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Achim Schmidtchen the Obergruppenführer Adam Pawlikowski Don Pedro Uzeda Adele DeGarde At Laundry Adolf Manz Bürgermeister Aeschbacher Mayor Aeschbacher Adolph Lestina Bethulian Adrian Hoven Herr Müller ihr Mann Adriana Roel Alicia Aileen Manning Aunt Cynthia Whitney Akim Tamiroff Spyros Acebos Al Ernest Garcia his butler credited Allan Garcia Al Shean Simeon Hamburgher Al St John Hiram Perkins' son Alan Curtis Driver Alan Hoskins Jan Agnes Neilson Alan Mowbray Captain Christopher Brent Alan Winnington chief of the reconnaissance Albert Austin street sweeper burglar Albert Conti producer Albert Gran Duke Travina Albertina R ch Dancers Aleksander Fogiel Macko z Bogdanca Aleksander Sewruk Lawyer Alexa von Porembsky Wirtin Gumpers Alexander Allerson Hans von Gluck Alexander Gray Otto Stirner Alfred Allen Silent Jake Alfred Lucca Gerber Alfred Müller Wolfgang Langhoff Alfred Neugebauer Josef Greiner Alfred Paget Bethulian syrian Soldier Alfred R ser Leblanc Küchenchef Alfred Struwe Bellini Alice Day Barbara Elsa's granddaughter Alison Skipworth Emily La Rue Allen Jenkins Jake Edgall Sadie's dimwitted plumber boyfriend Allen Pomeroy Tom Reed a Boxer Althea Gibson Lukey Miss Hunter's maid Amelia Summerville Olive Connal Anatol Kobylinski Un contrebandier Anders Randolf William Vandermuellen André Versini Le marquis d'Ulrich Andrew Dillon John Jacob tor Andrzej Szalawski Jurand ze Spychowa Angie Dickinson Beatrice Ocean Anita Hendrie Jessie Marshall Anita Höfer Hanna Lauretz Ann Dere Matron Anna Lee Mrs Buford Anna Q Nilsson Mrs Michael Ramsay Anna Townsend Harry's Mother credited Mrs Townsend Anne Schaefer Martha Meilke Annekathrin Bürger Eileen Anneliese Betschart Bach Bäuerin Anne Marie Blanc Frau von Richenau Annemarie Düringer Luise Müller Anne Marie Hanschke Fräulein Reuter Annie Rosar Lilli Schneiders Mutter Anthony O'Sullivan Trapper Antonina Girycz Ewa Antonio Moreno Dantan Antrim Short Tommy Arkadiusz Bazak Marian Armin Schweizer Gottlieb Ellenberger Arnold Marlé Joseph Arnold Müdespacher Art Acord Alice Brady Arthur Donaldson Sir Henry Brandon Arthur Earle Mr Stull Arthur Forrest Cardinal Wolsey Arthur Hoyt Mr Cuddleton Arthur Jurado Angel Arthur Lake Boy Throwing Roses Arthur Rankin Tommy Corbin Arthur Treacher Sir Harry Arthur V Johnson Jack Stanford Artur Mlodnicki Le sergent Arturo de Córdova Mario Athole Shearer Extra Barbara Adolph Greta Kuckhoff Barbara Krafftówna Camilla de Tormez Barbara Polomska Zosia Barbara Sabin Little Girl Barbara Werle Charley Adams Barry Atwater George Dennison Bart Patton Kramer Barton MacLane Pinkerton Agent Clyde O'Connell B il Ruysdael the Reverend Jefferson Military Academy Beata Tyszkiewicz Donna Rebecca Uzeda Bela Lugosi Count von Ratz Hungarian Amb sador Ben Alexander Bill Stanton Ben Horning Maud's Father Ben Turpin Banana Peel Victim Bernard Berger Lew Fields Bert Lytell Arthur Tovey Bert Roach Gus S cher Bertha Danegger Mutter Aeschbacher Mother Aeschbacher Berton Churchill Mr Yates Bess Flowers Dance Extra Bessie Barriscale Lillian Henry Betsy Ann Hisle Little Girl Betty Compson Bessie Love Beulah Bondi Madame Letizia Billie Dove Lottie Callahan Lurline Cavanaugh Billy Armstrong Dying Man's Nurse Biltmore Trio Trio in Nightclub singing Here We Are Bing Crosby Bill 'Billy' Williams Bing Russell Dunker Yankee Soldier Amputee Blanche Sweet Judith Bob Burns Cowhand Bob Kortman 'Hawk' Decker Bob Reeves Lynch Mob Member Bob Steele Bebe Daniels Bobby Watson Jack Thompson the Press Agent Bodil Rosing Widow Gorman Bogumil Kobiela Lt Dabecki Bogumil Kobiela Senor Toledo Boleslaw Abart Driver Sosin Boy Gobert Chief of Police Müller II Boyce Combe Hobart Bozena Kurowska Buck Connors Bradley Barker Eve's Admirer Brian Keith Harry Connerly Brigitte Ratz Brigitte Schneider Buck Black Young Teddy Roosevelt Bud Jamison Contractor Bud Osborne Henchman Buddy Lester Vince M sler Buddy Smith Dirk de Rhonde a child Bum Krüger Stefan Walicki Burton McEvilly Alexander Hamilton Buzz Barton Six Bits C Aubrey Smith Bishop James Northcott Cactus Mack Lynch Mob Member Carl 'Major' Roup Extra Carl Miller Bulmer Meade Carleton Young Col Jonathan Miles CSA Carlyle Blackwell Oswald Grismer Carmel Myers Ir Carmencita Johnson Baby Carrie Daumery Chaperon Cecil Cunningham friend of Emily La Rue Cesar Romero Duke Santos Cezary Julski Zawisza Czarny Chariklia Baxevanos Hertha Engelberger Charles Arling Charles Avery Man at Brothel Charles Belcher Balthazar Charles Clary Mr Calhoun Charles Giblyn Dennison Charles Hill Mailes Bethulian Soldier Charles Inslee The Professor Party Guest Charles Jackson Johnny a boy ?Charles R Jackson Charles K Gerrard Sir Adam Judson Charles Kennedy Reilly Charles King Henchman Duke Rollins Charles Lane John Cleland Charles Laughton Phine V Lambert Charles McHugh Shamus O'Tandy Charles Murray M Balmer Undertaker Charles Newton Carlo Bertozza Charles Peyton Butler Charles Regnier Gregor Palinin Charles Reisner Howard Huntington ali Nitro Nick ali Picking Pete Charles Ruggles Senator Henry Ruggles Charles Stevens Lieutenant Charles Teske a Dancer Charles West Young Father Chet Ryan Ivan the Cossack Chick Morrison Christian Rub Chip Carson Telegraph Operator Chris Robinson Patcher Christian Wolff Nikl Lauretz Christine Kaufmann Sylvia Lauretz Chuck Hayward Captain Winters Claire McDowell Maude Jones Clara Blandick Aunt Ellen Patterson Clara T Bracy Bethulian Clarence Burton Cave Man Clarence Geldart James Kilkenna Clark Comstock Indian Chief Clark Gable Reverend John Hartley Clark Marshall Don Alvarez Claude Carliez Un aristocrate Claude Payton Jesus Christ Claude Rains Napoleon Bonaparte Claus Wilcke Henry Scherz Clem Harvey Louis Jackson Cliff Bowes Dying Man Cliff Edwards Cliff Lyons Clyde Cook Dancer Colleen Moore Conrad Nagel Dirk de Rhonde Constance Beaumar Mathilda Bussard Constance