Vera Yvonne Los hombres no abandonan Adult Film Star Blacks and Blondes Video Careful He May Be Watching Molly Flame Jane Smith Porn in the U S A II Video Beyond Desire Kristyn Classic Swedish Erotica Video short Classic Swedish Erotica Video short Sex Club Blonde Heat The Case of the Maltese Dildo Mona La Pierre Seka's Lacy Affair Eighth Erotic Film Festival Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Superstars Featuring Seka Beauty and the Beast Princess Seka Swedish Erotica Anytime Anyplace Lynn Between the Sheets Judy Confessions of Seka Seka Couples in Love Short French Erotica Video Miss Aliso segment High School Report Card Marie segment Exotic Tales Football Widow French Erotica II Video Anne Dixon segment Inside Hollywood The Anne Dixon Story French Erotica III Video short Carol segment Love Story Gerry segment Superware Party Seka's Fantasies Video Fantasia Swedish Erotica Roaring Fire Within Video Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Video segment Deck The Halls Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Swedish Erotica Video Swedish Erotica Video The Seduction of Seka Video Seka Erotic Interludes Telephone Customer 'F' Flapper with Headband A Place Beyond Shame Seka Danish Erotica Danish Erotica Downstairs Upstairs Sheila Bunn as Seka Goddess of Erotica Gangbang Fantasy Short Female Model Inside Hollywood The Anne Dixon Limited Edition Video Limited Edition Video Pretty Looks Princess Sue Jensen Princess Prisoner of Paradise Ilsa Sunny Days Sunny Tara Tara Tara Tara Tara The Seduction of Cindy Cindy Ultra Flesh Ultra Flesh Aunt Peg Seka uncredited Plato's The Movie Buffy Olympic Fever Seka Romanov Rockin' with Seka or Seka's Cruise Seka Sweet Alice Carnal Highways Judy Blonds Have More Fun Whorehouse Madam Football Widow Short Karen High School Report Card

Ben Klassen, which encourages the consumption of only raw foods in their "natural state, basically fruits, vegetables, grains and nuts,"[101] getting plenty of physical exercise as well as abstinence from alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, sugar, preservatives, insecticides, narcotics and other drugs whether prescription or non-prescription.[102] Salubrious Living is considered mandatory to "fully practice" Creativity and a lawsuit is currently in place against the Bureau of Prisons to get it recognized as a religious dietary preference[103] for incarcerated adherents of the religious movement. See also Animal sacrifice The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people are from ancient India, especially among the Hindus[1] and Jains.[2] Later records indicate that small groups within the ancient Greek civilizations in southern Italy and Greece also adopted some dietary habits similar to vegetarianism.[3] In both instances, the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence toward animals (called ahimsa in India), and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.[4] Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity (4th–6th centuries), vegetarianism nearly disappeared from Europe.[5] Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them abstained from the consumption of fish; these monks were not vegetarians, but some were pescetarians.[6] Vegetarianism was to reemerge somewhat in Europe during the Renaissance[7] and became a more widespread practice during the 19th and 20th centuries. The figures for the percentage of the Western world which is vegetarian varies between 0.5% and 4% per Mintel data in September 2006.[8][citation needed] Contents 1 Ancient 1.1 Indian subcontinent 1.1.1 Early Jainism and Buddhism 1.1.2 Hinduism 1.2 Mediterranean Basin 1.2.1 Ancient Greece 1.2.2 Judaism 1.3 East and Southeast Asia 1.3.1 China 1.3.2 Japan 1.4 Orthodox Christianity 1.5 Christian antiquity and Middle Ages 2 Early modern period 3 19th century 3.1 Great Britain 3.1.1 Class 3.1.2 Women 3.2 United States 3.3 Other countries 4 20th century 5 Current situation 6 Historians of vegetarianism 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Sources 10 Further reading Ancient Indian subcontinent Early Jainism and Buddhism Further information: History of Jainism and History of Buddhism Vegetarianism in ancient India India is a strange country. People do not kill any living creatures, do not keep pigs and fowl, and do not sell live cattle. —Faxian, 4th/5th century CE Chinese pilgrim to India[9] Jain and Buddhist sources show that the principle of nonviolence toward animals was an established rule in both religions as early as the 6th century BCE.[10] The Jain concept, which is particularly strict, may be even older. Parshva, the 23rd Jain leader (Tirthankara) whom modern historians consider to be a historical figure, lived in the 8th or 7th century BCE. He is said to have preached nonviolence no less radically than it was practiced in the Jain community in the times of Mahavira (6th century BCE).[11] Between 4th and 1st centuries BCE, or perhaps as late as 5th century CE, ancient Indian philosopher Valluvar wrote an exclusive chapter on veganism or moral vegetarianism in his work Tirukkural, emphasizing unambiguously on non-animal diet (Chapter 26), non-harming (Chapter 32), and non-killing (Chapter 33).[12][13] Not everyone who refused to participate in any killing or injuring of animals also abstained from the consumption of meat.[14] Hence the question of Buddhist vegetarianism in the earliest stages of that religion's development is controversial. There are two schools of thought. One says that the Buddha and his followers ate meat offered to them by hosts or alms-givers if they had no reason to suspect that the animal had been slaughtered specifically for their sake.[15] The other one says that the Buddha and his community of monks (sangha) were strict vegetarians and the habit of accepting alms of meat was only tolerated later on, after a decline of discipline.[16] The first opinion is supported by several passages in the Pali version of the Tripitaka, the opposite one by some Mahayana texts.[17] All those sources were put into writing several centuries after the death of the Buddha.[18] They may reflect the conflicting positions of different wings or currents within the Buddhist community in its early stage.[19] According to the Vinaya Pitaka, the first schism happened when the Buddha was still alive: a group of monks led by Devadatta left the community because they wanted stricter rules, including an unconditional ban on meat eating.[19] The Mahaparinibbana Sutta, which narrates the end of the Buddha's life, states that he died after eating sukara-maddava, a term translated by some as pork, by others as mushrooms (or an unknown vegetable).[20][21] The Buddhist emperor Ashoka (304–232 BCE) was a vegetarian,[22] and a determined promoter of nonviolence to animals. He promulgated detailed laws aimed at the protection of many species, abolished animal sacrifice at his court, and admonished the population to avoid all kinds of unnecessary killing and injury.[23] Ashoka has asserted protection to fauna, from his edicts: Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, has caused this Dhamma edict to be written.[1] Here (in my domain) no living beings are to be slaughtered or offered in sacrifice. Nor should festivals be held, for Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, sees much to object to in such festivals, although there are some festivals that Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, does approve of. Formerly, in the kitchen of Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, hundreds of thousands of animals were killed every day to make curry. But now with the writing of this Dhamma edict only three creatures, two peacocks and a deer are killed, and the deer not always. And in time, not even these three creatures will be killed.[24] —Edicts of Ashoka on 1st Major Rock Edict Twenty-six years after my coronation various animals were declared to be protected—parrots, mainas, aruna, ruddy geese, wild ducks, nandimukhas, gelatas, bats, queen ants, terrapins, boneless fish, vedareyaka, gangapuputaka, sankiya fish, tortoises, porcupines, squirrels, deer, bulls, okapinda, wild asses, wild pigeons, domestic pigeons and all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible. Those nanny goats, ewes and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, and so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another. —Edicts of Ashoka on Fifth Pillar Theravada Buddhists used to observe the regulation of the Pali canon which allowed them to eat meat unless the animal had been slaughtered specifically for them.[25] In the Mahayana school some scriptures advocated vegetarianism; a particularly uncompromising one was the famous Lankavatara Sutra written in the fourth or fifth century CE.[26] Hinduism The 5th-century CE Tamil scholar Valluvar, in his Tirukkural, taught ahimsa and moral vegetarianism as personal virtues. The plaque in this statue of Valluvar at an animal sanctuary at Tiruvallur describes the Kural's teachings on ahimsa and non-killing, summing them up with the definition of veganism. Philosopher Michael Allen Fox asserts that "Hinduism has the most profound connection with a vegetarian way of life and the strongest claim to fostering and supporting it."[1] In the ancient Vedic period (between 1500 and 500 BCE), although the laws allowed the consumption of some kinds of meat, vegetarianism was encouraged.[27] Hinduism yields several foundations for vegetarianism as the Vedas, the oldest and sacred texts of Hinduism, assert that all creatures manifest the same life force and therefore merit equal care and compassion.[28] A number of Hindu texts place injunctions against meat eating and others like the Ramayana and Mahabharata advocate for a vegetarian diet.[29] In Hinduism, killing a cow is traditionally considered a sin.