zbigniew Dobrzynski Tom z Zbigniew Wójcik Painter Zdzislaw Maklakiewicz Don Roque Busqueros Zofia Merle Draughtswoman Zosia Zygmunt Malanowicz Young Man Zygmunta Malanowicza Zygmunt Malawski pl Policeman Zygmunt Zintel P senger Suffering from Insomnia








outdoor market – the Seventh-Kilometer Market, the largest of its kind in Europe. The city has seen violence in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine during 2014 Odessa clashes. The 2 May 2014 Odessa clashes between pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian protestors killed 42 people. Four were killed during the protests, and at least 32 trade unionists were killed after a trade union building was set on fire and its exits blocked by Ukrainian nationalists.[26] Polls conducted from September to December 2014 found no support for joining Russia.[27] Odessa was struck by three bomb blasts in December 2014, one of which killed one person (the injuries sustained by the victim indicated that he had dealt with explosives).[28][29] Internal Affairs Ministry advisor Zorian Shkiryak said on 25 December that Odessa and Kharkiv had become "cities which are being used to escalate tensions" in Ukraine. Shkiryak said that he suspected that these cities were singled out because of their "geographic position".[28] On 5 January 2015 the city's Euromaidan Coordination Center and a cargo train car were (non-lethally) bombed.[30] Geography Location The Vorontsov Lighthouse in the Gulf of Odessa. The city is located on the Black Sea. Odessa is situated (46°28'N 30°44'E) on terraced hills overlooking a small harbor on the Black Sea in the Gulf of Odessa, approximately 31 km (19 mi) north of the estuary of the Dniester river and some 443 km (275 mi) south of the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The average elevation at which the city is located is around 50 metres (160 feet), while the maximum is 65 metres (213 feet) and minimum (on the coast) amounts to 4.2 metres (13.8 feet) above sea level. The city currently covers a territory of 162.42 km2 (63 sq mi)[31], the population density for which is around 6,139 persons/km². Sources of running water in the city include the Dniester River, from which water is taken and then purified at a processing plant just outside the city. Being located in the south of Ukraine, the topography of the area surrounding the city is typically flat and there are no large mountains or hills for many kilometres around. Flora is of the deciduous variety and Odessa is known for its tree-lined avenues which, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, made the city a favourite year-round retreat for the Russian aristocracy.[citation needed] The city's location on the coast of the Black Sea has also helped to create a booming tourist industry in Odessa.[citation needed] The city's Arkadia beach has long been a favourite place for relaxation, both for the city's inhabitants and its visitors.[citation needed] This is a large sandy beach which is located to the south of the city centre. Odessa's many sandy beaches are considered to be quite unique in Ukraine,[citation needed] as the country's southern coast (particularly in the Crimea) tends to be a location in which the formation of stoney and pebble beaches has proliferated. The coastal cliffs adjacent to the city are home to frequent landslides, resulting in a typical change of landscape along the Black Sea. Due to the fluctuating slopes of land, city planners are responsible for monitoring the stability of such areas, and for preserving potentially threatened building and other structures of the city above sea level near water.[32] Also a potential danger to the infrastructure and architecture of the city is the presence of multiple openings underground. These cavities can cause buildings to collapse, resulting in a loss of money and business. Due to the effects of climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the city, the result is instability under some buildings' foundations. A panoramic view of central Odessa, as seen from the Black Sea. Climate Odessa has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa, using the 0 °C [32 °F] isotherm) that borderlines the semi-arid climate (BSk) as well as a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) This has, over the past few centuries, aided the city greatly in creating conditions necessary for the development of summer tourism. During the tsarist era, Odessa's climate was considered to be beneficial for the body, and thus many wealthy but sickly persons were sent to the city in order to relax and recuperate. This resulted in the development of spa culture and the establishment of a number of high-end hotels in the city. The average annual temperature of sea is 13–14 °C (55–57 °F), whilst seasonal temperatures range from an average of 6 °C (43 °F) in the period from January to March, to 23 °C (73 °F) in August. Typically, for a total of 4 months – from June to September – the average sea temperature in the Gulf of Odessa and city's bay area exceeds 20 °C (68 °F).[33] The city typically experiences dry, cold winters, which are relatively mild when compared to most of Ukraine as they're marked by temperatures which rarely fall below -10 °C (14 °F). Summers on the other hand do see an increased level of precipitation, and the city often experiences warm weather with temperatures often reaching into the high 20s and low 30s. Snow cover is often light or moderate, and municipal services rarely experience the same problems that can often be found in other, more northern, Ukrainian cities. This is largely because the higher winter temperatures and coastal location of Odessa prevent significant snowfall. Additionally the city hardly ever faces the phenomenon of sea-freezing. Climate data for Odessa (1981–2010) Demographics According to the 2001 census, Ukrainians make up a majority (62 percent) of Odessa's inhabitants, along with an ethnic Russian minority (29 percent).[36] Historical population Historical population A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that 68% of Odessa was ethnic Ukrainian, and 25% ethnic Russian.[42] Despite Odessa's Ukrainian majority, Russian is the dominant language in the city. In 2015, the main language spoken at home was Russian - around 78% of the total population - followed by Ukrainian at 6%, and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian, 15%.