Towers Miss Hannah Hunter of Greenbriar Conway Tearle Kerry Sarle Corinne Barker Helen Davis Courtenay Foote Robert Fulton Coy Watson messenger boy Creighton Hale Prince Oscar D W Griffith Man on Footpath Dale Fuller Amrah Danny Sullivan Father McGowan credited Daniel J Sullivan David Landau Beef the circus manager who raised Polly David Miles The Robbery Victim Party Guest David Torrence Dr Frank MacDonald De Segurola De Segurola Dean Martin Sam Harmon Dean Riesner Little Boy Dell Henderson Pa Harrington Denver Pyle Jackie Jo rebel deserter Diane Baker Laura Travis Dick Clark Neil Hendry Dick La Reno Sheriff Dick Sutherland Ugly Mug Dietrich Körner de the 'rocket baron' Wernher von Braun Dirk Jungnickel Weatherford Ditta Oesch Tilly Odermatt Don Stewart Donny Davis Donald Crisp At Frazier House Bushwacker Donald Ogden Stewart Skylar Van Dyke Horace Patterson Donna Kee John Ewing Doris Dawson The Girl Doris Lloyd Mrs Julia Webb Dorothy Dalton Dorothy Wood Dorothy Davenport Indian Dorothy Gish The crippled beggar Dorothy Green Princess Naia Dorothy Hammerstein Socialite next to Elsa in theatre box Dorothy Tree Ellen's Mother Dorothy Vernon comedy player at banquet Dorothy West Jenny Baker Doug McClure Jim Charles Brinley Dougl Fairbanks Gerald Dougl Gerrard Lord Lovelace Dougl Kennedy Frank James Dougl Stevenson Captain Mowbrary Dougl s Dumbrille Murchenson Dougl s Montgomery Avery Rarick Kent Dougl s Downing Clarke Lord Chamberlain Duane Eddy and the Rebels Themselves Duke R Lee Slim E Alyn Warren General Ulysses S Grant E E Clive Charles Chuck Fendwick Eagle Eye Yaqui Indian Chief Earl Schenck Joeffrey Vandermuellen Eberhard Esche Kurt Schumacher Ed C sidy Greg Walters Eddie Baker Mr Feniweather Eddie Bartell Radio Rogue Eddie Sturgis 'Parson' Smalley Edgar Kennedy An Innocent Bystander Edgar Norton Bolton The Second Butler Edith Haldeman Indian Child Edith Lyle Fairy Tale Queen Edith Schultze Westrum Mutter Lauretz Edith Shayne Mrs Vandermuellen Edith Shearer Extra Edmund Fetting Rowicki Edna Purviance Miss Brown Edna Thom Mexican Woman Eduardo Fajardo Viceroy Edward Burns credited Ed Burns Edward Dillon Confederate Soldier Edward Dougl Lord Andrew's Edward Dziewonski Dzidzius Edward Everett Horton Senator John Hathaway Edward O'Connor Jeremiah Madden Edwin Argus Louis XVI Edythe Chapman Elisabeth Lauber Edythe Sterling Molly credited Edith Sterling Egon von Jordan Dr Haberer Rechtsanwalt Eleanor Lawson Mrs O'Tandy Eleanor Middleton Bridget Eli z Kuziemski Bien's lawyer Elinor Fair Ruth Garland Elisha Cook Jr Carvey Elizabeth Janes His Child Ellen Widmann An t ia Witschi Elliott Dexter Prof Nathan Reade Elliott Nugent Gordon Smith Elmer Grandin John Bussard Eloise Clement Mrs Durand Else Bötticher Frau Rainer Elmo Lincoln Elsie Ferguson Elzbieta Czyzewska Donna Fr quetta Salero Emil Hoch Steward Emil Karewicz King Wladyslaw Jagiello Émile Chautard Père Joseph Emily Fitzroy Jane Appleby Emmet Foy Male flapper Enrique García Álvarez Member of the Inquisition Enrique Lucero Death Erica Beer Emil Gerber Erna Sellmer Anna Köchin Ernest Glendinning Sir Edwin C koden Ernie Adams Warren the Jewel Cutter Ernst Fritz Fürbringer Prof Altmann Erwin Kohlund Peter H ler Estelle Clark Sadie Etienne Girardot Monsieur Du Fresne Etna Ross Steve a child Eulalie Jensen Mrs Power Eva Calvo Cliente de p telería Eva Campbell Dolly Vernon Evelyn Selbie Miss Witherspoon Everett Sloane Dr Brock Ewa Ciepiela Helena Ewa Wisniewska Hanka Fifi D'Orsay Lili Yvonne Flora Finch Mary Willoughby Florence Auer Juanita Florence Gill Annie The Cleaning Lady Florence La Badie Undetermined Role Florence Lawrence Ruth Simonson Florence Lee Mrs Oaks Florence Turner Maid Forrest Robinson Kramer Forrest Stanley Charles Brandon Francelia Billington Maud Frances Dee Mary Wallace Francis Ford Brown Bear Francis J Grandon Indian Medicine Man Francis X Bushman Messala Franciszek Pieczka Pacheco Frank Brownlee Bill Frank Campeau Spanish Joe Frank Currier Lambert de Rhonde Frank Evans Bethulian Soldier Frank Hayes Mabel's father Frank Jenks Deputy Tom Frank M Thom Dr Charles M on Frank McHugh Edward Olson Frank Opperman The Indian Chief Frank R Mills Bert Werden Frank Shannon Sir John Mansfield Frank Wilcox Gov Crittenden of Missouri Franklin Pangborn Vincent Leach Fred Gamble Innkeeper Fred Gambold Fred Hearn William Kemp Fred Lenox Butler Fred Scott Larry Dixon Singing Movie Cowboy Fred Solm André Robert C tle Freddie Burke Frederick Otto Stirner Jr Frederick Burton Amos Bussard Fredrick R Clark Alonzo Freddie's suave African American butler Fritz Diez Franklyn Hanna Fritz Heller Herr Kraus Fritz Links Aldington Fuzzy Knight Private Sweeney Stuart's groom G Raymond Nye Val Heywood Gabriele M cher Holzwurm Galina Polskikh Jadwiga Gene Raymond John Wallace Gene Stone Herbert Geoffrey Holder Sailor George Barraud Henry Brevoort George Bell Deputy George Bunny Tony P tor George Connors Tom Fleming George Cooper Mr Brandes George Davis Perkins George Fawcett Mr Simpkins George Field Minister to Moravia George Fitzmaurice Christy Cabanne George Gebhardt Simon Bimberg George Harris Joe Weber George Hupp Howard a Child George Irving President Thom Jefferson George K Arthur Mr whipple George Le Guere Johnny a young man George Melford George Kuwa George N h Lord Howe George Nichols Doctor Van Brum George Raft Eddie Jackson George Siegmann Black Bart George Spink Meade's Butler Georges Aubert Father Mollard Georges Rouquier Voltaire Gerd Funk Parker Gerd Michael Henneberg Albert Speer Gerhard Kempinski President Gerry Wolff Newman Gert Fröbe Jon Lauretz Gertrude Bambrick Lead syrian Dancer Gertrude Robinson Indian Gertrude Short Bubbles Gil Baladou Le ménestrel Gilbert Rooney Male flapper Gino Corrado Lt Br chek Gladden James 'Inky' Ames Gladys Egan Dollie Glen Cavender I Landem Realtor Gojko Mitic Tecumseh Gordon Dooley Doll in