Peoples Party a faction of the All Progressives Grand Alliance and the new PDP a faction of serving governors of the ruling People's Democratic Party … œ formed the All Progressives Congress In the presidential election former military head of state General Muhammadu Buhari who had previously contested in the and presidential elections defeated incumbent Jonathan of the People's Democratic Party by over two million votes ending the party's sixteen year rule in the country and marking the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate Observers generally praised the election as being fair Jonathan was generally praised for conceding defeat and limiting the risk of unrest In the presidential election Buhari was re elected for a second term in office defeating his closet rival Atiku Abubakar Politics Main article Politics of Nigeria Nigerian National Assembly Abuja Nigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States with executive power exercised by the President The president is both head of state and head of the federal government the president is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four year terms The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly The Senate is a seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja members are elected by popular vote to four year terms The House contains seats with the number of seats per state determined by population Nigeria National symbols of Nigeria Flag Bicolour Emblem Coat of arms of Nigeria Anthem Arise O Compatriots Animal Eagle Bird Black crowned crane Flower Costus spectabilis Ethnocentrism tribalism religious persecution and prebendalism have plagued Nigerian politics both before and after independence in All major parties have practised vote rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive In the period before election a report prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the and elections were

power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty,[121][122] and maintained the highest position among China's tributary states,[123][124] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand,[125][126][127] and the Philippines, among others.[128][129] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century,[130][131][132] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java.[133] During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science.[134] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great (r. 141850), who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet.[135] This golden age[134] saw great cultural and scientific advancements,[136] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere.[137] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs.[138][139] In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula.[140] Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended to conquer China and India[141] through the Korean Peninsula, but was defeated by strong resistance from the Righteous Army, the naval superiority of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his turtle ships, and assistance from Wanli Emperor of Ming China. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000200,000 noses cut from Korean victims.[142] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon's war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century.[143][144] In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname "the hermit kingdom", but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Korean Empire Main article: Korean Empire The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China's traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (189495), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents.[145] In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (18971910). King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, Ito Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation Main article: Korea under Japanese rule See also: Japanese war crimes The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the JapanKorea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin.[146] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[147][148][149] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military.[150] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939,[151] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan's military.[152] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died.[153] Approximately 200,000 girls and women,[154] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military.[155] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named "comfort women".[156][157] During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Soshi-kaimei.[158] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[159] or taken to Japan.[160] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections.[161] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan.[160][162] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[160] this has not occurred.[162] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula.[163] There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea.[164] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea.[165] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Division Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification Flag of North Korea Flag of South Korea In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung's Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana,[166] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana's.[a] According to R. J. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[168] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone.[169] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008.[170] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced.[171] Korean War Main article: Korean War Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U.S. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (195053) more than 1.2 million people died and the Jack Orend Jack Orend Dwight unknown episodes Gary Pillar Gary Pillar Toby unknown episodes George Nejame George Nejame Bill Woods unknown episodes Rosina Widdowson Reynolds Rosina Widdowson Reynolds Noelle Van Stadt unknown episodes Chuck Wagner Chuck Wagner Randall Thompson unknown episodes Marie Windsor Marie Windsor Dr Vivian Collins unknown episodes Shelley Morrison Shelley Morrison Mrs Ramirez unknown episodes Alma Martinez Alma Martinez Sharon Garcia unknown episodes Mark Roberts Mark Roberts Charles Sutton unknown episodes Dennis Holahan Dennis Holahan John unknown episodes Kathleen O'Malley Kathleen O'Malley Mrs Moss unknown episodes Deborah Ryan Deborah Ryan Angela unknown episodes Bibi Osterwald Bibi Osterwald Nanny McTavish unknown episodes F William Parker F William Parker Groyden night clerk unknown episodes Carol Bagdasarian Carol Bagdasarian Maureen Morrissey unknown episodes George Ball George 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Algernon Durban unknown episodes Keye Luke Keye Luke The Ancient One unknown episodes Judson Scott Judson Scott Peter Harrell unknown episodes Robert Newman Robert Newman Prescott Harrell unknown episodes Angel Tompkins Angel Tompkins Dr Erna Morris unknown episodes April Hong April Hong Gee Sung unknown episodes Grant Wilson Grant Wilson Bill Garrett unknown episodes Monte Landis Monte Landis Saura unknown episodes Gordon Ross Gordon Ross Joe Green unknown episodes Jason Marsden Jason Marsden Alan 'A J ' Quartermaine Jr unknown episodes Guy Doleman Guy Doleman Angus McKay unknown episodes Hurd Hatfield Hurd Hatfield Pilgrim unknown episodes Norman Snow Norman Snow Broxton unknown episodes Michael Canavan Michael Canavan Dist Atty Lombardi unknown episodes Garrick Dowhen Garrick Dowhen Yves unknown episodes David Stenstrom David Stenstrom Neil Johnson unknown episodes Alan Ursillo Alan Ursillo Bellows unknown episodes Jeremiah Sullivan Jeremiah Sullivan Michel unknown episodes Stuart 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abby-lane abby-rode abigail-clayton ada-tauler addie-juniper addison-cain adele-wiesenthal adeline-lange adeline-pollicina adriana-amante adrianna-laurenti adrianna-russo agnes agnes-ardant agnes-zalontai aimee-addison aisha-sun aja aleena-ferari alessandra-schiavo aletta-ocean alexandra-nice alexandria-cass alexa-parks alex-dane alex-foxe alexia-knight alexis-devell alexis-firestone alexis-greco alexis-payne alexis-x alex-storm alex-white aliana-love alice-springs alicia-alighatti alicia-monet alicia-rio alicyn-sterling alighiera-olena ali-moore aline-santos alissa-ashley allysin-chaynes alysin-embers alyssa-love alyssa-reece amanda-addams amanda-blake amanda-blue amanda-jane-adams amanda-rae amanda-stone amanda-tyler amber-hunt amberlina-lynn amber-lynn amber-michaels amber-peach amber-wild amber-woods ambrosia-fox amia-miley ami-rodgers amy-allison amy-brooke amy-rose amy-starz anastasia-christ anastasia-sands andrea-adams andrea-brittian andrea-lange andrea-true andy angel 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barbie-angel barbie-doll barett-moore bea-fiedler beata beatrice-poggi beatrice-valle becky-savage becky-sunshine belinda-butterfield bella-donna bethany-sweet beverly-bliss beverly-glen biggi-stenzhorn bionca black-widow blond-cat blondi blue-angel bobbi-bliss bobbi-dean bobbie-burns bonnie-holiday brandee brandi-edwards brandy-alexandre brandy-dean brandy-lee brandy-smile brandy-wine bree-anthony breezy-lane brenda-basse briana-blair bridgette-belle bridgette-monet bridgette-monroe bridget-waters brigitte-lahaie brigitte-monnin brigitte-verbecq brittany brittany-stryker britt-corvin britt-morgan bronze brooke-bennett brooke-fields brooke-haven brooke-west brook-van-buuren buffy-davis bunnie-blake bunny-bleu bunny-hatton busty-belle cali-caramel calisyn-heart cameo cameron-love camila-sampaio camilla-rhodes camille-morgan camrie-foxxx candace-daley candi candida-royalle candie-evens candi-summers candy-apples candy-barr candy-hill candy-samples candy-stanton cara-lott caressa-savage carmel-nougat carmen-blonde carmen-de-la-torre