[30] Vegetarianism was, and still is, mandatory for Hindu yogis, both for the practitioners of Hatha Yoga[31] and for the disciples of the Vaishnava schools of Bhakti Yoga (especially the Gaudiya Vaishnavas). A bhakta (devotee) offers all his food to Vishnu or Krishna as prasad before eating it.[32] Only vegetarian food can be accepted as prasad.[33] According to Yogic thought, saattvik food (pure or having good impact on body) is meant to calm and purify the mind "enabling it to function at its maximum potential" and keep the body healthy. Saatvik foods consist of "cereals, fresh fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, sprouted seeds, whole grains and milk taken from a cow, which is allowed to have a natural birth, life and death including natural food, after satiating the needs of milk of its calf".[34] Shankar Narayan suggests that the origin of vegetarianism in India developed from the idea that balance needed to be restored. He claims, "Along with the development in civilisation, savagery also increased and those who were helpless and voiceless among both humans and non-human animals were more and more exploited and killed to satiate human needs and greed thus disturbing the balance of nature. But there were also many serious attempts to bring back the humanity to sanity and restore balance from time to time." He also says that the idea of living in harmony with nature became central to the rulers and kings.[34] Mediterranean Basin See also: Classical antiquity The Greek philosopher and religious teacher Pythagoras (570 BC – 495 BC) is said to have advocated vegetarianism, but it is more likely that he only prohibited his followers from consuming certain kinds of meat.[35] Later Pythagoreans did practice various forms of vegetarianism.[35][36] Ancient Greece In Ancient Greece during Classical antiquity, the vegetarian diet was called abstinence from beings with a soul (Ancient Greek: ἀποχὴ ἐμψύχων).[37] As a principle or deliberate way of life it was always limited temperature Primary Akt ρ Akt and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase GAPDH antibodies were used in PBS with % defatted dry milk and % Tween at : and : respectively according to the manufacturer’s instructions After extensive washing secondary HRP linked antibodies were used at a : dilution Specific proteins were visualized using the enhanced chemoluminescent substrate Apoptosis Necrosis Assay Caco and MDA MB cells were incubated with a complete medium containing nanoparticles at mg mL for h Fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide staining Annexin V FITC Assay Kit Cayman Chemical was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions and the fluorescence intensity emission was measured SpectraMax M e Molecular Devices microplate reader at and nm after excitation at and nm respectively Three independent experiments each in triplicate were performed Assessment of the Internalization Pathway Caco and MDA MB cells were pretreated with μm of chloroquine μg mL filipin μg mL amiloride and μm of monodansylcadaverine in minimal medium for min After treatment with the inhibitor the medium was replaced with a fresh one containing mg mL polymer for h Finally the cell viability assay was carried out as described above Three independent experiments each in triplicate were performed Assessment of Intracellular Trafficking Caco and MDA MB cells were preincubated with μm of Pepstatin A at °C in each cell culture in complete medium for h After Pepstatin A treatment the medium was replaced with a fresh one containing mg mL polymer for h The cell viability was then determined as described above Three independent experiments each in triplicate were performed Statistical Analysis Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation SD n = Statistical analysis involved a variance analysis in combination with a subsequent analysis using the Bonferroni method A p value of less than was considered to be statistically significant p < p < p < Data were handled using SPSS Statistics software version IBM Biomacromolecules Article DOI: acs biomac b Biomacromolecules − RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ELR Design ELRs are able to self assemble into different structures depending on their composition with amphiphilic ELR based diblocks forming vesicles or micelles above their transition temperature The genetic design of ELRs allows us to control their characteristic Tt below the physiological temperature of °C thus resulting in coacervate formation One disadvantage of therapeutic molecules such as drugs or peptides is their short circulating half lives thus meaning that frequent administration of high concentrations is required to obtain the therapeutic level Therapeutic agents have to pass through several biological barriers to reach the tumor tissue and ensure an effective dose Furthermore systemic administration results in high toxicity especially for healthy tissues ELR based carriers play an interesting role regarding overcoming all these limitations as they are able to extend the circulating half life of therapeutic peptides or drugs and also improve their targeting and pharmacokinetics We designed two different polymers control and Akt in both based on an amphiphilic backbone consisting of a hydrophilic block formed by glutamic acid and a hydrophobic block formed by isoleucine The glutamic acid block is based on the monomer VPGVG VPGEG VPGVG whereas the isoleucine block is based on VGIPG This amphiphilic ELR construct has been shown to self assemble into highly monodisperse and stable nanoparticles with a size of nm We also included a small sequence containing three lysine residues to which different molecules can be attached by covalent binding at the amino terminus According to the literature we expected that our polymers would enter the cell via endosomes and continue to lysosomes; therefore we included an LAEL sequence a small peptide that undergoes a structural change from random coil to a helix after acidification of the pH in the endosome lysosome pH and triggers destabilization and permeabilization of the vesicle membrane thereby allowing endosomal escape in both polymers The control ELR construct was designed with an amphiphilic backbone containing the three lysine residues and the LAEL sequence This construct was used to clarify any effect of the ELR modules Moreover the LAEL sequence was included in the control polymer to study possible cytotoxicity due to internalization of the nanoparticles and their escape from endosomes lysosomes Furthermore we added different bioactive blocks to the functional polymer For example cathepsin D CatD is a lysosomal aspartyl endopeptidase that is overexpressed in cancer cells compared to normal cells and is thought to promote tumor invasion and growth As such we included a cathepsin D sensitive sequence to allow its enzymatic action and the Akt inhibitor to reach the cytoplasm To allow the Akt inhibitor to escape from the endosome lysosome we added the H codifying sequence a histidine rich peptide that undergoes a conformational change from a β structure to a disordered structure at acidic pH as a result of protonation of the imidazole ring in histidine and provides lysosomal membrane permeation Finally we included the sequence codifying the peptide Akt in a small peptide of fifteen amino acids which acts as an inhibitor of protein kinase Akt Indeed this inhibitor prevents Ser phosphorylation which is a key step upon binding to Akt protein before being active in the cellular cytoplasm and playing a key role in multiple signaling pathways In light of the above our hypothesis for the mechanism of action is that once CatD has digested the cathepsin D sensitive sequence the H peptide and inhibitor will be released into the cellular cytoplasm and will be able to bind to Akt protein and block it The amino acid sequences for the


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kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde kristina-king kristina-klevits kristina-soderszk kristine-heller kristin-steen krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie lacy-rose lady-amanda-wyldefyre lady-stephanie laetitia-bisset lana-burner lana-cox lana-wood lara-amour lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya laura-clair laura-lazare laura-lion laura-may laura-orsolya laura-paouck laura-zanzibar lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith lauryl-canyon lauryn-may leah-wilde lea-magic lea-martini leanna-foxxx lee-caroll leigh-livingston leilani lenora-bruce leslie-winston lesllie-bovee letizia-bruni lexi-lane lexi-matthews lezley-zen lia-fire liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau lily-rodgers lily-valentine linda-shaw linda-vale linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring lisa-lake lisa-melendez lisa-sue-corey lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz maryanne-fisher mary-hubay mary-ramunno mary-stuart mascha-mouton maud-kennedy mauvais-denoir maxine-tyler maya-black maya-france megan-leigh megan-martinez megan-reece mei-ling melanie-hotlips melanie-scott melba-cruz melinda-russell melissa-bonsardo melissa-del-prado melissa-golden melissa-martinez melissa-melendez melissa-monet mercedes-dragon mercedes-lynn merle-michaels mesha-lynn mia-beck mia-lina mia-smiles michele-raven michelle-aston michelle-ferrari michelle-greco michelle-maren michelle-maylene michelle-monroe micki-lynn mika-barthel mika-tan mikki-taylor mimi-morgan mindy-rae ming-toy miranda-stevens miss-bunny miss-meadow miss-pomodoro missy missy-graham missy-stone missy-vega misti-jane mistress-candice misty-anderson misty-dawn misty-rain misty-regan mona-lisa mona-page moni monica-baal monica-swinn monika-peta monika-sandmayr monika-unco monique-bruno monique-cardin monique-charell monique-demoan monique-gabrielle monique-la-belle morgan-fairlane morrigan-hel