charade scene Gordon Griffith Cecil a Child Graciela Doring Empleada de p telería Grant Withers Sheriff Steve Oliver Grazyna Staniszewska Danusia Jurandówna Grete Reinwald Blinde Frau Gudrun Thielemann Garbo Guillermo Orea Fotógrafo Guinn Big Boy Williams Richard Berney Guinn Williams Eric Alvarez Günther Simon John Sieg Gus Edwards Gwen Lee Gus Saville J e Meilk Gustav von Seyffertitz Oliver de Daim Gustaw Holoubek Don Pedro Vel quez Gusti Wolf Hilde Wirtin und falsche Braut Guy Coombs Follower of Buckingham Guy Madison Steve Burden Gypsy O'Brien Ariana du Puyster Hallam Cooley Henry Garrison Halliwell Hobbes Larkin The Butler Hank Henry Mr Kelly the mortician Hank Mann a prizefighter Hank Worden Deacon Clump Hannjo H se guest in the American Emb sy Hans Kaes Polizist Murmann Police officer Murmann Hans Moser Professor Karl Stieglitz Hans Peter Pieper Crane Harlan Knight Theodore Larkin Harrison Ford Charles Fownes Harry Baer Helfritz Harry Benham Harry Twombly Harry Carey syrian Traitor Harry Crocker Pennington Fish Harry Gribbon Jim comedy director Harry Hyde Bethulian Soldier syrian Soldier Harry Jans Jess Henchman Harry L Rattenberry Grant Young credited Harry Rattenbury Harry Langdon Harry Van Housen Harry Myers an eccentric millionaire Harry Pietzsch Walter Küchenmeister Harry Schumm Harry Jackson Harry Shannon Clay Ford Harry Solter First Villain Harry Watson Bully Boy Brewster Harry Woods Traffic Cop Hattie Delaro Mrs Meredith Hedda Hopper Mrs Caldwell Hedda Nova Princess Olga Muratoft Heenan Elliott Mr Morley Heinrich Gretler Amtmann Bonatsch Heinrich Gretler Friedrich Odermatt Heinrich Narenta Heinrich Himmler Heinz Lausch Henry Heinz Rühmann Dr Felix Schneider Heinz Woester Konsul Rainer Heinz Leo Fischer Helen Gibson Billy Louise Helen Jerome Eddy Susan Throssel Helen Lee Worthing Mrs Loring Helen Lindroth Mrs Winthrop Helen Vita Fräulein Lüthi Telefonistin Helena Dabrowska Train Controller Hélène Dalmet Madame Montavon Helmut Schreiber Colonel Procter Henry Armetta Taxi Driver Henry B Walthall Cal Yates Henry Bergman Sheriff on Train Man in Railroad Station Henry Brandon Jesse James Henry Lehrman Union Soldier Henry Silva Roger Corneal Henry Stephenson Charles Patterson Henry Taylor Radio Rogue Henry Wadsworth Captain John Pelham Henryk Bak Lt Krygier Henryk Borowski Zygfryd de Löwe Herbert Köfer Mac Herbert Yost Barry O'Moore Confederate Soldier Union Soldier Hilda Vaughn Alice Peabody Hilde Berndt Lilli Schneider Hilde Körber Lehrerin Hobart Bosworth The Sheriff Hobart Cavanaugh Joe Bonner Holbrook Blinn Juan Fernández Hoot Gibson V sily Ivan's Brother Horace James Gardener Horst Drinda Arvid Harnack Horst Giese Schröder Horst Schulze Adam Kuckhoff Hortensia Santoveña Doctora Howard St John Ellen's Father Huntley Gordon Fairy Tale King Ian Hunter Anton Ian Keith Polini Ian Maclaren Campo B se Iga Cembrzynska Princess Emina Ignacio López Tarso Albino Ignacy Machowski the Home Army Major Ignatz Himself Ida Tenbrook Ilka Ch e Mrs Restes Ilse Steppat Walicka Ingeborg Ottmann Marianne Irene Browne Mrs Chichester Irene Nathusius Äpfelchen Irene Rich Jenny Rarick Irm Hermann Emma Irma Münch Mildred Harnack Isabelle Keith Franz' Rejected Girlfriend Ivor McFadden Buck Olney J Farrell MacDonald Patrick Shamus O'Connell J Frank Glendon Jack Lawford J Herbert Frank Ronald Kenna J Jiquel Lanoe Eunuch Attendant J Morris Foster Harry Beaufort credited Morris Foster J D Cannon Lester Danzig J M Kerrigan John O'Day Jack Connolly Ward Warren Jack Holt Howard Jack Hoxie White Elk Jack Huff Zander M ter Jack Huff Jack Mulhall Jimmy the Eel Jack Oakie Private Mulligan Jack Pennick Sgt Maj Mitch Mitchell Senior member of John Ford's Stock Company Jack Perrin Lynch Mob Member Jack Pratt Army Captain Jack Pratt Black Panther Jack Webb Norm Jack Woods Sheriff Buck Farley Jacques Tourneur Extra Jacqui Chan Toshi Jadwiga Krawczyk Donna Inez Moro Jakob Sulzer Otto Helbling James Bradbury Sr James Darren Himself James Gle on Cool Kelly James Gordon Carson Creswell a lawyer James Holmes Power's Man Saturn James Laffey Ship Captain James M on His Aide James Murray One of Tillie's Admirers in Restaurant Jan Machulski Count Pena Flor Jan Peszek Driver Bakalarzewicz Jane Winton Grace Harrington Janusz Klosinski Don Diego Salero Janusz Klosinski Nowak Janusz Paluszkiewicz Krokus a mechanic Javier Solís Víctor Jean Harlow extra in nightclub scene cut from film Jean Hersholt Herr Hofner Elsa's father Jean Howell Mrs Jesse James Jean Parker Eleanor Shackleford Jean Willes Gracie Bergdorf Jean Claude Dreyfus Zwerg Dwarf Jean Claude Dreyfuss Jeanie MacPherson Bank Customer Jean Paul Le Chanois Le confesseur de la baronne d'Escourt Jennie Lee Bethulian Jerzy Block Porter Kurek Jerzy Kozakiewicz Cztan z Rogowa Jerzy Kr owski Hans Jerzy Pichelski Powala of Taczew Jessy Rameik Sophie Sieg Jetta Goudal Simone Jim Corey Jack Benny Jimmy Bryant Henchman Jimmy Durante Jimmy Jimmy Hollywood Radio Rogue Jirí Vrštala Professor Rahn Joachim Hansen Andre von Richenau Joan Barclay Molly Henderson Joanna Jedryka Zibelda Joaquín Cordero César Domínguez Joe Bordeaux Henchman Joe Ferrante Blacksmith Joe Schorn Round Head Joel McCrea Student Joey Bishop Mushy O'Connors John B O'Brien Marquis of Muckross John Charles Duc de Chavannes John Dierkes Chet John Elliott James Monroe John G Adolfi Ida May John Larkin Isham John Leyton Dr Dougl Rigby John Lowell Director John Mercator Colonel Briggs John Merkyl Robert Ames John P Wade Sir Robert Fennell John Patrick Express Agent John Powers Eve's Admirer John R Cumpson Mr Bibbs John T Dillon Trapper John Wayne Colonel John Marlowe Johnny Arthur Otho Peabody Johnny Dooley Will Sommers Johnny Mack Brown Bob Jolanta Umecka Krystyna Jolante Umecka José Gálvez The Devil José Luis Jiménez God Joseph Burke Dr McNeil Joseph Cawthorn J Horace Freischutz Joseph Crehan Reed's Manager Joseph