carmen-moore carmen-rose carol-connors carol-cross carol-cummings carole-dubois carole-gire carole-pierac carol-titian carolyn-connoly carolyn-monroe carrie-cruise cassandra-leigh cassidy cassie-courtland cataline-bullock catherine-count catherine-crystal catherine-ringer catherine-tailleferre cathy-delorme cathy-menard cathy-stewart celeste-fox celine-gallone chanel-preston chanel-price chantal-virapin chanta-rose chantelle-stevens charisma charisma-cole charlie-latour charlie-waters charlotte-de-castille charmane-star chasey-lain chayse-manhattan chaz-vincent chelsea-sinclaire chennin-blanc cheri-janvier cheri-taylor cherry-hill chessie-moore cheyenne-hunter cheyenne-silver china-lee china-leigh china-moon chloe-cruize chloe-dior chloe-kez chloe-stevens chris-collins chris-jordan chris-petersen chrissie-beauchamp christa-abel christa-ludwig christie-ford christi-lake christina-berg christina-blond christina-evol christina-skye christine-black christine-chavert christine-neona christine-rigoler christy-canyon cicciolina cindi-stephens cindy-carver cindy-crawford cindy-more cindy-shepard cindy-wong cinthya-marinho clair-dia claire-robbins claude-janna claudia-jackson claudia-jamsson claudia-mehringer claudia-nero claudia-van-statt claudia-zante claudine-beccarie clea-carson cleo-nichole cleo-patra cody-lane cody-love cody-nicole coffee-brown colleen-brennan connie-bennett connie-peterson constance-money copper-penny coreena corey-everson corinne-lemoine corneliah cory-everson cory-wolf courtney courtney-cummz courtney-james cris-cassidy crissy-moran cris-taliana crystal-breeze crystal-dawn crystal-holland crystal-knight crystal-lake crystal-lovin crystal-sync csilla-kalnay cuban-bee cynara-fox cyndee-summers cynthia-black cynthia-brooks cynthia-hammers cynthia-lavigne dagmar-lost daisy-layne dallas-miko dana-dylan dana-lynn danica-rhea daniela-nanou daniela-schiffer daniele-troeger daniella daniella-schiffer danielle danielle-foxxx danielle-rodgers danny-ricci danyel-cheeks daphne daphne-rosen darby-lloyd-rains darla-crane darla-delovely davia-ardell dayton-rain debbie-northrup debbie-revenge debbie-van-gils debi-diamond debi-jointed debra-lynn deidra-hopkins deidre-holland delania-raffino delia-moore delphine-thail delta-force delta-white demi-moor denice-klarskov denise-derringer denise-dior denise-sloan desiree-cousteau desiree-foxx desiree-lane desiree-west deva-station devin-devasquez devinn-lane devon-shire dia diana-holt diana-kisabonyi diana-siefert diana-stevenson diane-dubois diane-richards diane-sloan diane-suresne dido-angel dillan-lauren dina-deville dina-jewel dina-pearl ditty-blue diva divinity-love djiana dolly-darkley dominique dominique-dewitt dominique-saint-claire donna-hart donna-marie dorle-buchner dorothy-lemay dorothy-onan drea drimla dru-berrymore dusty-rose dyanna-lauren ebony-ayes edina-blond edita-ungerova edwige-faillel eileen-wells elaine-southern elena-berkova elena-maria-ricci eleonore-melzer elisabeth-bure elis-black elise elise-di-medici elle-devyne elle-rio elodie-delage elsa-maroussia elza-brown emili-doll emily-evermoore emily-george emily-jewel emmanuelle-pareze envy-mi erica-boyer erica-eaton erica-havens erica-idol erica-lauren erika-bella erika-cool erika-heaven erika-lockett esme-monroe eva-allen eva-angel eva-dionisio eva-gross eva-kleber eva-lux eva-uettori eve-laurence evelyne-lang evie-delatosso fabiana-venturi faith-stevens fallon fanny-garreau fanny-steel faye-runaway flame flick-shagwell flore-soller flower france-lomay france-quenie francoise frankie-leigh gabriella gabriella-mirelba gabriella-vincze gail-force gail-palmer gail-sterling georgette-saunders georgia-peach georgina-spelvin gia-givanna gianna-lynn gili-sky gina-carrera gina-gianetti gina-janssen gina-lee gina-martell gina-valentino ginger-jay ginger-lee ginger-lynn ginny-noack giovanna gisela-schwarz giselle-monet gladys-laroche gloria-leonard gloria-todd golden-jade greta-carlson greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade hazel-young heather-deeley heather-ellis heather-hart heather-lere heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray isabella-dior isabella-soprano isabelle-allay isabelle-brell isabelle-marchall isobel-wren iveta ivette-blanche jackie-right jacqueline-lorians jacy-allen jada-stevens jade-east jade-hsu jade-marcela jade-summers jade-wong jahn-gold jamie-brooks jamie-james jamie-summers jana-irrova jana-mrazkova jane-baker jane-darling jane-iwanoff jane-lindsay jane-lixx janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold jean-afrique jeanette-littledove jeanie-marie-sullivan jean-jennings jeanna-fine jeannie-pepper jenna-jameson jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante jennifer-noxt jennifer-stewart jennifer-welles jennifer-west jenny jenny-feeling jenny-fields jenny-wings jersey-jaxin jesie-st-james jesse-capelli jessica-bangkok jessica-bogart jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde jessi-foster jill-ferari jill-kelly joana-redgrave joan-devlon joanna-storm joanna-sweet jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black jordana-james jordan-green jordan-nevaeh jordan-star josephine-carrington joslyn-james julia-chanel julia-dal-fuoco juliana-grandi julia-paes julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde kristina-king kristina-klevits kristina-soderszk kristine-heller kristin-steen krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie lacy-rose lady-amanda-wyldefyre lady-stephanie laetitia-bisset lana-burner lana-cox lana-wood lara-amour lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya laura-clair laura-lazare laura-lion laura-may laura-orsolya laura-paouck laura-zanzibar lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith lauryl-canyon lauryn-may leah-wilde lea-magic lea-martini leanna-foxxx lee-caroll leigh-livingston leilani lenora-bruce leslie-winston lesllie-bovee letizia-bruni lexi-lane lexi-matthews lezley-zen lia-fire liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau lily-rodgers lily-valentine linda-shaw linda-vale linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring lisa-lake lisa-melendez lisa-sue-corey lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz maryanne-fisher mary-hubay mary-ramunno mary-stuart mascha-mouton maud-kennedy mauvais-denoir maxine-tyler maya-black maya-france megan-leigh megan-martinez megan-reece mei-ling melanie-hotlips melanie-scott melba-cruz melinda-russell melissa-bonsardo melissa-del-prado melissa-golden melissa-martinez melissa-melendez melissa-monet mercedes-dragon mercedes-lynn merle-michaels mesha-lynn mia-beck mia-lina mia-smiles michele-raven michelle-aston michelle-ferrari michelle-greco michelle-maren michelle-maylene michelle-monroe micki-lynn mika-barthel mika-tan mikki-taylor mimi-morgan mindy-rae ming-toy miranda-stevens miss-bunny miss-meadow miss-pomodoro missy missy-graham missy-stone missy-vega misti-jane mistress-candice misty-anderson misty-dawn misty-rain misty-regan mona-lisa mona-page moni monica-baal monica-swinn monika-peta monika-sandmayr monika-unco monique-bruno monique-cardin monique-charell monique-demoan monique-gabrielle monique-la-belle morgan-fairlane morrigan-hel moxxie-maddron mulani-rivera mysti-may nadege-arnaud nadia-styles nadine-bronx nadine-proutnal nadine-roussial nadi-phuket nanci-suiter nancy-hoffman nancy-vee natacha-delyro natalia-wood natalli-diangelo natascha-throat natasha-skyler naudia-nyce nessa-devil nessy-grant nesty nicki-hunter nicky-reed nicole-berg nicole-bernard nicole-black nicole-grey nicole-london nicole-parks nicole-scott nicole-taylor nicolette-fauludi nicole-west nika-blond nika-mamic niki-cole nikita-love nikita-rush nikki-charm nikki-grand nikki-king nikki-knight nikki-randall nikki-rhodes nikki-santana nikki-steele nikki-wilde niko nina-cherry nina-deponca nina-hartley nina-preta oana-efria obaya-roberts olesja-derevko olga-cabaeva olga-conti olga-pechova olga-petrova olivia-alize olivia-del-rio olivia-flores olivia-la-roche olivia-outre ophelia-tozzi orchidea-keresztes orsolya-blonde paige-turner paisley-hunter pamela-bocchi pamela-jennings pamela-mann pamela-stanford pamela-stealt pandora paola-albini pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn sabrina-jade sabrina-johnson sabrina-love-cox sabrina-mastrolorenzi sabrina-rose sabrina-scott sabrina-summers sacha-davril sahara sahara-sands sai-tai-tiger samantha-fox samantha-ryan samantha-sterlyng samantha-strong samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco sandra-kalermen sandra-russo sandy-lee sandy-pinney sandy-reed sandy-samuel sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills sarah-shine sara-sloane sasha sasha-hollander sasha-ligaya sasha-rose satine-phoenix satin-summer savannah-stern savanna-jane scarlet-scarleau scarlet-windsor seka selena serena serena-south severine-amoux shana-evans shanna-mccullough shannon-kelly shannon-rush shantell-day sharon-da-vale sharon-kane sharon-mitchell shaun-michelle shawna-sexton shawnee-cates shay-hendrix shayne-ryder sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin shelly-lyons sheri-st-clair sheyla-cats shonna-lynn shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white tammy tammy-lee tammy-reynolds tania-lorenzo tantala-ray tanya-danielle tanya-fox tanya-foxx tanya-lawson tanya-valis tara-aire tasha-voux tatjana-belousova tatjana-skomorokhova tawnee-lee tawny-pearl tayla-rox taylor-wane teddi-austin teddi-barrett tera-bond tera-heart tera-joy teresa-may teresa-orlowski teri-diver teri-weigel terri-dolan terri-hall tess-ferre tess-newheart thais-vieira tia-cherry tianna tiara tiffany-blake tiffany-clark tiffany-duponte tiffany-rayne tiffany-rousso tiffany-storm tiffany-towers tiffany-tyler tiger-lily tigr timea-vagvoelgyi tina-blair tina-burner tina-evil tina-gabriel tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose tonisha-mills topsy-curvey tori-secrets tori-sinclair tori-welles tracey-adams traci-lords traci-topps traci-winn tracy-duzit tracy-love tracy-williams tricia-devereaux tricia-yen trinity-loren trisha-rey trista-post trixie-tyler ultramax ursula-gaussmann ursula-moore uschi-karnat valentina valerie-leveau valery-hilton vanessa-chase vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville velvet-summers veri-knotty veronica-dol veronica-hart veronica-hill veronica-rayne veronica-sage veronika-vanoza via-paxton vicky-lindsay vicky-vicci victoria-evans victoria-gold victoria-knight victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok viper virginie-caprice vivian-valentine vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears whitney-wonders wonder-tracey wow-nikki xanthia-berstein yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies




Achim Schmidtchen the Obergruppenfhrer Adam Pawlikowski Don Pedro Uzeda Adele DeGarde At Laundry Adolf Manz Brgermeister Aeschbacher Mayor Aeschbacher Adolph Lestina Bethulian Adrian Hoven Herr Mller ihr Mann Adriana Roel Alicia Aileen Manning Aunt Cynthia Whitney Akim Tamiroff Spyros Acebos Al Ernest Garcia his butler credited Allan Garcia Al Shean Simeon Hamburgher Al St John Hiram Perkins' son Alan Curtis Driver Alan Hoskins Jan Agnes Neilson Alan Mowbray Captain Christopher Brent Alan Winnington chief of the reconnaissance Albert Austin street sweeper burglar Albert Conti producer Albert Gran Duke Travina Albertina R ch Dancers Aleksander Fogiel Macko z Bogdanca Aleksander Sewruk Lawyer Alexa von Porembsky Wirtin Gumpers Alexander Allerson Hans von Gluck Alexander Gray Otto Stirner Alfred Allen Silent Jake Alfred Lucca Gerber Alfred Mller Wolfgang Langhoff Alfred Neugebauer Josef Greiner Alfred Paget Bethulian syrian Soldier Alfred R ser Leblanc Kchenchef Alfred Struwe Bellini Alice Day Barbara Elsa's granddaughter Alison Skipworth Emily La Rue Allen Jenkins Jake Edgall Sadie's dimwitted plumber boyfriend Allen Pomeroy Tom Reed a Boxer Althea Gibson Lukey Miss Hunter's maid Amelia Summerville Olive Connal Anatol Kobylinski Un contrebandier Anders Randolf William Vandermuellen Andr Versini Le marquis d'Ulrich Andrew Dillon John Jacob tor Andrzej Szalawski Jurand ze Spychowa Angie Dickinson Beatrice Ocean Anita Hendrie Jessie Marshall Anita Hfer Hanna Lauretz Ann Dere Matron Anna Lee Mrs Buford Anna Q Nilsson Mrs Michael Ramsay Anna Townsend Harry's Mother credited Mrs Townsend Anne Schaefer Martha Meilke Annekathrin Brger Eileen Anneliese Betschart Bach Buerin Anne Marie Blanc Frau von Richenau Annemarie Dringer Luise Mller Anne Marie Hanschke Frulein Reuter Annie Rosar Lilli Schneiders Mutter Anthony O'Sullivan Trapper Antonina Girycz Ewa Antonio Moreno Dantan Antrim Short Tommy Arkadiusz Bazak Marian Armin Schweizer Gottlieb Ellenberger Arnold Marl Joseph Arnold Mdespacher Art Acord Alice Brady Arthur Donaldson Sir Henry Brandon Arthur Earle Mr Stull Arthur Forrest Cardinal Wolsey Arthur Hoyt Mr Cuddleton Arthur Jurado Angel Arthur Lake Boy Throwing Roses Arthur Rankin Tommy Corbin Arthur Treacher Sir Harry Arthur V Johnson Jack Stanford Artur Mlodnicki Le sergent Arturo de Crdova Mario Athole Shearer Extra Barbara Adolph Greta Kuckhoff Barbara Krafftwna Camilla de Tormez Barbara Polomska Zosia Barbara Sabin Little Girl Barbara Werle Charley Adams Barry Atwater George Dennison Bart Patton Kramer Barton MacLane Pinkerton Agent Clyde O'Connell B il Ruysdael the Reverend Jefferson Military Academy Beata Tyszkiewicz Donna Rebecca Uzeda Bela Lugosi Count von Ratz Hungarian Amb sador Ben Alexander Bill Stanton Ben Horning Maud's Father Ben Turpin Banana Peel Victim Bernard Berger Lew Fields Bert Lytell Arthur Tovey Bert Roach Gus S cher Bertha Danegger Mutter Aeschbacher Mother Aeschbacher Berton Churchill Mr Yates Bess Flowers Dance Extra Bessie Barriscale Lillian Henry Betsy Ann Hisle Little Girl Betty Compson Bessie Love Beulah Bondi Madame Letizia Billie Dove Lottie Callahan Lurline Cavanaugh Billy Armstrong Dying Man's Nurse Biltmore Trio Trio in Nightclub singing Here We Are Bing Crosby Bill 'Billy' Williams Bing Russell Dunker Yankee Soldier Amputee Blanche Sweet Judith Bob Burns Cowhand Bob Kortman 'Hawk' Decker Bob Reeves Lynch Mob Member Bob Steele Bebe Daniels Bobby Watson Jack Thompson the Press Agent Bodil Rosing Widow Gorman Bogumil Kobiela Lt Dabecki Bogumil Kobiela Senor Toledo Boleslaw Abart Driver Sosin Boy Gobert Chief of Police Mller II Boyce Combe Hobart Bozena Kurowska Buck Connors Bradley Barker Eve's Admirer Brian Keith Harry Connerly Brigitte Ratz Brigitte Schneider Buck Black Young Teddy Roosevelt Bud Jamison Contractor Bud Osborne Henchman Buddy Lester Vince M sler Buddy Smith Dirk de Rhonde a child Bum Krger Stefan Walicki Burton McEvilly Alexander Hamilton Buzz Barton Six Bits C Aubrey Smith Bishop James Northcott Cactus Mack Lynch Mob Member Carl 'Major' Roup Extra Carl Miller Bulmer Meade Carleton Young Col Jonathan Miles CSA Carlyle Blackwell Oswald Grismer Carmel Myers Ir Carmencita Johnson Baby Carrie Daumery Chaperon Cecil Cunningham friend of Emily La Rue Cesar Romero Duke Santos Cezary Julski Zawisza Czarny Chariklia Baxevanos Hertha Engelberger Charles Arling Charles Avery Man at Brothel Charles Belcher Balthazar Charles Clary Mr Calhoun Charles Giblyn