moxxie-maddron mulani-rivera mysti-may nadege-arnaud nadia-styles nadine-bronx nadine-proutnal nadine-roussial nadi-phuket nanci-suiter nancy-hoffman nancy-vee natacha-delyro natalia-wood natalli-diangelo natascha-throat natasha-skyler naudia-nyce nessa-devil nessy-grant nesty nicki-hunter nicky-reed nicole-berg nicole-bernard nicole-black nicole-grey nicole-london nicole-parks nicole-scott nicole-taylor nicolette-fauludi nicole-west nika-blond nika-mamic niki-cole nikita-love nikita-rush nikki-charm nikki-grand nikki-king nikki-knight nikki-randall nikki-rhodes nikki-santana nikki-steele nikki-wilde niko nina-cherry nina-deponca nina-hartley nina-preta oana-efria obaya-roberts olesja-derevko olga-cabaeva olga-conti olga-pechova olga-petrova olivia-alize olivia-del-rio olivia-flores olivia-la-roche olivia-outre ophelia-tozzi orchidea-keresztes orsolya-blonde paige-turner paisley-hunter pamela-bocchi pamela-jennings pamela-mann pamela-stanford pamela-stealt pandora paola-albini pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn sabrina-jade sabrina-johnson sabrina-love-cox sabrina-mastrolorenzi sabrina-rose sabrina-scott sabrina-summers sacha-davril sahara sahara-sands sai-tai-tiger samantha-fox samantha-ryan samantha-sterlyng samantha-strong samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco sandra-kalermen sandra-russo sandy-lee sandy-pinney sandy-reed sandy-samuel sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills sarah-shine sara-sloane sasha sasha-hollander sasha-ligaya sasha-rose satine-phoenix satin-summer savannah-stern savanna-jane scarlet-scarleau scarlet-windsor seka selena serena serena-south severine-amoux shana-evans shanna-mccullough shannon-kelly shannon-rush shantell-day sharon-da-vale sharon-kane sharon-mitchell shaun-michelle shawna-sexton shawnee-cates shay-hendrix shayne-ryder sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin shelly-lyons sheri-st-clair sheyla-cats shonna-lynn shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white tammy tammy-lee tammy-reynolds tania-lorenzo tantala-ray tanya-danielle tanya-fox tanya-foxx tanya-lawson tanya-valis tara-aire tasha-voux tatjana-belousova tatjana-skomorokhova tawnee-lee tawny-pearl tayla-rox taylor-wane teddi-austin teddi-barrett tera-bond tera-heart tera-joy teresa-may teresa-orlowski teri-diver teri-weigel terri-dolan terri-hall tess-ferre tess-newheart thais-vieira tia-cherry tianna tiara tiffany-blake tiffany-clark tiffany-duponte tiffany-rayne tiffany-rousso tiffany-storm tiffany-towers tiffany-tyler tiger-lily tigr timea-vagvoelgyi tina-blair tina-burner tina-evil tina-gabriel tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose tonisha-mills topsy-curvey tori-secrets tori-sinclair tori-welles tracey-adams traci-lords traci-topps traci-winn tracy-duzit tracy-love tracy-williams tricia-devereaux tricia-yen trinity-loren trisha-rey trista-post trixie-tyler ultramax ursula-gaussmann ursula-moore uschi-karnat valentina valerie-leveau valery-hilton vanessa-chase vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville velvet-summers veri-knotty veronica-dol veronica-hart veronica-hill veronica-rayne veronica-sage veronika-vanoza via-paxton vicky-lindsay vicky-vicci victoria-evans victoria-gold victoria-knight victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok viper virginie-caprice vivian-valentine vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears whitney-wonders wonder-tracey wow-nikki xanthia-berstein yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies




Achim Schmidtchen the Obergruppenführer Adam Pawlikowski Don Pedro Uzeda Adele DeGarde At Laundry Adolf Manz Bürgermeister Aeschbacher Mayor Aeschbacher Adolph Lestina Bethulian Adrian Hoven Herr Müller ihr Mann Adriana Roel Alicia Aileen Manning Aunt Cynthia Whitney Akim Tamiroff Spyros Acebos Al Ernest Garcia his butler credited Allan Garcia Al Shean Simeon Hamburgher Al St John Hiram Perkins' son Alan Curtis Driver Alan Hoskins Jan Agnes Neilson Alan Mowbray Captain Christopher Brent Alan Winnington chief of the reconnaissance Albert Austin street sweeper burglar Albert Conti producer Albert Gran Duke Travina Albertina R ch Dancers Aleksander Fogiel Macko z Bogdanca Aleksander Sewruk Lawyer Alexa von Porembsky Wirtin Gumpers Alexander Allerson Hans von Gluck Alexander Gray Otto Stirner Alfred Allen Silent Jake Alfred Lucca Gerber Alfred Müller Wolfgang Langhoff Alfred Neugebauer Josef Greiner Alfred Paget Bethulian syrian Soldier Alfred R ser Leblanc Küchenchef Alfred Struwe Bellini Alice Day Barbara Elsa's granddaughter Alison Skipworth Emily La Rue Allen Jenkins Jake Edgall Sadie's dimwitted plumber boyfriend Allen Pomeroy Tom Reed a Boxer Althea Gibson Lukey Miss Hunter's maid Amelia Summerville Olive Connal Anatol Kobylinski Un contrebandier Anders Randolf William Vandermuellen André Versini Le marquis d'Ulrich Andrew Dillon John Jacob tor Andrzej Szalawski Jurand ze Spychowa Angie Dickinson Beatrice Ocean Anita Hendrie Jessie Marshall Anita Höfer Hanna Lauretz Ann Dere Matron Anna Lee Mrs Buford Anna Q Nilsson Mrs Michael Ramsay Anna Townsend Harry's Mother credited Mrs Townsend Anne Schaefer Martha Meilke Annekathrin Bürger Eileen Anneliese Betschart Bach Bäuerin Anne Marie Blanc Frau von Richenau Annemarie Düringer Luise Müller Anne Marie Hanschke Fräulein Reuter Annie Rosar Lilli Schneiders Mutter Anthony O'Sullivan Trapper Antonina Girycz Ewa Antonio Moreno Dantan Antrim Short Tommy Arkadiusz Bazak Marian Armin Schweizer Gottlieb Ellenberger Arnold Marlé Joseph Arnold Müdespacher Art Acord Alice Brady Arthur Donaldson Sir Henry Brandon Arthur Earle Mr Stull Arthur Forrest Cardinal Wolsey Arthur Hoyt Mr Cuddleton Arthur Jurado Angel Arthur Lake Boy Throwing Roses Arthur Rankin Tommy Corbin Arthur Treacher Sir Harry Arthur V Johnson Jack Stanford Artur Mlodnicki Le sergent Arturo de Córdova Mario Athole Shearer Extra Barbara Adolph Greta Kuckhoff Barbara Krafftówna Camilla de Tormez Barbara Polomska Zosia Barbara Sabin Little Girl Barbara Werle Charley Adams Barry Atwater George Dennison Bart Patton Kramer Barton MacLane Pinkerton Agent Clyde O'Connell B il Ruysdael the Reverend Jefferson Military Academy Beata Tyszkiewicz Donna Rebecca Uzeda Bela Lugosi Count von Ratz Hungarian Amb sador Ben Alexander Bill Stanton Ben Horning Maud's Father Ben Turpin Banana Peel Victim Bernard Berger Lew Fields Bert Lytell Arthur Tovey Bert Roach Gus S cher Bertha Danegger Mutter Aeschbacher Mother Aeschbacher Berton Churchill Mr Yates Bess Flowers Dance Extra Bessie Barriscale Lillian Henry Betsy Ann Hisle Little Girl Betty Compson Bessie Love Beulah Bondi Madame Letizia Billie Dove Lottie Callahan Lurline Cavanaugh Billy Armstrong Dying Man's Nurse Biltmore Trio Trio in Nightclub singing Here We Are Bing Crosby Bill 'Billy' Williams Bing Russell Dunker Yankee Soldier Amputee Blanche Sweet Judith Bob Burns Cowhand Bob Kortman 'Hawk' Decker Bob Reeves Lynch Mob Member Bob Steele Bebe Daniels Bobby Watson Jack Thompson the Press Agent Bodil Rosing Widow Gorman Bogumil Kobiela Lt Dabecki Bogumil Kobiela Senor Toledo Boleslaw Abart Driver Sosin Boy Gobert Chief of Police Müller II Boyce Combe Hobart Bozena Kurowska Buck Connors Bradley Barker Eve's Admirer Brian Keith Harry Connerly Brigitte Ratz Brigitte Schneider Buck Black Young Teddy Roosevelt Bud Jamison Contractor Bud Osborne Henchman Buddy Lester Vince M sler Buddy Smith Dirk de Rhonde a child Bum Krüger Stefan Walicki Burton McEvilly Alexander Hamilton Buzz Barton Six Bits C Aubrey Smith Bishop James Northcott Cactus Mack Lynch Mob Member Carl 'Major' Roup Extra Carl Miller Bulmer Meade Carleton Young Col Jonathan Miles CSA Carlyle Blackwell Oswald Grismer Carmel Myers Ir Carmencita Johnson Baby Carrie Daumery Chaperon Cecil Cunningham friend of Emily La Rue Cesar Romero Duke Santos Cezary Julski Zawisza Czarny Chariklia Baxevanos Hertha Engelberger Charles Arling Charles Avery Man at Brothel Charles Belcher Balthazar Charles Clary Mr Calhoun Charles Giblyn Dennison Charles Hill Mailes Bethulian Soldier Charles Inslee The Professor Party Guest Charles Jackson Johnny a boy ?Charles R Jackson Charles K Gerrard Sir Adam Judson Charles Kennedy Reilly Charles King Henchman Duke Rollins Charles Lane John Cleland Charles Laughton Phine V Lambert Charles McHugh Shamus O'Tandy Charles Murray M Balmer Undertaker Charles Newton Carlo Bertozza Charles Peyton Butler Charles Regnier Gregor Palinin Charles Reisner Howard Huntington ali Nitro Nick ali Picking Pete Charles Ruggles Senator Henry Ruggles Charles Stevens Lieutenant Charles Teske a Dancer Charles West Young Father Chet Ryan Ivan the Cossack Chick Morrison Christian Rub Chip Carson Telegraph Operator Chris Robinson Patcher Christian Wolff Nikl Lauretz Christine Kaufmann Sylvia Lauretz Chuck Hayward Captain Winters Claire McDowell Maude Jones Clara Blandick Aunt Ellen Patterson Clara T Bracy Bethulian Clarence Burton Cave Man Clarence Geldart James Kilkenna Clark Comstock Indian Chief Clark Gable Reverend John Hartley Clark Marshall Don Alvarez Claude Carliez Un aristocrate Claude Payton Jesus Christ Claude Rains Napoleon Bonaparte Claus Wilcke Henry Scherz Clem Harvey Louis Jackson Cliff Bowes Dying Man Cliff Edwards Cliff Lyons Clyde Cook Dancer Colleen Moore Conrad Nagel Dirk de Rhonde Constance Beaumar Mathilda Bussard Constance Towers Miss Hannah Hunter of Greenbriar Conway Tearle Kerry Sarle Corinne Barker Helen Davis Courtenay Foote Robert Fulton Coy Watson messenger boy Creighton Hale Prince Oscar D W Griffith Man on Footpath Dale Fuller Amrah Danny Sullivan Father McGowan credited Daniel J Sullivan David Landau Beef the circus manager who raised Polly David Miles The Robbery Victim Party Guest David Torrence Dr Frank MacDonald De Segurola De Segurola Dean Martin Sam Harmon Dean Riesner Little Boy Dell Henderson Pa Harrington Denver Pyle Jackie Jo rebel