Hann Mr Kuan Second Mate Joseph Kilgour Theodore True Joseph Offenbach Knecht Jöry Joseph W Girard Judge Cotton Josephine Crowell Orphanage Trustee Josephine Hill Edith Oaks Joyce Compton Marie Waitress Józef Kostecki Lithuanian duke Witold Józef Nowak helper of Orzechowski Judson Pratt Sergeant Major Kirby Julia Faye Eleanor Forbes Julia Hurley Fairy tale crone Julia Swayne Gordon Mrs de Rhonde Juliette Compton Ethel Chichester Julissa Lidia Johnny Judd June Elvidge Amy Tillson June Purcell Mary a Singer on the atage Jutta Wachowiak Libert Schulze Boysen Kalla P ha comic chef Kans Moehring Karin Lesch Elfriede Paul Karl Dane Capt Jacop Van Goop Karl Hackett Banker Steve Lynch Karl Malden Mitch Karl Supper Dr Rudd Kate Bruce At Lambert House Kate Price Patty Kate Toncray One of Judith's Servants Katharina Lind Oda Schottmüller Katharine Alexander Pauline Cushman Operator Katherine MacDonald The Girl Kathleen Butler Bethulian Kathleen Key Tirzah Katy Jurado Maria Longworth Kay Deslys Skater Kazimierz Opalinski the Home Army commander of Mokotów Kazimierz Rudzki Lt Turek Kazimierz Talarczyk Olaf Peterson Kazimierz Wilamowski Ken Curtis Cpl Wilkie Ken Maynard Paul Revere Kim Hunter Stella Kit Wain Pe ant boy Kitty Bradbury Mrs Brown Kitty de Hoyos Sonia Klaus Löwitsch Jude Broker Klaus Piontek Harro Schulze Boysen Krzysztof Litwin Don Lopez Soarez L Rogers Lytton George Blair Larry Duran Chico Modesto Lawrence Gray Billy Caldwell Leatrice Joy Kid Wagner Lee Beggs Benjamin Franklin Lee Beranger Leslie Leo D Maloney Sandy Sands Leo White Sanballat Leon Errol Innkeeper Leon Gordon Clinton Dewitt Leon Niemczyk Vincente Dougl Leopold R Nowak Un contrebandier Leslie Howard Berry Rhodes Lester Vail Roger Baldwin Leszek Drogosz Stefan Jaksonek Lew Gallo Jealous Young Man Lew Meehan Rockin U Cowhand Lew Liliane Yvernault Arlette Lillian Elliott Mrs McNamara a friend of the Hartleys Lillian Gish The young mother Lillian Langdon Mary's Monther Lillian Lawrence comedy player at banquet Lillian Leighton Housekeeper Linda Arvidson Daisy Harcourt Linda Watkins Frances McCalla Lionel Adams Thom Jefferson Lionel Belmore Adolph Van Housen Little Billy Rhodes Half Pint Lon Chaney Bud an oil prospector Lorne Greene Rice Martin Lotte Lang Marie Dienstmädchen Lou Costello Extra Louis Wolheim The Hoboken Terror Louise Carter Ma Callahan Louise Emmons Faggot Carrier Louise Fazenda Abigail Belldon Loyal Underwood Small Deacon Luciano Simioni David Lucien Littlefield Zeb Hamburger Stand Owner Lucyna Winnicka Marta Luella Gear Julie Dewitt Luis Lomelí Carlos Luk Ammann Lila Lee Luke the Dog himself Lydia Knott Aunt Sarah Lydia Yeamans Titus Jane Lyle Latell Policeman Lyle Talbot Slattery Lyn Harding Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy Lys sia Schlager Sängerin Lyubov Sokolova postman Lyudmila Ivanova Nadezhda Lyudmila K atkina Zinaida Grigorievna Vorobyova Mabel Normand Mabel Macey Harlam Duc de Longueville Maciej Rayzacher Wanata Mack Sennett Customer In Bookstore Doctor Mack Swain Deacon Jones Mack V Wright Macklyn Arbuckle Squire Meredith Maclyn Arbuckle Bishop La Balue Madeleine Carroll Magda Madeline Marshall Lady Diana Mannister Madeline West Gypsy's wife Madge Hunt Mrs Adolph van Housen Mae Marsh Naomi Mae Murray Mugsy Mulane Mahlon Hamilton W hington Irving Mai Wells Idylwood Resident Manfred Karge Hans Coppi Marc Lawrence Mr Jacobs First Mate Marcelle Corday Henrietta Turnbull Marcia Ralston Camille Lansing Marco Antonio Muñiz Bruno Marga López Olga Margaret Callahan Sally M on Margaret Seddon Nancy Willoughby Margarete Haagen Adelheid Margarete Hoff Maria Margarete Slezak Rosi Stieglitz Margarita Cordova Nika Flamenco Dancer Margrit Rainer Hilde Staub Telefonistin Margrit Weiler Kunigunde Meier Marie Burke Mrs Schuyler Marie Dressler Ma Harrington Marie Prevost Annie Ostrom Marin Sais Silver Waters Marina Ried Sylvia Mario Alberto Rodríguez Don Ramiro Marion Davies Prudence Cole Marion Leonard Wedding Guest Marion Sunshine Guest Marjorie Gateson Mrs Shackleford Mark Dignam Sir John Mark Hamilton Conductor Marshall Neilan Marilu Marini Martha Mattox Aunt Elizabeth Whitney Martin Faust Count Galli Mary tor Gladys Russell Mary Boland Mrs Peabody Mary Duncan Muriel Preston Mary Forbes Mrs Fish Pennington's Mother Mary Gordon Minor Role Mary Kennedy Antoinette C tleman Mary McAllister Lucy Cavanaugh Mary Miles Minter Mary Richards Mrs Brooks her mother Mary Thurman Mrs Croaker The Doctor's Wife Mary Treen Employment Clerk Marylu Poolman Elisabeth Schumacher Mathilde Danegger Frau Hofmann Matt Moore Bud H kell Matthew Betz Red Hawkins Maude Eburne Mrs Jennings Maude Lowe Maid Maude Turner Gordon Mrs Leigh Maura Monti César's blonde lover Max Barwyn Saranoff Max Haufler Frederick Max Haufler Hunziker Oberheizer Max Knapp Fritz Gubler Maximilian Schell Captain Chris Hanson Maxine Jennings Billings's Secretary May McAvoy Esther May Robson Mrs Mary Walker May Vokes Susie Maya Levare Maya Michael Callan Griff Rimer Michael McKeag Roger Michael Rennie Rudolph Michal Gazda pl P senger Flirting with Lawyer's Wife Mickey Kuhn sailor Midori Arimoto Midori Mieczyslaw Kalenik Zbyszko z Bogdanca Mieczyslaw Voit Kuno von Lichtenstein Mikhail Ulyanov General Alexander Gorbatov Milan Beli Raffael Millard K Wilson Jim Calvert credited M K Wilson Milt Dougl Bill Jones a Stage Performer Milton Sills Michael Ramsay Min Johnson At Laundry Mincho Nikolov Red Hawk Minja Vojvodic Black Eagle Míriam Colón Redhead Miroslawa Lombardo Van Worden's mother Mitchell Lewis Sheik Ilderim Molly Malone Molly Young Monroe Salisbury Mary's Cousin Morris Ankrum Wheeler Murdock MacQuarrie Martin Shaler Myrna Dell Ruth Hampton Myron Healey Cole Younger Nadja Tiller Olga Fellmeier Nanine Wright Mrs John Brant Natalia Szymanska wife of Orzechowski Natalie Warfield Nautauka Ned Sparks Mr Bert Conroy Director Nelson McDowell Wild