[42] Odessa oblast is also home to a number of other nationalities and minority ethnic groups, including Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Georgians, Greeks, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Turks, among others.[36] Up until the early 1940s the city had a large Jewish population. As the result of mass deportation to extermination camps during the Second World War, the city's Jewish population declined considerably. Since the 1970s, the majority of the remaining Jewish population emigrated to Israel and other countries, shrinking the Jewish community. Through most of the 19th century and until the mid 20th century, the largest ethnic group in Odessa was Russians, with the second largest ethnic group being the Jews.[43] Historical ethnic and national composition 1897[44] Russians: 198,233 people (49.09%) Jews: 124,511 people (30.83%) Ukrainians: 37,925 people (9.39%) Poles: 17,395 people (4.31%) Germans: 10,248 people (2.54%) Greeks: 5,086 people (1.26%) Tatars: 1,437 people (0.36%) Armenians: 1,401 people (0.35%) Belarusians: 1,267 people (0.31%) French: 1,137 people (0.28%) 1926[45] Russians: 162,789 people (39.97%) Jews: 153,243 people (36.69%) Ukrainians: 73,453 people (17.59%) Poles: 10,021 people (2.40%) Germans: 5,522 people (1.32%) Belarusians: 2,501 people (0.60%) Armenians: 1,843 people (0.44%) Greeks: 1,377 people (0.33%) Bulgarians: 1,186 people (0.28%) Moldovans: 1,048 people (0.25%) 1939[46] Jews: 200,961 people (33.26%) Russians: 186,610 people (30.88%) Ukrainians: 178,878 people (29.60%) Poles: 8,829 people (1.46%) Germans: 8,424 people (1.39%) Bulgarians: 4,967 people (0.82%) Moldovans: 2,573 people (0.43%) Armenians: 2,298 people (0.38%) 2001[47] Ukrainians: 622,900 people (61.6%) Russians: 292,000 people (29.0%) Bulgarians: 13,300 people (1.3%) Jews: 12,400 people (1.2%) Moldovans: 7,600 people (0.7%) Belarusians: 6,400 people (0.6%) Armenians: 4,400 people (0.4%) Poles: 2,100 people (0.2%) Government and administrative divisions Odessa City Hall, the seat of the city's municipal authorities Whilst Odessa is the administrative centre of the Odessa Oblast, the city is also the main constituent of the Odessa Municipality. However, since Odessa is a city of regional significance, this makes the city subject directly to the administration of the oblast's authorities, thus removing it from the responsibility of the municipality. The city of Odessa is governed by a mayor and city council which work cooperatively to ensure the smooth-running of the city and procure its municipal bylaws. The city's budget is also controlled by the administration. The mayoralty[48] plays the role of the executive in the city's municipal administration. Above all comes the mayor, who is elected, by the city's electorate, for five years in a direct election. 2015 Mayoral election of Odessa Gennadiy Trukhanov was reelected in the first round of the election with 52,9% of the vote.[1] There are five deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a certain particular part of the city's public policy. An old map of Odessa's city centre. North is to the left. The City Council[49] of the city makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or rada. The municipal council is made up of 120 elected members,[50] who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four-year term. The current council is the fifth in the city's modern history, and was elected in January 2011. In the regular meetings of the municipal council, problems facing the city are discussed, and annually the city's budget is drawn up. The council has seventeen standing commissions[51] which play an important role in controlling the finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants. The territory of Odessa is divided into four administrative raions (districts): Kyivsky Raion Malynovsky Raion Prymorsky Raion Suvorovsky Raion In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to the Odessa City council, and with limited responsibilities. Cityscape A panoramic view of Primorsky Boulevard, at the top of the Potemkin Stairs. Further information: Odessa Catacombs Many of Odessa's buildings have, rather uniquely for a Ukrainian city, been influenced by the Mediterranean style of classical architecture. This is particularly noticeable in buildings built by architects such as the Italian Francesco Boffo, who in early 19th-century built a palace and colonnade for the Governor of Odessa, Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, the Potocki Palace and many other public buildings. The Italian baroque facade of the Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater. In 1887 one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was completed – the theatre, which still hosts a range of performances to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera houses. The first opera house was opened in 1810 and destroyed by fire in 1873. The modern building was constructed by Fellner and Helmer in neo-baroque; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style. It is said that thanks to its unique acoustics even a whisper from the stage can be heard in any part of the hall. The theatre was projected along the lines of Dresden's Semperoper built in 1878, with its nontraditional foyer following the curvatures of the auditorium; the building's most recent renovation was completed in 2007.[52] The centre of Odessa, with its statue of Catherine the Great, is one of the city's central landmarks. Odessa's most iconic symbol, the Potemkin Steps (Primorsky Stairs) is a vast staircase that conjures an illusion so that those at the top only see a series of large steps, while at the bottom all the steps appear to merge into one pyramid-shaped mass. The original 200 steps (now reduced to 192) were designed by Italian architect Francesco Boffo and built between 1837 and 1841. The steps were made famous by Sergei Eisenstein in his film, The