deserter Diane Baker Laura Travis Dick Clark Neil Hendry Dick La Reno Sheriff Dick Sutherland Ugly Mug Dietrich Körner de the 'rocket baron' Wernher von Braun Dirk Jungnickel Weatherford Ditta Oesch Tilly Odermatt Don Stewart Donny Davis Donald Crisp At Frazier House Bushwacker Donald Ogden Stewart Skylar Van Dyke Horace Patterson Donna Kee John Ewing Doris Dawson The Girl Doris Lloyd Mrs Julia Webb Dorothy Dalton Dorothy Wood Dorothy Davenport Indian Dorothy Gish The crippled beggar Dorothy Green Princess Naia Dorothy Hammerstein Socialite next to Elsa in theatre box Dorothy Tree Ellen's Mother Dorothy Vernon comedy player at banquet Dorothy West Jenny Baker Doug McClure Jim Charles Brinley Dougl Fairbanks Gerald Dougl Gerrard Lord Lovelace Dougl Kennedy Frank James Dougl Stevenson Captain Mowbrary Dougl s Dumbrille Murchenson Dougl s Montgomery Avery Rarick Kent Dougl s Downing Clarke Lord Chamberlain Duane Eddy and the Rebels Themselves Duke R Lee Slim E Alyn Warren General Ulysses S Grant E E Clive Charles Chuck Fendwick Eagle Eye Yaqui Indian Chief Earl Schenck Joeffrey Vandermuellen Eberhard Esche Kurt Schumacher Ed C sidy Greg Walters Eddie Baker Mr Feniweather Eddie Bartell Radio Rogue Eddie Sturgis 'Parson' Smalley Edgar Kennedy An Innocent Bystander Edgar Norton Bolton The Second Butler Edith Haldeman Indian Child Edith Lyle Fairy Tale Queen Edith Schultze Westrum Mutter Lauretz Edith Shayne Mrs Vandermuellen Edith Shearer Extra Edmund Fetting Rowicki Edna Purviance Miss Brown Edna Thom Mexican Woman Eduardo Fajardo Viceroy Edward Burns credited Ed Burns Edward Dillon Confederate Soldier Edward Dougl Lord Andrew's Edward Dziewonski Dzidzius Edward Everett Horton Senator John Hathaway Edward O'Connor Jeremiah Madden Edwin Argus Louis XVI Edythe Chapman Elisabeth Lauber Edythe Sterling Molly credited Edith Sterling Egon von Jordan Dr Haberer Rechtsanwalt Eleanor Lawson Mrs O'Tandy Eleanor Middleton Bridget Eli z Kuziemski Bien's lawyer Elinor Fair Ruth Garland Elisha Cook Jr Carvey Elizabeth Janes His Child Ellen Widmann An t ia Witschi Elliott Dexter Prof Nathan Reade Elliott Nugent Gordon Smith Elmer Grandin John Bussard Eloise Clement Mrs Durand Else Bötticher Frau Rainer Elmo Lincoln Elsie Ferguson Elzbieta Czyzewska Donna Fr quetta Salero Emil Hoch Steward Emil Karewicz King Wladyslaw Jagiello Émile Chautard Père Joseph Emily Fitzroy Jane Appleby Emmet Foy Male flapper Enrique García Álvarez Member of the Inquisition Enrique Lucero Death Erica Beer Emil Gerber Erna Sellmer Anna Köchin Ernest Glendinning Sir Edwin C koden Ernie Adams Warren the Jewel Cutter Ernst Fritz Fürbringer Prof Altmann Erwin Kohlund Peter H ler Estelle Clark Sadie Etienne Girardot Monsieur Du Fresne Etna Ross Steve a child Eulalie Jensen Mrs Power Eva Calvo Cliente de p telería Eva Campbell Dolly Vernon Evelyn Selbie Miss Witherspoon Everett Sloane Dr Brock Ewa Ciepiela Helena Ewa Wisniewska Hanka Fifi D'Orsay Lili Yvonne Flora Finch Mary Willoughby Florence Auer Juanita Florence Gill Annie The Cleaning Lady Florence La Badie Undetermined Role Florence Lawrence Ruth Simonson Florence Lee Mrs Oaks Florence Turner Maid Forrest Robinson Kramer Forrest Stanley Charles Brandon Francelia Billington Maud Frances Dee Mary Wallace Francis Ford Brown Bear Francis J Grandon Indian Medicine Man Francis X Bushman Messala Franciszek Pieczka Pacheco Frank Brownlee Bill Frank Campeau Spanish Joe Frank Currier Lambert de Rhonde Frank Evans Bethulian Soldier Frank Hayes Mabel's father Frank Jenks Deputy Tom Frank M Thom Dr Charles M on Frank McHugh Edward Olson Frank Opperman The Indian Chief Frank R Mills Bert Werden Frank Shannon Sir John Mansfield Frank Wilcox Gov Crittenden of Missouri Franklin Pangborn Vincent Leach Fred Gamble Innkeeper Fred Gambold Fred Hearn William Kemp Fred Lenox Butler Fred Scott Larry Dixon Singing Movie Cowboy Fred Solm André Robert C tle Freddie Burke Frederick Otto Stirner Jr Frederick Burton Amos Bussard Fredrick R Clark Alonzo Freddie's suave African American butler Fritz Diez Franklyn Hanna Fritz Heller Herr Kraus Fritz Links Aldington Fuzzy Knight Private Sweeney Stuart's groom G Raymond Nye Val Heywood Gabriele M cher Holzwurm Galina Polskikh Jadwiga Gene Raymond John Wallace Gene Stone Herbert Geoffrey Holder Sailor George Barraud Henry Brevoort George Bell Deputy George Bunny Tony P tor George Connors Tom Fleming George Cooper Mr Brandes George Davis Perkins George Fawcett Mr Simpkins George Field Minister to Moravia George Fitzmaurice Christy Cabanne George Gebhardt Simon Bimberg George Harris Joe Weber George Hupp Howard a Child George Irving President Thom Jefferson George K Arthur Mr whipple George Le Guere Johnny a young man George Melford George Kuwa George N h Lord Howe George Nichols Doctor Van Brum George Raft Eddie Jackson George Siegmann Black Bart George Spink Meade's Butler Georges Aubert Father Mollard Georges Rouquier Voltaire Gerd Funk Parker Gerd Michael Henneberg Albert Speer Gerhard Kempinski President Gerry Wolff Newman Gert Fröbe Jon Lauretz Gertrude Bambrick Lead syrian Dancer Gertrude Robinson Indian Gertrude Short Bubbles Gil Baladou Le ménestrel Gilbert Rooney Male flapper Gino Corrado Lt Br chek Gladden James 'Inky' Ames Gladys Egan Dollie Glen Cavender I Landem Realtor Gojko Mitic Tecumseh Gordon Dooley Doll in charade scene Gordon Griffith Cecil a Child Graciela Doring Empleada de p telería Grant Withers Sheriff Steve Oliver Grazyna Staniszewska Danusia Jurandówna Grete Reinwald Blinde Frau Gudrun Thielemann Garbo Guillermo Orea Fotógrafo Guinn Big Boy Williams Richard Berney Guinn Williams Eric Alvarez Günther Simon John Sieg Gus Edwards Gwen Lee Gus Saville J e Meilk Gustav von Seyffertitz Oliver de Daim Gustaw Holoubek Don Pedro Vel quez Gusti Wolf Hilde Wirtin und falsche Braut Guy Coombs Follower of Buckingham Guy Madison Steve Burden Gypsy O'Brien Ariana du Puyster Hallam Cooley Henry Garrison Halliwell Hobbes Larkin The Butler Hank Henry Mr Kelly the mortician Hank Mann a prizefighter Hank Worden Deacon Clump Hannjo H se guest in the American Emb sy Hans Kaes Polizist Murmann Police officer Murmann Hans Moser Professor Karl Stieglitz Hans Peter Pieper Crane Harlan Knight Theodore Larkin Harrison Ford Charles Fownes Harry Baer Helfritz Harry Benham Harry Twombly Harry Carey syrian Traitor Harry Crocker Pennington Fish Harry Gribbon Jim comedy director Harry Hyde Bethulian Soldier syrian Soldier Harry Jans Jess Henchman Harry L Rattenberry Grant Young credited Harry Rattenbury Harry Langdon Harry Van Housen Harry Myers an eccentric millionaire Harry Pietzsch Walter Küchenmeister Harry Schumm Harry Jackson Harry Shannon Clay Ford Harry Solter First Villain Harry Watson Bully Boy Brewster Harry Woods Traffic Cop Hattie Delaro Mrs Meredith Hedda Hopper Mrs Caldwell Hedda Nova Princess Olga Muratoft Heenan Elliott Mr Morley Heinrich Gretler Amtmann Bonatsch Heinrich Gretler Friedrich Odermatt Heinrich Narenta Heinrich Himmler Heinz Lausch Henry Heinz Rühmann Dr Felix Schneider Heinz Woester Konsul Rainer Heinz Leo Fischer Helen Gibson Billy Louise Helen Jerome Eddy Susan Throssel Helen Lee Worthing Mrs Loring Helen Lindroth Mrs Winthrop Helen Vita Fräulein Lüthi Telefonistin Helena Dabrowska Train Controller Hélène Dalmet Madame Montavon Helmut Schreiber Colonel Procter Henry Armetta Taxi Driver Henry B Walthall Cal Yates Henry Bergman Sheriff on Train Man in Railroad Station Henry Brandon Jesse James Henry Lehrman Union Soldier Henry Silva Roger Corneal Henry Stephenson Charles Patterson Henry Taylor Radio Rogue Henry Wadsworth Captain John Pelham Henryk Bak Lt Krygier Henryk Borowski Zygfryd de Löwe Herbert Köfer Mac Herbert Yost Barry O'Moore Confederate Soldier Union Soldier Hilda Vaughn Alice Peabody Hilde Berndt Lilli Schneider Hilde Körber Lehrerin Hobart Bosworth The Sheriff Hobart Cavanaugh Joe Bonner Holbrook Blinn Juan Fernández Hoot Gibson V sily Ivan's Brother Horace James Gardener Horst Drinda Arvid Harnack Horst Giese Schröder Horst Schulze Adam Kuckhoff Hortensia Santoveña Doctora Howard St John Ellen's Father Huntley Gordon Fairy Tale King Ian Hunter Anton Ian Keith Polini Ian Maclaren Campo B se Iga Cembrzynska Princess Emina Ignacio López Tarso Albino Ignacy Machowski the Home Army Major Ignatz Himself Ida Tenbrook Ilka Ch e Mrs Restes Ilse Steppat Walicka Ingeborg Ottmann Marianne Irene Browne Mrs Chichester Irene Nathusius Äpfelchen Irene Rich Jenny Rarick Irm Hermann Emma Irma Münch Mildred Harnack Isabelle Keith Franz' Rejected Girlfriend Ivor McFadden Buck Olney J Farrell MacDonald Patrick Shamus O'Connell J Frank Glendon Jack Lawford J Herbert Frank Ronald Kenna J Jiquel Lanoe Eunuch Attendant J Morris Foster Harry Beaufort credited Morris Foster J D Cannon Lester Danzig J M Kerrigan John O'Day Jack Connolly Ward Warren Jack Holt Howard Jack Hoxie White Elk Jack Huff Zander M ter Jack Huff Jack Mulhall Jimmy the Eel Jack Oakie Private Mulligan Jack Pennick Sgt Maj Mitch Mitchell Senior member of John Ford's Stock Company Jack Perrin Lynch Mob Member Jack Pratt Army Captain Jack Pratt Black Panther Jack Webb Norm Jack Woods Sheriff Buck Farley Jacques Tourneur Extra Jacqui Chan Toshi Jadwiga Krawczyk Donna Inez Moro Jakob Sulzer Otto Helbling James Bradbury Sr James Darren Himself James Gle on Cool Kelly James Gordon Carson Creswell a lawyer James Holmes Power's Man Saturn James Laffey Ship Captain James M on His Aide James Murray One of Tillie's Admirers in Restaurant Jan Machulski Count Pena Flor Jan Peszek Driver Bakalarzewicz Jane Winton Grace Harrington Janusz Klosinski Don Diego Salero Janusz Klosinski Nowak Janusz Paluszkiewicz Krokus a mechanic Javier Solís Víctor Jean Harlow extra in nightclub scene cut from film Jean Hersholt Herr Hofner Elsa's father Jean Howell Mrs Jesse James Jean Parker Eleanor Shackleford Jean Willes Gracie Bergdorf Jean Claude Dreyfus Zwerg Dwarf Jean