Horse Henderson Niall Macginnis Harbor M ter David Nick Dennis Pablo Nicolai Koesberg Lafayette Nigel Barrie Philip Romilly Nigel de Brulier Simonides Nils ther Andre Nina Quartero Maria Credaro Nita Naldi Mary Gish Noble Johnson Trovio Valdez Norma Shearer Extra Norman Fell Peter Rheimer Norman Kerry Jim Neeland Norval Keedwell Fitz Greene Halleck O Z Whitehead Otis 'Hoppy' Hopkins medical sistant Oleg Vidov Elliot Olin Howland Philemon Onslow Stevens Sir Gerald Markham Ormi Hawley Anitra St Clair Orville Caldwell Tony Anderson Oscar Apfel Major Oscar Shaw Stagg Otto Lederer Colonel Bormsk Otto Zehnder Walter Emilies Sohn Owen Moore Rich Patron Pat Harmon studio Gateman Pat O'Brien Daniel Click Wiley Pat Wing Little Girl Patrice Wymore Adele Elkstrom Patricia Palmer Countess Irsky Patsy Kelly Jill Barker Paul Albert Krumm Paul Paul Henckels Dr Gutknecht Paul Hurst Chris Doble Paul McAllister Jules d'Humbercourt Paul Panzer Captain of the Guard Paul Ralli Andre Telfair Paul Weigel Man in Vienna opera box Paulette Duval Carlotta Pauline Garon Mathilda Ramsay Pedro de Cordoba Duke of Buckingham Peg Hilli Eunice Peggie C tle Paula Collins Peggy Parr The Fiancée Pepi Lederer Peppy Percy Ames Lord Andrew Gordon Pert Kelton Toddy Williams Pete Morrison Sheriff Pete Larkin Peter Doherty squadron commander Peter Kowalski Peter Travis Peter Lawford Jimmy Foster Peter Sturm Krapotschkin Philip Ahn Uncle Philip Coolidge Mr Rimer Philipp Lothar Mayring Baron von Renner Franz' father Pina Pellicer Irma Polly Moran Peggy's maid Ralph Byrd Pilot Ralph Forbes John hley Ralph Graves Maximillian of Styria Ralph Kellard Jim Cleland Ramon Novarro Ben Hur Ramón Valdés Juan mesero Raúl Gimenez Adrian Ray Cooke director's sistant Ray Mayer Henchman Ray Milland Geoffrey Trent Ray Teal Barney Raymond Bloomer Jack Bronson Raymond Hackett Willie Parker Raymond Hatton Downey Hartley's servant Reed Howes Bart Hunter Reginald Barker Perry Murdock Reginald Barlow Power's Man Friday Reimar Baur John Dr Kummerow Renata Vanni Juanita Renate Blume Ingrid Renate Feuereisen Rösli Hausmädchen Ricardo Fuentes Dibujante Richard Bennett John Glidden Richard Carle Mr Pepper Richard Conte Tony Bergdorf Richard Cummings John Barrett Richard Erdman Leo Richard Garrick Doctor Richard H Cutting Gen William Tecumseh Sherman Riley Hatch Philip Schuyler Rita Liechti Serviertochter Robert Ames Soapy Robert Bichler Erwin Schlumpf Robert Bradbury Baron Kovsky credited Ronald Bradbury Robert Brower Hugo Kermaier Robert Burton Sheriff Hacker Robert Dunbar Alec Werden Robert Foulk Sheriff Wimmer Robert G Vignola Robert Gordon Johnny Brant Robert Greig Jarvis the butler Robert Harron Nathan Robert McWade Colonel Sharpe Robert Middlem s Mr George Cafe Proprietor Robert Montgomery Freddie Matthews Robert Paige Ronny Cauldwell credited David Carlyle Robert Parrish newsboy Robert Trösch Armin Witschi Robert Vaughn Bob Ford Robert Vivian Chilsmer Grismer Roberta Shore Ricky Summers Rob't Hall Guard spelled Robert in opening credits Rodolfo Acosta Mexican Rurale Captain Roger Williams Rockin U Cowhand Johnnie Roland Glowacki pl Murderer Rolf Ripperger Barry Rolf Römer Col Simon McKew Rolfe Sedan portrait photographer Roman Klosowski Szpakowski Ron Hagerthy Bugler Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle Fatty Roscoe Karns Aloysius K Reilly Rossano Brazzi Giovanni Borghese Roy Applegate Sir Karl Pitti Roy D'Arcy General Marlanax Ruby Lafayette Grandma Rudolf Bernhard Schwomm Rudolf Bernhard René Gengenbach Rudolf Forster Maler Matthi Rudolf Ulrich O'Brian Rudolph Valentino Marjorie Daw Rudy Bond John Rodman Rupert Julian Cecil Russ Powell Herr Schultz Russell Hardie Lieutenant Gus Littledale Russell Hopton Sheriff Arthur Billings Russell Simpson Acting Sheriff Henry Goodbody Ruth Donnelly Aunt Mimi Ruth Fischer Pariser Freundin Ruth Selwyn Mitzi Ruth Shepley Lady Jane Bolingbroke Ryszard Kotys Mechanic Bulaga Ryszarda Hanin Halina Trushinska Sal Mineo Leoncavallo Borghese Sally Eilers Skater Sally Starr Angela Forbes Sam Gilman Harvey Johnson Sam Hardy Cornelius Vanderbilt Sam McDaniel R putin the Train Porter Sammy Davis Jr Josh Howard Sammy White singer in Coney Island Samuel S Hinds Officer Price Sarah Padden Ma McClune Schaggi Streuli Buol Präsident eines Sportvereins Schaggi Streuli Gustav Hannart Scott Kolk Lieutenant Frane Scotty Mattraw Cook Seena Owen Mary Sidney Franklin Shirley Mitchell Mrs Summers Sid Grauman Robert Rogalski Sidney Blackmer Steve Sidney Bracey dramatic director Sidney Toler Major Allan Pinkerton Siegfried Weiss Wilhelm Canaris Sigfrit Steiner Gloor Buchhalter Sigfrit Steiner Untersuchungsricher Steffen Examining magistrate Steffen Slawomir Lindner Van Worden's father Slim Pickens Lon Dedrick Snitz Edwards Caesar Rinkle Spencer Charters Squire Hennion Stan Jones Gen Ulysses S Grant Stanislav Ledinek Küster Stanislaw Bareja a Home Army soldier Stanislaw Igar Don G par Soarez Stanislaw Jaworski Franek a friend of Orzechowski Stanley Blystone Jailer Steffen Klaus Colpi Stephen Carr Patrick O'Day Stephen McNally Victor 'Vic' Rodell Stephen Talbot Eric Steve Clemente Pedro the Foreman credited Steve Clement Strother Martin Virgil rebel deserter Stuart Erwin Ernest Pratt Baker Picture Producer Sumi Haru Sumi Sydney Chaplin Eloper Train Conductor Little Boy's Father T Roy Barnes Adam Smith The Salesman Hero Tadeusz Bartosik Le gitan Marco Tadeusz Bialoszczynski Duke Janusz I of Warsaw Tadeusz Borowski Eugeniusz Trushinsky Gena Vorobyov Tadeusz Gwiazdowski Train Controller Tadeusz Lomnicki Grzegorz Walicki Tadeusz Lomnicki Lt Zawistowski Ted Healy Doctor Hitchcock Tenen Holtz c ting director Teresa Maxwell Conover Queen Catherine credited Theresa Maxwell Conover Teresa Szmigielówna Lawyer's Wife Teresa Wright Ellen Thea Talbot Sybil Thelma Hill Rose Thelma Percy Theodore Roberts Theo Lingen Paul Fellmeier