Battleship Potemkin. Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local smugglers. This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "Odessa Catacombs". During World War II, the catacombs served as a hiding place for partisans and natural shelter for civilians, who were escaping air plane bombing. The Londonskaya Hotel, on Odessa's magnificent Primorsky Bulvar, is one of the city's landmark buildings. Deribasivska Street, an attractive pedestrian avenue named after José de Ribas, the Spanish-born founder of Odessa and decorated Russian Navy Admiral from the Russo-Turkish War, is famous by its unique character and architecture.[citation needed] During the summer it is common to find large crowds of people leisurely sitting and talking on the outdoor terraces of numerous cafés, bars and restaurants, or simply enjoying a walk along the cobblestone street, which is not open to vehicular traffic and is kept shaded by the linden trees which line its route.[53] A similar streetscape can also be found in that of Primorsky Bulvar, a grand thoroughfare which runs along the edge of the plateau upon which the city is situated, and where many of the city's most imposing buildings are to be found. As one of the biggest on the Black Sea, Odessa's port is busy all year round. The Odessa Sea Port is located on an artificial stretch of Black Sea coast, along with the north-western part of the Gulf of Odessa. The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around 7.23 kilometres (4.49 mi). The port, which includes an oil refinery, container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on seasonal weather; the harbour itself is defended from the elements by breakwaters. The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its passenger terminals can cater for around 4 a million passengers a year at full capacity.[54] Parks and gardens The city's Preobrazhensky Park surrounds its cathedral. The Alexander Column in Schevchenko Park Park zone at Primorskiy prospekt in Odessa There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, among these are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky and Victory parks, the latter of which is an arboretum. The city is also home to a university botanical garden, which recently celebrated its 200th anniversary, and a number of other smaller gardens. The City Garden, or Gorodskoy Sad, is perhaps the most famous of Odessa's gardens. Laid out in 1803 by Felix De Ribas (brother of the founder of Odessa, José de Ribas) on a plot of urban land he owned, the garden is located right in the heart of the city. When Felix decided that he was no longer able to provide enough money for the garden's upkeep, he decided to present it to the people of Odessa [55]. The transfer of ownership took place on 10 November 1806. Nowadays the garden is home to a bandstand and is the traditional location for outdoor theater in the summertime. Numerous sculptures can also be found within the grounds as well as a musical fountain, the waters of which are computer controlled to coordinate with the musical melody being played. Odessa's largest park, Shevchenko Park (previously Alexander Park), was founded in 1875, during a visit to the city by Emperor Alexander II. The park covers an area of around 700 by 900 metres (2,300 by 3,000 feet) and is located near the centre of the city, on the side closest to the sea. Within the park there are a variety of cultural and entertainment facilities, and wide pedestrian avenues. In the center of the park is the local top-flight football team's Chornomorets Stadium, the Alexander Column and municipal observatory. The Baryatinsky Bulvar is popular for its route, which starts at the park's gate before winding its way along the edge of the coastal plateau. There are a number of monuments and memorials in the park, one of which is dedicated to the park's namesake, the Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko. Education The Odessa National Scientific Library is a major research library, and centre for study, in southern Ukraine. Odessa is home to several universities and other institutions of higher education. The city's best-known and most prestigious university is the Odessa 'I.I. Mechnikov' National University. This university is the oldest in the city and was first founded by an edict of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1865 as the Imperial Novorossian University. Since then the university has developed to become one of modern Ukraine's leading research and teaching universities, with staff of around 1,800 and total of thirteen academic faculties. Other than the National University, the city is also home to the 1921-inaugurated Odessa National Economic University, the Odessa National Medical University (founded 1900), the 1918-founded Odessa National Polytechnic University and the Odessa National Maritime University (established 1930). The main building of the Odessa National Medical University. In addition to these universities, the city is home to the Odessa Law Academy, the National Academy of Telecommunications and the Odessa National Maritime Academy. The last of these institutions is a highly specialised and prestigious establishment for the preparation and training of merchant mariners which sees around 1,000 newly qualified officer cadets graduate each year and take up employment in the merchant marines of numerous countries around the world. The South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University is also based in the city, this is one of the largest institutions for the preparation of educational specialists in Ukraine and is recognised as one of the country's finest of such universities. In addition to all the state-run universities mentioned above, Odessa is also home to many private educational institutes and academies which offer highly specified courses in a range of different subjects. These establishments, however, typically charge much higher fees than government-owned establishments and may not have held the same level of official accreditation as their state-run peers.[citation needed] With regard to primary and secondary education, Odessa has many schools catering for all ages from kindergarten through to lyceum (final secondary school level) age. Most of these schools are state-owned and operated, and all schools have to be state-accredited in order to teach children. Culture Main article: Culture of Odessa Museums, art and music Odessa Archaeological Museum was designed in the