Claude Dreyfuss Jeanie MacPherson Bank Customer Jean Paul Le Chanois Le confesseur de la baronne d'Escourt Jennie Lee Bethulian Jerzy Block Porter Kurek Jerzy Kozakiewicz Cztan z Rogowa Jerzy Kr owski Hans Jerzy Pichelski Powala of Taczew Jessy Rameik Sophie Sieg Jetta Goudal Simone Jim Corey Jack Benny Jimmy Bryant Henchman Jimmy Durante Jimmy Jimmy Hollywood Radio Rogue Jirí Vrštala Professor Rahn Joachim Hansen Andre von Richenau Joan Barclay Molly Henderson Joanna Jedryka Zibelda Joaquín Cordero César Domínguez Joe Bordeaux Henchman Joe Ferrante Blacksmith Joe Schorn Round Head Joel McCrea Student Joey Bishop Mushy O'Connors John B O'Brien Marquis of Muckross John Charles Duc de Chavannes John Dierkes Chet John Elliott James Monroe John G Adolfi Ida May John Larkin Isham John Leyton Dr Dougl Rigby John Lowell Director John Mercator Colonel Briggs John Merkyl Robert Ames John P Wade Sir Robert Fennell John Patrick Express Agent John Powers Eve's Admirer John R Cumpson Mr Bibbs John T Dillon Trapper John Wayne Colonel John Marlowe Johnny Arthur Otho Peabody Johnny Dooley Will Sommers Johnny Mack Brown Bob Jolanta Umecka Krystyna Jolante Umecka José Gálvez The Devil José Luis Jiménez God Joseph Burke Dr McNeil Joseph Cawthorn J Horace Freischutz Joseph Crehan Reed's Manager Joseph Hann Mr Kuan Second Mate Joseph Kilgour Theodore True Joseph Offenbach Knecht Jöry Joseph W Girard Judge Cotton Josephine Crowell Orphanage Trustee Josephine Hill Edith Oaks Joyce Compton Marie Waitress Józef Kostecki Lithuanian duke Witold Józef Nowak helper of Orzechowski Judson Pratt Sergeant Major Kirby Julia Faye Eleanor Forbes Julia Hurley Fairy tale crone Julia Swayne Gordon Mrs de Rhonde Juliette Compton Ethel Chichester Julissa Lidia Johnny Judd June Elvidge Amy Tillson June Purcell Mary a Singer on the atage Jutta Wachowiak Libert Schulze Boysen Kalla P ha comic chef Kans Moehring Karin Lesch Elfriede Paul Karl Dane Capt Jacop Van Goop Karl Hackett Banker Steve Lynch Karl Malden Mitch Karl Supper Dr Rudd Kate Bruce At Lambert House Kate Price Patty Kate Toncray One of Judith's Servants Katharina Lind Oda Schottmüller Katharine Alexander Pauline Cushman Operator Katherine MacDonald The Girl Kathleen Butler Bethulian Kathleen Key Tirzah Katy Jurado Maria Longworth Kay Deslys Skater Kazimierz Opalinski the Home Army commander of Mokotów Kazimierz Rudzki Lt Turek Kazimierz Talarczyk Olaf Peterson Kazimierz Wilamowski Ken Curtis Cpl Wilkie Ken Maynard Paul Revere Kim Hunter Stella Kit Wain Pe ant boy Kitty Bradbury Mrs Brown Kitty de Hoyos Sonia Klaus Löwitsch Jude Broker Klaus Piontek Harro Schulze Boysen Krzysztof Litwin Don Lopez Soarez L Rogers Lytton George Blair Larry Duran Chico Modesto Lawrence Gray Billy Caldwell Leatrice Joy Kid Wagner Lee Beggs Benjamin Franklin Lee Beranger Leslie Leo D Maloney Sandy Sands Leo White Sanballat Leon Errol Innkeeper Leon Gordon Clinton Dewitt Leon Niemczyk Vincente Dougl Leopold R Nowak Un contrebandier Leslie Howard Berry Rhodes Lester Vail Roger Baldwin Leszek Drogosz Stefan Jaksonek Lew Gallo Jealous Young Man Lew Meehan Rockin U Cowhand Lew Liliane Yvernault Arlette Lillian Elliott Mrs McNamara a friend of the Hartleys Lillian Gish The young mother Lillian Langdon Mary's Monther Lillian Lawrence comedy player at banquet Lillian Leighton Housekeeper Linda Arvidson Daisy Harcourt Linda Watkins Frances McCalla Lionel Adams Thom Jefferson Lionel Belmore Adolph Van Housen Little Billy Rhodes Half Pint Lon Chaney Bud an oil prospector Lorne Greene Rice Martin Lotte Lang Marie Dienstmädchen Lou Costello Extra Louis Wolheim The Hoboken Terror Louise Carter Ma Callahan Louise Emmons Faggot Carrier Louise Fazenda Abigail Belldon Loyal Underwood Small Deacon Luciano Simioni David Lucien Littlefield Zeb Hamburger Stand Owner Lucyna Winnicka Marta Luella Gear Julie Dewitt Luis Lomelí Carlos Luk Ammann Lila Lee Luke the Dog himself Lydia Knott Aunt Sarah Lydia Yeamans Titus Jane Lyle Latell Policeman Lyle Talbot Slattery Lyn Harding Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy Lys sia Schlager Sängerin Lyubov Sokolova postman Lyudmila Ivanova Nadezhda Lyudmila K atkina Zinaida Grigorievna Vorobyova Mabel Normand Mabel Macey Harlam Duc de Longueville Maciej Rayzacher Wanata Mack Sennett Customer In Bookstore Doctor Mack Swain Deacon Jones Mack V Wright Macklyn Arbuckle Squire Meredith Maclyn Arbuckle Bishop La Balue Madeleine Carroll Magda Madeline Marshall Lady Diana Mannister Madeline West Gypsy's wife Madge Hunt Mrs Adolph van Housen Mae Marsh Naomi Mae Murray Mugsy Mulane Mahlon Hamilton W hington Irving Mai Wells Idylwood Resident Manfred Karge Hans Coppi Marc Lawrence Mr Jacobs First Mate Marcelle Corday Henrietta Turnbull Marcia Ralston Camille Lansing Marco Antonio Muñiz Bruno Marga López Olga Margaret Callahan Sally M on Margaret Seddon Nancy Willoughby Margarete Haagen Adelheid Margarete Hoff Maria Margarete Slezak Rosi Stieglitz Margarita Cordova Nika Flamenco Dancer Margrit Rainer Hilde Staub Telefonistin Margrit Weiler Kunigunde Meier Marie Burke Mrs Schuyler Marie Dressler Ma Harrington Marie Prevost Annie Ostrom Marin Sais Silver Waters Marina Ried Sylvia Mario Alberto Rodríguez Don Ramiro Marion Davies Prudence Cole Marion Leonard Wedding Guest Marion Sunshine Guest Marjorie Gateson Mrs Shackleford Mark Dignam Sir John Mark Hamilton Conductor Marshall Neilan Marilu Marini Martha Mattox Aunt Elizabeth Whitney Martin Faust Count Galli Mary tor Gladys Russell Mary Boland Mrs Peabody Mary Duncan Muriel Preston Mary Forbes Mrs Fish Pennington's Mother Mary Gordon Minor Role Mary Kennedy Antoinette C tleman Mary McAllister Lucy Cavanaugh Mary Miles Minter Mary Richards Mrs Brooks her mother Mary Thurman Mrs Croaker The Doctor's Wife Mary Treen Employment Clerk Marylu Poolman Elisabeth Schumacher Mathilde Danegger Frau Hofmann Matt Moore Bud H kell Matthew Betz Red Hawkins Maude Eburne Mrs Jennings Maude Lowe Maid Maude Turner Gordon Mrs Leigh Maura Monti César's blonde lover Max Barwyn Saranoff Max Haufler Frederick Max Haufler Hunziker Oberheizer Max Knapp Fritz Gubler Maximilian Schell Captain Chris Hanson Maxine Jennings Billings's Secretary May McAvoy Esther May Robson Mrs Mary Walker May Vokes Susie Maya Levare Maya Michael Callan Griff Rimer Michael McKeag Roger Michael Rennie Rudolph Michal Gazda pl P senger Flirting with Lawyer's Wife Mickey Kuhn sailor Midori Arimoto Midori Mieczyslaw Kalenik Zbyszko z Bogdanca Mieczyslaw Voit Kuno von Lichtenstein Mikhail Ulyanov General Alexander Gorbatov Milan Beli Raffael Millard K Wilson Jim Calvert credited M K Wilson Milt Dougl Bill Jones a Stage Performer Milton Sills Michael Ramsay Min Johnson At Laundry Mincho Nikolov Red Hawk Minja Vojvodic Black Eagle Míriam Colón Redhead Miroslawa Lombardo Van Worden's mother Mitchell Lewis Sheik Ilderim Molly Malone Molly Young Monroe Salisbury Mary's Cousin Morris Ankrum Wheeler Murdock MacQuarrie Martin Shaler Myrna Dell Ruth Hampton Myron Healey Cole Younger Nadja Tiller Olga Fellmeier Nanine Wright Mrs John Brant Natalia Szymanska wife of Orzechowski Natalie Warfield Nautauka Ned Sparks Mr Bert Conroy Director Nelson McDowell Wild Horse Henderson Niall Macginnis Harbor M ter David Nick Dennis Pablo Nicolai Koesberg Lafayette Nigel Barrie Philip Romilly Nigel de Brulier Simonides Nils ther Andre Nina Quartero Maria Credaro Nita Naldi Mary Gish Noble Johnson Trovio Valdez Norma Shearer Extra Norman Fell Peter Rheimer Norman Kerry Jim Neeland Norval Keedwell Fitz Greene Halleck O Z Whitehead Otis 'Hoppy' Hopkins medical sistant Oleg Vidov Elliot Olin Howland Philemon Onslow Stevens Sir Gerald Markham Ormi Hawley Anitra St Clair Orville Caldwell Tony Anderson Oscar Apfel Major Oscar Shaw Stagg Otto Lederer Colonel Bormsk Otto Zehnder Walter Emilies Sohn Owen Moore Rich Patron Pat Harmon studio Gateman Pat O'Brien Daniel Click Wiley Pat Wing Little Girl Patrice Wymore Adele Elkstrom Patricia Palmer Countess Irsky Patsy Kelly Jill Barker Paul Albert Krumm Paul Paul Henckels Dr Gutknecht Paul Hurst Chris Doble Paul McAllister Jules d'Humbercourt Paul Panzer Captain of the Guard Paul Ralli Andre Telfair Paul Weigel Man in Vienna opera box Paulette Duval Carlotta Pauline Garon Mathilda Ramsay Pedro de Cordoba Duke of Buckingham Peg Hilli Eunice Peggie C tle Paula Collins Peggy Parr The Fiancée Pepi Lederer Peppy Percy Ames Lord Andrew Gordon Pert Kelton Toddy Williams Pete Morrison Sheriff Pete Larkin Peter Doherty squadron commander Peter Kowalski Peter Travis Peter Lawford Jimmy Foster Peter Sturm Krapotschkin Philip Ahn Uncle Philip Coolidge Mr Rimer Philipp Lothar Mayring Baron von Renner Franz' father Pina Pellicer Irma Polly Moran Peggy's maid Ralph Byrd Pilot Ralph Forbes John hley Ralph Graves Maximillian of Styria Ralph Kellard Jim Cleland Ramon Novarro Ben Hur Ramón Valdés Juan mesero Raúl Gimenez Adrian Ray Cooke director's sistant Ray Mayer Henchman Ray Milland Geoffrey Trent Ray Teal Barney Raymond Bloomer Jack Bronson Raymond Hackett Willie Parker Raymond Hatton Downey Hartley's servant Reed Howes Bart Hunter Reginald Barker Perry Murdock Reginald Barlow Power's Man Friday Reimar Baur John Dr Kummerow Renata Vanni Juanita Renate Blume Ingrid Renate Feuereisen Rösli Hausmädchen Ricardo Fuentes Dibujante Richard Bennett John Glidden Richard Carle Mr Pepper Richard Conte Tony Bergdorf Richard Cummings John Barrett Richard Erdman Leo Richard Garrick Doctor Richard H Cutting Gen William Tecumseh Sherman Riley Hatch Philip Schuyler Rita Liechti Serviertochter Robert Ames Soapy Robert Bichler Erwin Schlumpf Robert Bradbury Baron Kovsky credited Ronald Bradbury Robert Brower Hugo Kermaier Robert Burton Sheriff Hacker Robert Dunbar Alec Werden Robert Foulk Sheriff Wimmer Robert G Vignola Robert Gordon Johnny Brant Robert Greig Jarvis the butler Robert Harron Nathan Robert McWade Colonel Sharpe Robert Middlem s Mr George