Theodore Kosloff Monsieur Joromir King of Moravia Theodore Von Eltz Ramon Theresa Maxwell Conover Queen Margaret Thom Findley Antoinette's father Thom Jefferson Peter Thom Meighan The Brox Sisters Three Radio Rogues Group Performing Imitations Timothy Carey Howard Tetley Toby Wing Little Girl Tom Kennedy White Hopeless Tom Lewis James King Tom London credited Leonard Clapham Tom Moore Man in Office Wedding Guest Tom Murray Sheriff Bryan Tom Tyler Al Goss Tom Webb Farmer's Son Trevor Bardette Mitch Willis Truly Shattuck Lucy Hillary Tuesday Weld Ann Gregor Turner Savage Bill Sadie's Chubby Boy Tyrell Davis Alaric Chichester Tyrone Power Sr Lord Cornwallis Ulli Lommel Der kleine Prinz Little Prince Ullrich Haupt Hugo Elsa's rejected suitor Ursula Karusseit Hilde Coppi Urszula Modrzynska Jagienka ze Zgorzelic Valentina Telegina nurse in hospital Valerie French Fern Martin Vera Oelschlegel secretary Verner Clarges Union Officer Vester Pegg Ben Kent Victor Beaumont chief of British intelligence Victoria Shaw Joan Dietrich Victoria Young Kiko Violet Mersereau Willi Ackermann Virginia Cherrill a blind girl Virginia Farmer Nurse Robbins Virginia Sale Emma Stirner Vivienne Osborne Marie Cliff Vivienne Segal Elsa Hofner Vladimir Iv hov major W C Fields Rollo La Rue W C Robinson Bethulian Soldier W Chrystie Miller Grandfather at Farewell W Scott Moore Dougl Romilly W C Fields A British Sergeant W C Robinson Indian W W Bitner Zelaya Chief of the Gypsies Wade Boteler Officer G ton Walburga Gmür Frau Muffler Putzfrau Wallace McCutcheon Jr Wallace Reid Tom Grimes Walo Lüönd Hotelpage Walter Catlett Jake Sherman Walter Janssen Wanda Hawley Walter Kingsford Monsieur Pichon Walter Law General Charles Lee Walter Long Operator Walter Pidgeon Franz von Renner Walter Reed Union officer Ward Crane French Secret Service Agent Warren Berlinger Buddy McCalla Warren Cook Earle of Mannister Wayland Tr k Dr Milton Croaker Undertaker's Neighbor Wedgwood Nowell Graham Henderson Wendell Holmes Principal Donlan Werner Buttler Gendarm Dieterli Werner Hahn Logan Werner Lierck Private First Cl s Draeger Wharton James Jim Garland Whitehorse John Oaks Wiktor Grotowicz Director Rozner Wilbur Higby Fowler Wilfred Luc Hugh Frazier Wilfred Noy Dr Joseph Warren Wilfried Pucher Ellis Willard Cooley Frank Raymond Willard Robertson Captain Cornelius Channing Willette Kershaw Mary Jeremiah's wife William A Carroll syrian Soldier William Carroll William B Davidson Dr Delamater William Boyd William Brotherhood Steward William C deMille Zoe Rae Maud William Collier Sr Pat Pop Walters William De Vaull De Rhonde's Butler William E Lowery Yaqui Indian Chief William Forrest Gen Steve Hurlburt William Haines Billy Boone William Henry Confederate lieutenant William Holden Charles Roger Forbes William J Butler Confederate Soldier William Kent King's tailor William Leslie Maj Richard Gray William McCall John Cavanaugh William Norris Uncle Horace William Orlamond Governor William Powell Francis I credited William H Powell William Steele The Foreman credited Bill Gettinger William Welsh Ben Hanfer Willis Bouchey Col Phil Secord Willy Frey Pfarrer Willy Fueter Bernard Benny Willy Maertens Hausmeister Wagner Winter Hall Joseph Witold Pyrkosz Inspector Witold Roszak Witold Skaruch Priest Wladyslaw Pawlowicz Un soldat Wojciech Siemion Lt Marianek Wolfgang Greese Governor William Harrison Wright King a collector Wyndham Standing Sir Fergus C sidy Wynne Gibson Violet Smith Xenia Pörtner Gabriele Yvette Mitchell Conchita Zarli Carigiet Schreier Zarli Carigiet Luzi Caviezel Z u Pitts Gertie Zbigniew Cybulski Alfonse Van Worden Zbigniew Dobrzynski Tom z Zbigniew Wójcik Painter Zdzislaw Maklakiewicz Don Roque Busqueros Zofia Merle Draughtswoman Zosia Zygmunt Malanowicz Young Man Zygmunta Malanowicza Zygmunt Malawski pl Policeman Zygmunt Zintel P senger Suffering from Insomnia








delighted audiences from the time she was a young girl to the viewers at the presidential debate Are you better off now than you were four years ago Is it easier for you to go and buy things in the stores than it was four years ago Is there more or less unemployment in the country than there was four years ago Is America as respected throughout the world as it was Do you feel that our security is as safe that we're as strong as we were four years ago And if you answer all of those questions yes why then I think your choice is very obvious as to whom you will vote for If you don't agree if you don't think that this course that we've been on for the last four years is what you would like to see us follow for the next four then I could suggest another choice that you have In after having his nose surgery he arrived at the White House briefing with a patch on his nose he opened the news conference saying with a smile Not wanting you to lose any sleep at night let me explain the patch on my nose In after having additional cancer cells removed from his nose Yesterday afternoon when we came back from Chicago I went over there in the White House to the doctor's office and he did the additional work and biopsy revealed there were some cancer cells and now I have a verdict of my nose is clean The most terrifying words in the English Language are I'm from the Government and I'm here to help on negotiating with Mikhail Gorbachev It was easier than dealing with Jack Warner March in Privolnoye North Caucasus Krai Russian SFSR USSR now Stavropol Krai Russia Birth Name Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov Height ' m Mini Bio Mikhail Gorbachev was the last leader of the Soviet Communist Party He initiated the changes known as perestroika and glasnost He was born Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev into a peasant family on March in the village of Privolnoe Stavropol province Southern Russia His father named Sergei Gorbachev was a tractor driver His