Dennison Charles Hill Mailes Bethulian Soldier Charles Inslee The Professor Party Guest Charles Jackson Johnny a boy ?Charles R Jackson Charles K Gerrard Sir Adam Judson Charles Kennedy Reilly Charles King Henchman Duke Rollins Charles Lane John Cleland Charles Laughton Phine V Lambert Charles McHugh Shamus O'Tandy Charles Murray M Balmer Undertaker Charles Newton Carlo Bertozza Charles Peyton Butler Charles Regnier Gregor Palinin Charles Reisner Howard Huntington ali Nitro Nick ali Picking Pete Charles Ruggles Senator Henry Ruggles Charles Stevens Lieutenant Charles Teske a Dancer Charles West Young Father Chet Ryan Ivan the Cossack Chick Morrison Christian Rub Chip Carson Telegraph Operator Chris Robinson Patcher Christian Wolff Nikl Lauretz Christine Kaufmann Sylvia Lauretz Chuck Hayward Captain Winters Claire McDowell Maude Jones Clara Blandick Aunt Ellen Patterson Clara T Bracy Bethulian Clarence Burton Cave Man Clarence Geldart James Kilkenna Clark Comstock Indian Chief Clark Gable Reverend John Hartley Clark Marshall Don Alvarez Claude Carliez Un aristocrate Claude Payton Jesus Christ Claude Rains Napoleon Bonaparte Claus Wilcke Henry Scherz Clem Harvey Louis Jackson Cliff Bowes Dying Man Cliff Edwards Cliff Lyons Clyde Cook Dancer Colleen Moore Conrad Nagel Dirk de Rhonde Constance Beaumar Mathilda Bussard Constance Towers Miss Hannah Hunter of Greenbriar Conway Tearle Kerry Sarle Corinne Barker Helen Davis Courtenay Foote Robert Fulton Coy Watson messenger boy Creighton Hale Prince Oscar D W Griffith Man on Footpath Dale Fuller Amrah Danny Sullivan Father McGowan credited Daniel J Sullivan David Landau Beef the circus manager who raised Polly David Miles The Robbery Victim Party Guest David Torrence Dr Frank MacDonald De Segurola De Segurola Dean Martin Sam Harmon Dean Riesner Little Boy Dell Henderson Pa Harrington Denver Pyle Jackie Jo rebel deserter Diane Baker Laura Travis Dick Clark Neil Hendry Dick La Reno Sheriff Dick Sutherland Ugly Mug Dietrich Krner de the 'rocket baron' Wernher von Braun Dirk Jungnickel Weatherford Ditta Oesch Tilly Odermatt Don Stewart Donny Davis Donald Crisp At Frazier House Bushwacker Donald Ogden Stewart Skylar Van Dyke Horace Patterson Donna Kee John Ewing Doris Dawson The Girl Doris Lloyd Mrs Julia Webb Dorothy Dalton Dorothy Wood Dorothy Davenport Indian Dorothy Gish The crippled beggar Dorothy Green Princess Naia Dorothy Hammerstein Socialite next to Elsa in theatre box Dorothy Tree Ellen's Mother Dorothy Vernon comedy player at banquet Dorothy West Jenny Baker Doug McClure Jim Charles Brinley Dougl Fairbanks Gerald Dougl Gerrard Lord Lovelace Dougl Kennedy Frank James Dougl Stevenson Captain Mowbrary Dougl s Dumbrille Murchenson Dougl s Montgomery Avery Rarick Kent Dougl s Downing Clarke Lord Chamberlain Duane Eddy and the Rebels Themselves Duke R Lee Slim E Alyn Warren General Ulysses S Grant E E Clive Charles Chuck Fendwick Eagle Eye Yaqui Indian Chief Earl Schenck Joeffrey Vandermuellen Eberhard Esche Kurt Schumacher Ed C sidy Greg Walters Eddie Baker Mr Feniweather Eddie Bartell Radio Rogue Eddie Sturgis 'Parson' Smalley Edgar Kennedy An Innocent Bystander Edgar Norton Bolton The Second Butler Edith Haldeman Indian Child Edith Lyle Fairy Tale Queen Edith Schultze Westrum Mutter Lauretz Edith Shayne Mrs Vandermuellen Edith Shearer Extra Edmund Fetting Rowicki Edna Purviance Miss Brown Edna Thom Mexican Woman Eduardo Fajardo Viceroy Edward Burns credited Ed Burns Edward Dillon Confederate Soldier Edward Dougl Lord Andrew's Edward Dziewonski Dzidzius Edward Everett Horton Senator John Hathaway Edward O'Connor Jeremiah Madden Edwin Argus Louis XVI Edythe Chapman Elisabeth Lauber Edythe Sterling Molly credited Edith Sterling Egon von Jordan Dr Haberer Rechtsanwalt Eleanor Lawson Mrs O'Tandy Eleanor Middleton Bridget Eli z Kuziemski Bien's lawyer Elinor Fair Ruth Garland Elisha Cook Jr Carvey Elizabeth Janes His Child Ellen Widmann An t ia Witschi Elliott Dexter Prof Nathan Reade Elliott Nugent Gordon Smith Elmer Grandin John Bussard Eloise Clement Mrs Durand Else Btticher Frau Rainer Elmo Lincoln Elsie Ferguson Elzbieta Czyzewska Donna Fr quetta Salero Emil Hoch Steward Emil Karewicz King Wladyslaw Jagiello mile Chautard Pre Joseph Emily Fitzroy Jane Appleby Emmet Foy Male flapper Enrique Garca lvarez Member of the Inquisition Enrique Lucero Death Erica Beer Emil Gerber Erna Sellmer Anna Kchin Ernest Glendinning Sir Edwin C koden Ernie Adams Warren the Jewel Cutter Ernst Fritz Frbringer Prof Altmann Erwin Kohlund Peter H ler Estelle Clark Sadie Etienne Girardot Monsieur Du Fresne Etna Ross Steve a child Eulalie Jensen Mrs Power Eva Calvo Cliente de p telera Eva Campbell Dolly Vernon Evelyn Selbie Miss Witherspoon Everett Sloane Dr Brock Ewa Ciepiela Helena Ewa Wisniewska Hanka Fifi D'Orsay Lili Yvonne Flora Finch Mary Willoughby Florence Auer Juanita Florence Gill Annie The Cleaning Lady Florence La Badie Undetermined Role Florence Lawrence Ruth Simonson Florence Lee Mrs Oaks Florence Turner Maid Forrest Robinson Kramer Forrest Stanley Charles Brandon