Cafe Proprietor Robert Montgomery Freddie Matthews Robert Paige Ronny Cauldwell credited David Carlyle Robert Parrish newsboy Robert Trösch Armin Witschi Robert Vaughn Bob Ford Robert Vivian Chilsmer Grismer Roberta Shore Ricky Summers Rob't Hall Guard spelled Robert in opening credits Rodolfo Acosta Mexican Rurale Captain Roger Williams Rockin U Cowhand Johnnie Roland Glowacki pl Murderer Rolf Ripperger Barry Rolf Römer Col Simon McKew Rolfe Sedan portrait photographer Roman Klosowski Szpakowski Ron Hagerthy Bugler Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle Fatty Roscoe Karns Aloysius K Reilly Rossano Brazzi Giovanni Borghese Roy Applegate Sir Karl Pitti Roy D'Arcy General Marlanax Ruby Lafayette Grandma Rudolf Bernhard Schwomm Rudolf Bernhard René Gengenbach Rudolf Forster Maler Matthi Rudolf Ulrich O'Brian Rudolph Valentino Marjorie Daw Rudy Bond John Rodman Rupert Julian Cecil Russ Powell Herr Schultz Russell Hardie Lieutenant Gus Littledale Russell Hopton Sheriff Arthur Billings Russell Simpson Acting Sheriff Henry Goodbody Ruth Donnelly Aunt Mimi Ruth Fischer Pariser Freundin Ruth Selwyn Mitzi Ruth Shepley Lady Jane Bolingbroke Ryszard Kotys Mechanic Bulaga Ryszarda Hanin Halina Trushinska Sal Mineo Leoncavallo Borghese Sally Eilers Skater Sally Starr Angela Forbes Sam Gilman Harvey Johnson Sam Hardy Cornelius Vanderbilt Sam McDaniel R putin the Train Porter Sammy Davis Jr Josh Howard Sammy White singer in Coney Island Samuel S Hinds Officer Price Sarah Padden Ma McClune Schaggi Streuli Buol Präsident eines Sportvereins Schaggi Streuli Gustav Hannart Scott Kolk Lieutenant Frane Scotty Mattraw Cook Seena Owen Mary Sidney Franklin Shirley Mitchell Mrs Summers Sid Grauman Robert Rogalski Sidney Blackmer Steve Sidney Bracey dramatic director Sidney Toler Major Allan Pinkerton Siegfried Weiss Wilhelm Canaris Sigfrit Steiner Gloor Buchhalter Sigfrit Steiner Untersuchungsricher Steffen Examining magistrate Steffen Slawomir Lindner Van Worden's father Slim Pickens Lon Dedrick Snitz Edwards Caesar Rinkle Spencer Charters Squire Hennion Stan Jones Gen Ulysses S Grant Stanislav Ledinek Küster Stanislaw Bareja a Home Army soldier Stanislaw Igar Don G par Soarez Stanislaw Jaworski Franek a friend of Orzechowski Stanley Blystone Jailer Steffen Klaus Colpi Stephen Carr Patrick O'Day Stephen McNally Victor 'Vic' Rodell Stephen Talbot Eric Steve Clemente Pedro the Foreman credited Steve Clement Strother Martin Virgil rebel deserter Stuart Erwin Ernest Pratt Baker Picture Producer Sumi Haru Sumi Sydney Chaplin Eloper Train Conductor Little Boy's Father T Roy Barnes Adam Smith The Salesman Hero Tadeusz Bartosik Le gitan Marco Tadeusz Bialoszczynski Duke Janusz I of Warsaw Tadeusz Borowski Eugeniusz Trushinsky Gena Vorobyov Tadeusz Gwiazdowski Train Controller Tadeusz Lomnicki Grzegorz Walicki Tadeusz Lomnicki Lt Zawistowski Ted Healy Doctor Hitchcock Tenen Holtz c ting director Teresa Maxwell Conover Queen Catherine credited Theresa Maxwell Conover Teresa Szmigielówna Lawyer's Wife Teresa Wright Ellen Thea Talbot Sybil Thelma Hill Rose Thelma Percy Theodore Roberts Theo Lingen Paul Fellmeier Theodore Kosloff Monsieur Joromir King of Moravia Theodore Von Eltz Ramon Theresa Maxwell Conover Queen Margaret Thom Findley Antoinette's father Thom Jefferson Peter Thom Meighan The Brox Sisters Three Radio Rogues Group Performing Imitations Timothy Carey Howard Tetley Toby Wing Little Girl Tom Kennedy White Hopeless Tom Lewis James King Tom London credited Leonard Clapham Tom Moore Man in Office Wedding Guest Tom Murray Sheriff Bryan Tom Tyler Al Goss Tom Webb Farmer's Son Trevor Bardette Mitch Willis Truly Shattuck Lucy Hillary Tuesday Weld Ann Gregor Turner Savage Bill Sadie's Chubby Boy Tyrell Davis Alaric Chichester Tyrone Power Sr Lord Cornwallis Ulli Lommel Der kleine Prinz Little Prince Ullrich Haupt Hugo Elsa's rejected suitor Ursula Karusseit Hilde Coppi Urszula Modrzynska Jagienka ze Zgorzelic Valentina Telegina nurse in hospital Valerie French Fern Martin Vera Oelschlegel secretary Verner Clarges Union Officer Vester Pegg Ben Kent Victor Beaumont chief of British intelligence Victoria Shaw Joan Dietrich Victoria Young Kiko Violet Mersereau Willi Ackermann Virginia Cherrill a blind girl Virginia Farmer Nurse Robbins Virginia Sale Emma Stirner Vivienne Osborne Marie Cliff Vivienne Segal Elsa Hofner Vladimir Iv hov major W C Fields Rollo La Rue W C Robinson Bethulian Soldier W Chrystie Miller Grandfather at Farewell W Scott Moore Dougl Romilly W C Fields A British Sergeant W C Robinson Indian W W Bitner Zelaya Chief of the Gypsies Wade Boteler Officer G ton Walburga Gmür Frau Muffler Putzfrau Wallace McCutcheon Jr Wallace Reid Tom Grimes Walo Lüönd Hotelpage Walter Catlett Jake Sherman Walter Janssen Wanda Hawley Walter Kingsford Monsieur Pichon Walter Law General Charles Lee Walter Long Operator Walter Pidgeon Franz von Renner Walter Reed Union officer Ward Crane French Secret Service Agent Warren Berlinger Buddy McCalla Warren Cook Earle of Mannister Wayland Tr k Dr Milton Croaker Undertaker's Neighbor Wedgwood Nowell Graham Henderson Wendell Holmes Principal Donlan Werner Buttler Gendarm Dieterli Werner Hahn Logan Werner Lierck Private First Cl s Draeger Wharton James Jim Garland Whitehorse John Oaks Wiktor Grotowicz Director Rozner Wilbur Higby Fowler Wilfred Luc Hugh Frazier Wilfred Noy Dr Joseph Warren Wilfried Pucher Ellis Willard Cooley Frank Raymond Willard Robertson Captain Cornelius Channing Willette Kershaw Mary Jeremiah's wife William A Carroll syrian Soldier William Carroll William B Davidson Dr Delamater William Boyd William Brotherhood Steward William C deMille Zoe Rae Maud William Collier Sr Pat Pop Walters William De Vaull De Rhonde's Butler William E Lowery Yaqui Indian Chief William Forrest Gen Steve Hurlburt William Haines Billy Boone William Henry Confederate lieutenant William Holden Charles Roger Forbes William J Butler Confederate Soldier William Kent King's tailor William Leslie Maj Richard Gray William McCall John Cavanaugh William Norris Uncle Horace William Orlamond Governor William Powell Francis I credited William H Powell William Steele The Foreman credited Bill Gettinger William Welsh Ben Hanfer Willis Bouchey Col Phil Secord Willy Frey Pfarrer Willy Fueter Bernard Benny Willy Maertens Hausmeister Wagner Winter Hall Joseph Witold Pyrkosz Inspector Witold Roszak Witold Skaruch Priest Wladyslaw Pawlowicz Un soldat Wojciech Siemion Lt Marianek Wolfgang Greese Governor William Harrison Wright King a collector Wyndham Standing Sir Fergus C sidy Wynne Gibson Violet Smith Xenia Pörtner Gabriele Yvette Mitchell Conchita Zarli Carigiet Schreier Zarli Carigiet Luzi Caviezel Z u Pitts Gertie Zbigniew Cybulski Alfonse Van Worden Zbigniew Dobrzynski Tom z Zbigniew Wójcik Painter Zdzislaw Maklakiewicz Don Roque Busqueros Zofia Merle Draughtswoman Zosia Zygmunt Malanowicz Young Man Zygmunta Malanowicza Zygmunt Malawski pl Policeman Zygmunt Zintel P senger Suffering from Insomnia








to a rather small number of practitioners belonging to specific philosophical schools or certain religious groups.[38] The earliest European/Asian Minor references to a vegetarian diet occur in Homer (Odyssey 9, 82–104) and Herodotus (4, 177), who mention the Lotophagi (Lotus-eaters), an indigenous people on the North African coast, who according to Herodotus lived on nothing but the fruits of a plant called lotus. Diodorus Siculus (3, 23–24) transmits tales of vegetarian peoples or tribes in Ethiopia, and further stories of this kind are narrated and discussed in ancient sources.[39] The earliest reliable evidence for vegetarian theory and practice in Greece dates from the 6th century BC. The Orphics, a religious movement spreading in Greece at that time, may have practiced vegetarianism.[36] It is unclear whether the Greek religious teacher Pythagoras actually advocated vegetarianism[35] and it is more likely that Pythagoras only prohibited certain kinds of meat.[35] Later writers presented Pythagoras as prohibiting meat altogether.[35] Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that "Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so avoided killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but even kept his distance from cooks and hunters".[35] The followers of Pythagoras (called Pythagoreans) did not always practice strict vegetarianism, but at least their inner circle did. For the general public, abstention from meat was a hallmark of the so-called "Pythagorean way of life".[40] Both Orphics and strict Pythagoreans also avoided eggs and shunned the ritual offerings of meat to the gods which were an essential part of traditional religious sacrifice.[41] In the 5th century BC the philosopher Empedocles distinguished himself as a radical advocate of vegetarianism specifically and of respect for animals in general.[42] A fictionalized portrayal of Pythagoras appears in Book XV of Ovid's Metamorphoses,[43] in which he advocates a form of strict vegetarianism.[43] It was through this portrayal that Pythagoras was best known to English-speakers throughout the early modern period[43] and, prior to the coinage of the word "vegetarianism", vegetarians were referred to in English as "Pythagoreans".[43] Pythagoras Advocating Vegetarianism (1618-1630) by Peter Paul Rubens was inspired by Pythagoras's speech advocating vegetarianism in Ovid's Metamorphoses.[43] The question of whether there are any ethical duties toward animals was hotly debated, and the arguments in dispute were quite similar to the ones familiar in modern discussions on animal rights.[44] Vegetarianism was usually part and parcel of religious convictions connected with the concept of transmigration of the soul (metempsychosis).