mother named Maria Panteleyeva was a peasant His grandparents were deported and sentenced for nine years under the dictatorship of Iosif Stalin for their success in becoming richer independent farmers known as kulaks Young Gorbachev witnessed the destruction of traditional farming and degradation of villages that caused massive exodus of people from their land and to gloomy industrial Soviet cities where they were doomed to become brainwashed by propaganda and live in small flats under restricting political and economic conditions for the rest of their lives During the Second World War Gorbachev survived the Nazi occupation of his land in Stavropol province in After the war Gorbachev chose to remain on his land although it was now taken by the Communist Government the ranks of which he would penetrate later Gorbachev privately described his life and work on a Soviet collective farm as serfdom In Gorbachev shot to fame at the age of after helping his father a combine harvester operator to harvest a record crop on a collective farm For this achievement he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour and was promoted to the Communist Party at the age of From he studied law on a State scholarship at Moscow State University There he met his future wife Raisa Maksimovna Gorbacheva nee Titarenko they married in September and their daughter Irina was born in January After a brief stint as a Government Lawyer in Stavropol Gorbachev made a career as a ranking leader of Komsomol Union of Young Communists then as a Communist Party leader of Stavropol province climbing to the ranks as Member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union At that time Gorbachev made his first travels outside of the Soviet Union While the Soviet leaders were manipulating their own people into submission through fear and control the West Europeans enjoyed freedom and prosperity that attracted East Germans and other Soviet satellites Gorbachev learned his first lesson on his tour in East Germany witnessing their rapid recovery after the Second World War At the same time in Yuri Andropov and Georgi Zhukov led the attack on Hungarian Revolution and killed thousands of Hungarians who opposed the Soviet imposed regime Then Soviet leadership made more aggressive international actions by spreading military support to pro communist regimes across the world and also by building the Berlin Wall and enforcing Soviet military and political domination in Eastern Europe These Soviet actions alienated Europeans Open political discussions in the Soviet Union were not allowed under threat of prosecution freedom of speech was never guaranteed all media was owned and controlled by the Soviet government and independent activity was suppressed and only some fragmented information was made available to ranking provincial communists such as Gorbachev In he attended the important nd Congress of the Communist Party in Moscow where Nikita Khrushchev announced his Utopian plan to surpass the USA per capita income in years At the same nd Congress upon Khrushchev's instruction Gorbachev among other top communists received a copy of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's anti Stalin publication One day of Ivan Denisovich which criticized the brutality of Gulag prison camps and the Soviet regime in general That gave Gorbachev and some other young communists a hope that Khrushchev may change the brutal Soviet regime However in Nikita Khrushchev was arrested and dismissed by pro Stalin group led by Leonid Brezhnev who eventually established a remake of Stalinism for the next years albeit in a more grotesque and senile version of Soviet regime Then Brezhnev's regime crushed the Prague Spring of fought the Chinese Army over a border dispute in sent Soviet Tanks and Air Force to Egypt and Syria against Israel in the s as well as in North Vietnam against the French and Americans At that time Gorbachev and his wife Raisa Maksimovna were allowed to travel to the Western Europe and see the difference between reality in European countries and its distorted depiction by the Soviet propaganda In he headed the Soviet official delegation to Belgium then in was made Member of the Supreme Soviet in charge of the Commission on Youth Affairs During the s Gorbachev enjoyed a highly privileged life of a ranking communist having many perks such as a villa in a suburb of Moscow a special limo with a chauffeur and guards and regular luxurious vacations in Italy and in the South of France all at the expense of the Communist Party However this allowed him to see the striking difference between the quality of life in the Western Europe and gloomy survival of masses in the Soviet Union Gorbachev witnessed that people were living hopeless lives having no choice Workers of collective farms lived without identification documents up until the s Undocumented citizens at collective farms were disposable Migrants were used as industrial slaves for symbolic pay Wages were set by the state and did not depend on productivity or quality The economy was governed by the state year plan This mostly ignored the world and domestic market signals and lacked the incentives for innovation and efficiency Teachers were forced to indoctrinate children of all ages from kindergartens through schools and universities Total control and manipulation was demonstrated twice a year at annual May Day parades and Great Revolution parades on November Military parades were accompanied by marching masses of industrial workers and managers doctors and scientists as well as teachers and students from all schools and universities Exemplary obedient people were rewarded with better food and perks Taming millions to obedience by fear and hunger led to a massive degradation of human rights poor spirituality lack of initiative and creativity and the decay of public health