Francelia Billington Maud Frances Dee Mary Wallace Francis Ford Brown Bear Francis J Grandon Indian Medicine Man Francis X Bushman Messala Franciszek Pieczka Pacheco Frank Brownlee Bill Frank Campeau Spanish Joe Frank Currier Lambert de Rhonde Frank Evans Bethulian Soldier Frank Hayes Mabel's father Frank Jenks Deputy Tom Frank M Thom Dr Charles M on Frank McHugh Edward Olson Frank Opperman The Indian Chief Frank R Mills Bert Werden Frank Shannon Sir John Mansfield Frank Wilcox Gov Crittenden of Missouri Franklin Pangborn Vincent Leach Fred Gamble Innkeeper Fred Gambold Fred Hearn William Kemp Fred Lenox Butler Fred Scott Larry Dixon Singing Movie Cowboy Fred Solm Andr Robert C tle Freddie Burke Frederick Otto Stirner Jr Frederick Burton Amos Bussard Fredrick R Clark Alonzo Freddie's suave African American butler Fritz Diez Franklyn Hanna Fritz Heller Herr Kraus Fritz Links Aldington Fuzzy Knight Private Sweeney Stuart's groom G Raymond Nye Val Heywood Gabriele M cher Holzwurm Galina Polskikh Jadwiga Gene Raymond John Wallace Gene Stone Herbert Geoffrey Holder Sailor George Barraud Henry Brevoort George Bell Deputy George Bunny Tony P tor George Connors Tom Fleming George Cooper Mr Brandes George Davis Perkins George Fawcett Mr Simpkins George Field Minister to Moravia George Fitzmaurice Christy Cabanne George Gebhardt Simon Bimberg George Harris Joe Weber George Hupp Howard a Child George Irving President Thom Jefferson George K Arthur Mr whipple George Le Guere Johnny a young man George Melford George Kuwa George N h Lord Howe George Nichols Doctor Van Brum George Raft Eddie Jackson George Siegmann Black Bart George Spink Meade's Butler Georges Aubert Father Mollard Georges Rouquier Voltaire Gerd Funk Parker Gerd Michael Henneberg Albert Speer Gerhard Kempinski President Gerry Wolff Newman Gert Frbe Jon Lauretz Gertrude Bambrick Lead syrian Dancer Gertrude Robinson Indian Gertrude Short Bubbles Gil Baladou Le mnestrel Gilbert Rooney Male flapper Gino Corrado Lt Br chek Gladden James 'Inky' Ames Gladys Egan Dollie Glen Cavender I Landem Realtor Gojko Mitic Tecumseh Gordon Dooley Doll in charade scene Gordon Griffith Cecil a Child Graciela Doring Empleada de p telera Grant Withers Sheriff Steve Oliver Grazyna Staniszewska Danusia Jurandwna Grete Reinwald Blinde Frau Gudrun Thielemann Garbo Guillermo Orea Fotgrafo Guinn Big Boy Williams Richard Berney Guinn Williams Eric Alvarez Gnther Simon John Sieg Gus Edwards Gwen Lee Gus Saville J e Meilk Gustav von Seyffertitz Oliver de Daim Gustaw Holoubek Don Pedro Vel quez Gusti Wolf Hilde Wirtin und falsche Braut Guy Coombs Follower of Buckingham Guy Madison Steve Burden Gypsy O'Brien Ariana du Puyster Hallam Cooley Henry Garrison Halliwell Hobbes Larkin The Butler Hank Henry Mr Kelly the mortician Hank Mann a prizefighter Hank Worden Deacon Clump Hannjo H se guest in the American Emb sy Hans Kaes Polizist Murmann Police officer Murmann Hans Moser Professor Karl Stieglitz Hans Peter Pieper Crane Harlan Knight Theodore Larkin Harrison Ford Charles Fownes Harry Baer Helfritz Harry Benham Harry Twombly Harry Carey syrian Traitor Harry Crocker Pennington Fish Harry Gribbon Jim comedy director Harry Hyde Bethulian Soldier syrian Soldier Harry Jans Jess Henchman Harry L Rattenberry Grant Young credited Harry Rattenbury Harry Langdon Harry Van Housen Harry Myers an eccentric millionaire Harry Pietzsch Walter Kchenmeister Harry Schumm Harry Jackson Harry Shannon Clay Ford Harry Solter First Villain Harry Watson Bully Boy Brewster Harry Woods Traffic Cop Hattie Delaro Mrs Meredith Hedda Hopper Mrs Caldwell Hedda Nova Princess Olga Muratoft Heenan Elliott Mr Morley Heinrich Gretler Amtmann Bonatsch Heinrich Gretler Friedrich Odermatt Heinrich Narenta Heinrich Himmler Heinz Lausch Henry Heinz Rhmann Dr Felix Schneider Heinz Woester Konsul Rainer Heinz Leo Fischer Helen Gibson Billy Louise Helen Jerome Eddy Susan Throssel Helen Lee Worthing Mrs Loring Helen Lindroth Mrs Winthrop Helen Vita Frulein Lthi Telefonistin Helena Dabrowska Train Controller Hlne Dalmet Madame Montavon Helmut Schreiber Colonel Procter Henry Armetta Taxi Driver Henry B Walthall Cal Yates Henry Bergman Sheriff on Train Man in Railroad Station Henry Brandon Jesse James Henry Lehrman Union Soldier Henry Silva Roger Corneal Henry Stephenson Charles Patterson Henry Taylor Radio Rogue Henry Wadsworth Captain John Pelham Henryk Bak Lt Krygier Henryk Borowski Zygfryd de Lwe Herbert Kfer Mac Herbert Yost Barry O'Moore Confederate Soldier Union Soldier Hilda Vaughn Alice Peabody Hilde Berndt Lilli Schneider Hilde Krber Lehrerin Hobart Bosworth The Sheriff Hobart Cavanaugh Joe Bonner Holbrook Blinn Juan Fernndez Hoot Gibson V sily Ivan's Brother Horace James Gardener Horst Drinda Arvid Harnack Horst Giese Schrder Horst Schulze Adam Kuckhoff Hortensia Santovea Doctora Howard St John Ellen's Father Huntley Gordon Fairy Tale King Ian Hunter Anton Ian Keith Polini Ian Maclaren Campo B se Iga Cembrzynska Princess Emina Ignacio Lpez Tarso Albino Ignacy Machowski the Home Army Major Ignatz Himself Ida