[45] There was a widely held belief, popular among both vegetarians and non-vegetarians, that in the Golden Age of the beginning of humanity mankind was strictly non-violent. In that utopian state of the world hunting, livestock breeding, and meat-eating, as well as agriculture were unknown and unnecessary, as the earth spontaneously produced in abundance all the food its inhabitants needed.[46] This myth is recorded by Hesiod (Works and Days 109sqq.), Plato (Statesman 271–2), the famous Roman poet Ovid (Metamorphoses 1,89sqq.), and others. Ovid also praised the Pythagorean ideal of universal nonviolence (Metamorphoses 15,72sqq.). Almost all the Stoics were emphatically anti-vegetarian[47] (with the prominent exception of Seneca).[48] They insisted on the absence of reason in brutes, leading them to conclude that there cannot be any ethical obligations or restraints in dealing with the world of irrational animals.[49] As for the followers of the Cynic school, their extremely frugal way of life entailed a practically meatless diet, but they did not make vegetarianism their maxim.[50] In the Platonic Academy, the scholarchs (school heads) Xenocrates and (probably) Polemon pleaded for vegetarianism.[51] In the Peripatetic school Theophrastus, Aristotle's immediate successor, supported it.[52] Some of the prominent Platonists and Neo-Platonists in the age of the Roman Empire lived on a vegetarian diet. These included Apollonius of Tyana, Plotinus, and Porphyry.[53] Porphyry wrote a treatise On abstinence from beings with a soul, the most elaborate ancient pro-vegetarian text known to us.[54] Among the Manicheans, a major religious movement founded in the third century AD, there was an elite group called Electi (the chosen) who were Lacto-Vegetarians for ethical reasons and abided by a commandment which strictly banned killing. Common Manicheans called Auditores (Hearers) obeyed looser rules of nonviolence.[55] Judaism Main article: Jewish vegetarianism A small number of Jewish scholars throughout history have argued that the Torah provides a scriptural basis for vegetarianism, now or in the Messianic Age.[56] Some writers assert that the Jewish prophet Isaiah was a vegetarian.[57][58][59] A number of ancient Jewish sects, including early Karaite sects, regarded the eating of meat as prohibited, at least while Israel was in exile,[60] and medieval scholars such as Joseph Albo and Isaac Arama regarded vegetarianism as a moral ideal, out of a concern for the moral character of the slaughterer.[61] East and Southeast Asia China Many meat analogues used today, such as tofu (pictured above) and seitan, originate with Chinese Buddhist cuisine. The religions of Chinese Buddhism and Taoism require that monks and nuns eat an egg free, onion free vegetarian diet. Since abbeys were usually self-sufficient, in practice, this meant they ate a vegan diet. Many religious orders also avoid hurting plant life by avoiding root vegetables. This is not just seen as an ascetic practice, but Chinese spirituality generally believes that animals have immortal souls, and that a diet of mostly grain is the healthiest for humans. In Chinese folk religions, as well as the aforementioned faiths, people often eat vegan on the 1st and 15th of the month, as well as the eve of Chinese New Year. Some nonreligious people do this as well. This is similar to the Christian practice of lent and not eating meat on Friday. The percentage of people permanently being pure vegetarian is about the same as the modern English-speaking world, but this percentage has not really changed for a very long time. Many people eat vegan for a certain amount of time in order to make up for the belief that they have sinned. Foods like seitan, tofu skin, meat alternatives made from seaweeds, root vegetable starch, and tofu originate in China and became popularized because so many people periodically abstain from meat. In China, one can find an eggless vegetarian substitute for items ranging from seafood to ham.[62] Also, the Thai (เจ) and Vietnamese (chay) terms for vegetarianism originate from the Chinese term for a lenten diet. Japan Emperor Tenmu began bans on killing and eating meat in 675 in Japan. In 675, the use of livestock and the consumption of some wild animals (horse, cattle, dogs, monkeys, birds) was banned in Japan by Emperor Tenmu, due to the influence of Buddhism.[63] Subsequently, in the year 737 of the Nara period, the Emperor Seimu approved the eating of fish and shellfish. During the twelve hundred years from the Nara period to the Meiji Restoration in the latter half of the 19th century, Japanese people enjoyed vegetarian-style meals. They usually ate rice as a staple food as well as beans and vegetables. It was only on special occasions or celebrations that fish was served. Over this period, the Japanese people (particularly Buddhist monks) developed a vegetarian cuisine called shōjin-ryōri which was native to Japan. ryōri means cooking or cuisine, while shojin is a Japanese translation of virya in Sanskrit, meaning "to have the goodness and keep away evils".[64] In 1872 of the Meiji restoration,[65] as part of the opening up of Japan to Western influence, Emperor Meiji lifted the ban on the consumption of red meat.[66] The removal of the ban encountered resistance and in one notable response, ten monks attempted to break into the Imperial Palace. The monks asserted that due to foreign influence, large numbers of Japanese had begun eating meat and that this was "destroying the soul of the Japanese people." Several of the monks were killed during the break-in attempt, and the remainder were arrested.[65][67] Orthodox Christianity In Greek-Orthodox Christianity (Greece, Cyprus, Russia, Serbia and other Orthodox countries), adherents eat a diet completely free of animal products for fasting periods (except for honey) as well as all types of oil and alcohol, during a strict fasting period. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church prescribes a number of fasting (tsom, Ge'ez: ጾም ṣōm, excluding any kind of animal products, including dairy products and eggs) periods, including Wednesdays, Fridays, and the entire Lenten season, so Ethiopian cuisine contains many dishes that are vegan. Christian antiquity and Middle Ages This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Unclear structure, some unreferenced research, hints of bias in tone. Please help improve this section if you can. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The leaders of the early Christians in the apostolic era (James, Peter, and John) were concerned that eating food sacrificed to idols might result in ritual pollution. The only food sacrificed to idols was meat.[citation needed] The Apostle Paul emphatically rejected that view which resulted in division of an Early Church (Romans 14:2-21; compare 1 Corinthians 8:8-9, Colossians 2:20-22).[68][69] Many early Christians were vegetarian such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Jerome, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, and others.[70][71] Some early church writings suggest that Matthew, Peter, and James were vegetarian.[citation needed] The historian Eusebius writes that the Apostle "Matthew partook of seeds, nuts and vegetables, without flesh."[72] The philosopher Porphyry wrote an entire book entitled On Abstinence from Animal Food which compiled most of the classical thought on the subject.[73][74][citation needed] In late antiquity and in the Middle Ages many monks and hermits renounced meat-eating in the context of their asceticism.[75] The most prominent of them was St Jerome (†419), whom they used to take as their model.[76] The Rule of St Benedict (6th century) allowed the Benedictines to eat fish and fowl, but forbade the consumption of the meat of quadrupeds unless the religious was ill.[77] Many other rules of religious orders contained similar restrictions of diet, some of which even included fowl, but fish was never prohibited, as Jesus himself had eaten fish (Luke 24:42-43). The concern of those monks and nuns was frugality, voluntary privation, and self-mortification.[78] William of Malmesbury writes that Bishop Wulfstan of Worcester (d. 1095) decided to adhere to a strict vegetarian diet simply because he found it difficult to resist the smell of roasted goose.[79] Saint Genevieve, the Patron Saint of Paris, is mentioned as having observed a vegetarian diet—but as an act of physical austerity, rather than out of concern for animals. Medieval hermits, at least those portrayed in literature, may have been vegetarians for similar reasons, as suggested in a passage from Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur: 'Then departed Gawain and Ector as heavy (sad) as they might for their misadventure, and so rode till that they came to the rough mountain, and there they tied their horses and went on foot to the hermitage. And when they were come up, they saw a poor house, and beside the chapel a little courtelage, where Nacien the hermit gathered worts, as he which had tasted none other meat of a great while.'[80] John Passmore claimed that there was no surviving textual evidence for ethically motivated vegetarianism in either ancient and medieval Catholicism or in the Eastern Churches. There were instances of compassion to animals, but no explicit objection to the act of slaughter per se. The most influential theologians, St Augustine and St Thomas Aquinas, emphasized that man owes no duties to animals.[5] Although St. Francis