and vitality The country of almost three hundred million people was stuck in stagnation inefficiency and apathy Brighter students were taken into the military industrial system brainwashed and locked there for life with little choices Opponents were locked in the Gulag prison camps mostly in Siberia There millions were working various hard labor jobs in grand scale economic projects like the Baikal Amur railroad BAM Since the Communist Revolution of people had been continually stripped of their land and property Under Khrushchev and Brezhnev the destruction of independent farming was finalized By the s and s massive poverty and anxiety pushed millions to migrate to cities Mass construction of cheap panel buildings was lagging behind Millions of families shared poor housing hostels and dorms in cities Villages were deserted Collective farms decayed Agricultural output fell below the levels of the Tsar's age Tens of thousands of churches and monasteries were destroyed across the Soviet Union and many churches were replaced by offices and halls of the Communist party Spiritual life was dominated by ugly propaganda People were blinded by fear and pushed to wrong values Meaningful human virtues were replaced with fake ideals of ruthless Soviet communism Propaganda idolized members of the Soviet Politburo their portraits were decorating every school and factory along with countless portraits and statues of the first Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin In November Gorbachev was promoted Candidate Member of the Politburo then less than a year later he was made Full Member of Politbureau the highest rank in the Communist Party which gave him unlimited direct access to Brezhnev and Andropov The latter also promoted Gorbachev to sub for him at several Politburo meetings and gave him a huge power in decision making Gorbachev developed a personal friendship with another Politburo member Eduard Shevardnadze and the two were vacationing together at the prestigious Black sea resort of Pitsunda At that time the invasion of Afghanistan ordered by senile Brezhnev in seriously undermined international credibility of the Soviet Union Andrei Sakharov wrote an open letter to Brezhnev calling for a stop to the war nations boycotted the Olympics in Moscow Crackdown on intellectual freedom and human rights included the use of psychiatric terror arrests and the exile of dissidents The head of the KGB Yuri Andropov declared Andrei Sakharov the enemy No Sakharov was forcefully exiled from Moscow to the militarized 'closed' city of Gorky He was placed under tight surveillance and restricted from any contacts His wife was also under tight surveillance By his th birthday Brezhnev's health declined dramatically but he made himself a Generalissimus Marshal of the Soviet Union similar to that of Joseph Stalin Brezhnev accepted over decorations and awards including awards from all pro Soviet governments except China Brezhnev accepted countless expensive gifts and amassed a collection of vintage cars and other bribes His personal vanity and behavior was replicated at all levels of the Communist Party and led to massive corruption The old Brezhnev lost his acting abilities and couldn't even read the script Massive disillusionment was reflected in cynical jokes about the Soviet life The ugly reality in the Soviet Union was reflected in its senile leader Gorbachev saw that outdated economic and political system in the Soviet Union was doomed but propaganda was still brainwashing the minds of millions because it was controlled by the privileged few top communists who lived in denial of the big reality The youngest Politburo Member Mikhail Gorbachev was contemplating reforms Leonid Brezhnev died on November and was succeeded by Yuri Andropov who died just months later He was replaced by Konstantin Chernenko who died in just months In Politbureau member Rashidov committed suicide then in the powerful Defence Minister Ustinov died While the Soviet Union was in a dying mode the real world was rapidly growing into computer age that reshaped global community The rigid Soviet System was incompatible with the constantly innovating world USSR failed to respond to rapidly changing reality and alienated forward thinking people even in the pro Soviet countries During the early s Soviet Politbureau was torn between two viciously fighting groups of Communists one was made of the old hard liners led by Andrei Gromyko the apprentice of Iosif Stalin The other pro democracy group was made of the forward thinking members of the Politbureau who chose Gorbachev as their leader along with Aleksandr Yakovlev who was the brain behind Gorbachev's moves With Gorbachev's support Yakovlev managed to change all hard liners in the Soviet media and propaganda system In March Gorbachev was made the Secretary General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union becoming the first Soviet leader to have been born after the disastrous Russian Revolution of He announced reforms called 'perestroika' aka restructuring and 'glasnost' aka opening up and lifted the walls of propaganda and denial However Gorbachev's first reform on regulations related to manufacturing and trade of alcohol became an economic disaster causing a serious economic damage to the Soviet Union's State budget with annual losses exceeding tens of billions of dollars Although his reforms were supported by public many communist hard liners openly opposed Gorbachev Eventually by the late s Gorbachev's push for economic liberalization resulted in emergence of co operatives and other forms of independent businesses making the movement to freedom irreversible In December of Gorbachev personally contacted Andrei Sakharov in his exile Gorbachev ordered that the KGB should release Sakharov and return him to Moscow Back in Moscow Sakharov continued his work as a