of Assisi described animal beings with mystic language, contemporary sources do not claim that he practised or advocated vegetarianism.[81] Many ancient intellectual dissidents, such as the Encratites, the Ebionites, and the Eustathians who followed the fourth century monk Eustathius of Antioch, considered abstention from meat-eating an essential part of their asceticism.[82] Medieval Paulician Adoptionists, such as the Bogomils ("Friends of God") of the Thrace area in Bulgaria and the Christian dualist Cathars, also despised the consumption of meat.[83] Early modern period See also: European Renaissance and Christian vegetarianism Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was among the first celebrities from the European Renaissance era who supported vegetarianism It was during the European Renaissance that vegetarianism reemerged in Europe as a philosophical concept based on an ethical motivation. Among the first celebrities who supported it were Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)[84] and Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655).[85] In the 17th century the paramount theorist of the meatless or Pythagorean diet was the English writer Thomas Tryon (1634–1703) and subsequently the Romantic poets.[86] On the other hand, influential philosophers such as René Descartes[87] (1596–1650) and Immanuel Kant[88] (1724–1804) were of the opinion that there cannot be any ethical duties whatsoever toward animals—though Kant also observes that "He who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men. We can judge the heart of a man by his treatment of animals." By the end of the 18th century in England the claim that animals were made only for man's use (anthropocentrism) was still being advanced, but no longer carried general assent. Very soon, it would disappear altogether.[89] In the United States, there were small groups of Christian vegetarians in the 18th century. The best known of them was Ephrata Cloister in Pennsylvania, a religious community founded by Conrad Beissel in 1732.[90] Benjamin Franklin became a vegetarian at the age of 16, but later on he reluctantly returned to meat eating.[91] He later introduced tofu to America in 1770. [92] Colonel Thomas Crafts Jr. was a vegetarian.[93] 19th century Vegetarianism was frequently associated with cultural reform movements, such as temperance and anti-vivisection. It was propagated as an essential part of "the natural way of life." Some of its champions sharply criticized the civilization of their age and strove to improve public health.[94] Great Britain Francis William Newman (1805–1897), Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), William Gibson Ward (1819–1882), and John Davie (1800–1891) leading members of the Vegetarian Society During the Age of Enlightenment and in the early nineteenth century, England was the place where vegetarian ideas were more welcome than anywhere else Europe, and the English vegetarians were particularly enthusiastic about the practical implementation of their principles.[95] In England, vegetarianism was strongest in the northern and middle regions, specifically urbanized areas.[96] As the movement spread across the country, more working-class people began to identify as vegetarians, though still a small number in comparison to the number of meat eaters.[97] Groups were established all across England, but the movement failed to gain popular support and was drowned out by other, more exciting, struggles of the late-nineteenth century.[98] In 1802, Joseph Ritson authored An Essay on Abstinence from Animal Food, as a Moral Duty.[99] Reverend William Cowherd founded the Bible Christian Church in 1809. He advocated vegetarianism as a form of temperance, and his organisation was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society.[100] Martha Brotherton authored Vegetable Cookery, the first vegetarian cookbook, in 1812.[101][102] A prominent advocate of an ethically motivated vegetarianism in the early 19th century was the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822).[103] He was influenced by John Frank Newton's Return to Nature, or, Defence of the Vegetable Regimen (1811), and he published an essay on the subject in 1813, A Vindication of Natural Diet.[104] The first Vegetarian Society of the modern western world was established in England in 1847.[105] The Society was founded by the 140 participants of a conference at Ramsgate and by 1853 had 889 members.[106] By the end of the century, the group had attracted almost 4,000 members.[107] After its first year, alone, the group grew to 265 members that ranged from ages 14 to 76.[108] English vegetarians were a small but highly motivated and active group. Many of them believed in a simple life and "pure" food, humanitarian ideals and strict moral principles.[109] Not all members of the Vegetarian Society were "Cowherdites", though they constituted about half of the group.[108] The Cornishman newspaper reported in March 1880 that a vegetarian restaurant had existed in Manchester for some years and one had just opened in Oxford Street, London.[110] Class Class played prominent roles in the Victorian vegetarian movement. There was somewhat of a disconnect when the upper-middle class attempted to reach out to the working and lower classes. Though the meat industry was growing substantially, many working class Britons had mostly vegetarian diets out of necessity rather than out of the desire to improve their health and morals. The working class did not have the luxury being able to choose what they would eat and they believed that a mixed diet was a valuable source of energy.[111] Sylvester Graham Isaac Jennings Vegetarians Sylvester Graham and Isaac Jennings founded the natural hygiene movement Women Tied closely with other social reform movements, women were especially visible as the "mascot". When late-Victorians sought to promote their cause in journal, female angels or healthy English women were the images most commonly depicted.[112] Two prominent female vegetarians were Elizabeth Horsell, author of a vegetarian cookbook and a lecturer (and wife of William Horsell), and Jane Hurlstone. Hurlstone was active in Owenism, animal welfare, and Italian nationalism as well. Though women were regularly overshadowed by men, the newspaper the Vegetarian Advocate noted that women were more inclined to do work in support of vegetarianism and animal welfare than men, who tended to only speak on the matter. In a domestic setting, women promoted vegetarianism though cooking vegetarian dishes for public dinners and arranging entertainment that promoted the cause.[113] Outside of the domestic sphere, Victorian women edited vegetarian journals, wrote articles, lectured, and wrote cookbooks. Of the 26 vegetarian cookbooks published during the Victorian Age, 14 were written by women.[114] In 1895, The Women's Vegetarian Union was established by Alexandrine Veigele, a French woman living in London. The organization aimed to promote a 'purer and simpler' diet and they regularly reached out to the working class.[115] The morality arguments behind vegetarianism in Victorian England drew idealists from various causes together. Specifically, many vegetarian women identified as feminists. In her feminist utopia, Herland (1915), Charlotte Perkins Gilman imagined a vegetarian society. Margaret Fuller also advocated for vegetarianism in her work, Women of the Nineteenth Century (1845).[116] She argued that when women are liberated from domestic life, they would help transform the violent male society, and vegetarianism would become the dominant diet. Frances Power Cobbe, a co-founder of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, identified as a vegetarian and was a well-known activist for feminism. Many of her colleagues in the first-wave feminist movement also identified as vegetarians.[117] United States In 1835, Asenath Nicholson authored the first American vegetarian cookbook.[118] In 1845, the vegetarian newspaper The Pleasure Boat began publication.[119] In the United States, Reverend William Metcalfe (1788–1862), a pacifist and a prominent member of the Bible Christian Church, preached vegetarianism.[120] He and Sylvester Graham, the mentor of the Grahamites and inventor of the Graham crackers, were among the founders of the American Vegetarian Society in 1850.[121] In 1838, Dr. William Alcott published "Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men, and by Experience in All Ages." The book was reprinted in 2012, and journalist Avery Yale Kamila called it "a seminal work in the cannon of American vegetarian literature."[122] Ellen G. White, one of the founders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, became an advocate of vegetarianism, and the Church has recommended a meatless diet ever since.[123] Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (of corn flakes fame), a Seventh-Day Adventist, promoted vegetarianism at his Battle Creek Sanitarium as part of his theory of "biologic living".[124] American vegetarians such as Isaac Jennings, Susanna W. Dodds, M. L. Holbrook and Russell T. Trall were associated with the natural hygiene movement.[125] Other countries Gustav Struve, German revolutionary and a leading figure in the initial stage of the German vegetarian movement. In Russia, Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910) was the most outstanding supporter of vegetarianism.[126] In Germany, the well-known politician, publicist and revolutionist Gustav Struve (1805–1870) was a leading figure in the initial stage of the vegetarian movement. He was inspired by Rousseau's treatise Emile: or, On Education.[127] Many vegetarian associations were founded in the last third of the century and the Order of the Golden Age went on to achieve particular prominence beyond the Food Reform movement.[128] In 1886, a German colonist couple, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche and Bernhard Förster, emigrated to the Paraguayan rainforest and founded Nueva Germania to put to practice utopian ideas about vegetarianism and the superiority of the Aryan race, though the vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived.[129][130]: 345–358  20th century The International Vegetarian Union, a union of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the 20th century as a result of nutritional, ethical