Tenbrook Ilka Ch e Mrs Restes Ilse Steppat Walicka Ingeborg Ottmann Marianne Irene Browne Mrs Chichester Irene Nathusius pfelchen Irene Rich Jenny Rarick Irm Hermann Emma Irma Mnch Mildred Harnack Isabelle Keith Franz' Rejected Girlfriend Ivor McFadden Buck Olney J Farrell MacDonald Patrick Shamus O'Connell J Frank Glendon Jack Lawford J Herbert Frank Ronald Kenna J Jiquel Lanoe Eunuch Attendant J Morris Foster Harry Beaufort credited Morris Foster J D Cannon Lester Danzig J M Kerrigan John O'Day Jack Connolly Ward Warren Jack Holt Howard Jack Hoxie White Elk Jack Huff Zander M ter Jack Huff Jack Mulhall Jimmy the Eel Jack Oakie Private Mulligan Jack Pennick Sgt Maj Mitch Mitchell Senior member of John Ford's Stock Company Jack Perrin Lynch Mob Member Jack Pratt Army Captain Jack Pratt Black Panther Jack Webb Norm Jack Woods Sheriff Buck Farley Jacques Tourneur Extra Jacqui Chan Toshi Jadwiga Krawczyk Donna Inez Moro Jakob Sulzer Otto Helbling James Bradbury Sr James Darren Himself James Gle on Cool Kelly James Gordon Carson Creswell a lawyer James Holmes Power's Man Saturn James Laffey Ship Captain James M on His Aide James Murray One of Tillie's Admirers in Restaurant Jan Machulski Count Pena Flor Jan Peszek Driver Bakalarzewicz Jane Winton Grace Harrington Janusz Klosinski Don Diego Salero Janusz Klosinski Nowak Janusz Paluszkiewicz Krokus a mechanic Javier Sols Vctor Jean Harlow extra in nightclub scene cut from film Jean Hersholt Herr Hofner Elsa's father Jean Howell Mrs Jesse James Jean Parker Eleanor Shackleford Jean Willes Gracie Bergdorf Jean Claude Dreyfus Zwerg Dwarf Jean Claude Dreyfuss Jeanie MacPherson Bank Customer Jean Paul Le Chanois Le confesseur de la baronne d'Escourt Jennie Lee Bethulian Jerzy Block Porter Kurek Jerzy Kozakiewicz Cztan z Rogowa Jerzy Kr owski Hans Jerzy Pichelski Powala of Taczew Jessy Rameik Sophie Sieg Jetta Goudal Simone Jim Corey Jack Benny Jimmy Bryant Henchman Jimmy Durante Jimmy Jimmy Hollywood Radio Rogue Jir Vrtala Professor Rahn Joachim Hansen Andre von Richenau Joan Barclay Molly Henderson Joanna Jedryka Zibelda Joaqun Cordero Csar Domnguez Joe Bordeaux Henchman Joe Ferrante Blacksmith Joe Schorn Round Head Joel McCrea Student Joey Bishop Mushy O'Connors John B O'Brien Marquis of Muckross John Charles Duc de Chavannes John Dierkes Chet John Elliott James Monroe John G Adolfi Ida May John Larkin Isham John Leyton Dr Dougl Rigby John Lowell Director John Mercator Colonel Briggs John Merkyl Robert Ames John P Wade Sir Robert Fennell John Patrick Express Agent John Powers Eve's Admirer John R Cumpson Mr Bibbs John T Dillon Trapper John Wayne Colonel John Marlowe Johnny Arthur Otho Peabody Johnny Dooley Will Sommers Johnny Mack Brown Bob Jolanta Umecka Krystyna Jolante Umecka Jos Glvez The Devil Jos Luis Jimnez God Joseph Burke Dr McNeil Joseph Cawthorn J Horace Freischutz Joseph Crehan Reed's Manager Joseph Hann Mr Kuan Second Mate Joseph Kilgour Theodore True Joseph Offenbach Knecht Jry Joseph W Girard Judge Cotton Josephine Crowell Orphanage Trustee Josephine Hill Edith Oaks Joyce Compton Marie Waitress Jzef Kostecki Lithuanian duke Witold Jzef Nowak helper of Orzechowski Judson Pratt Sergeant Major Kirby Julia Faye Eleanor Forbes Julia Hurley Fairy tale crone Julia Swayne Gordon Mrs de Rhonde Juliette Compton Ethel Chichester Julissa Lidia Johnny Judd June Elvidge Amy Tillson June Purcell Mary a Singer on the atage Jutta Wachowiak Libert Schulze Boysen Kalla P ha comic chef Kans Moehring Karin Lesch Elfriede Paul Karl Dane Capt Jacop Van Goop Karl Hackett Banker Steve Lynch Karl Malden Mitch Karl Supper Dr Rudd Kate Bruce At Lambert House Kate Price Patty Kate Toncray One of Judith's Servants Katharina Lind Oda Schottmller Katharine Alexander Pauline Cushman Operator Katherine MacDonald The Girl Kathleen Butler Bethulian Kathleen Key Tirzah Katy Jurado Maria Longworth Kay Deslys Skater Kazimierz Opalinski the Home Army commander of Mokotw Kazimierz Rudzki Lt Turek Kazimierz Talarczyk Olaf Peterson Kazimierz Wilamowski Ken Curtis Cpl Wilkie Ken Maynard Paul Revere Kim Hunter Stella Kit Wain Pe ant boy Kitty Bradbury Mrs Brown Kitty de Hoyos Sonia Klaus Lwitsch Jude Broker Klaus Piontek Harro Schulze Boysen Krzysztof Litwin Don Lopez Soarez L Rogers Lytton George Blair Larry Duran Chico Modesto Lawrence Gray Billy Caldwell Leatrice Joy Kid Wagner Lee Beggs Benjamin Franklin Lee Beranger Leslie Leo D Maloney Sandy Sands Leo White Sanballat Leon Errol Innkeeper Leon Gordon Clinton Dewitt Leon Niemczyk Vincente Dougl Leopold R Nowak Un contrebandier Leslie Howard Berry Rhodes Lester Vail Roger Baldwin Leszek Drogosz Stefan Jaksonek Lew Gallo Jealous Young Man Lew Meehan Rockin U Cowhand Lew Liliane Yvernault Arlette Lillian Elliott Mrs McNamara a friend of the Hartleys Lillian Gish The young mother Lillian Langdon Mary's Monther Lillian Lawrence comedy player at banquet Lillian Leighton Housekeeper Linda Arvidson Daisy Harcourt Linda Watkins Frances McCalla Lionel Adams Thom Jefferson Lionel Belmore Adolph Van Housen Little Billy Rhodes Half Pint Lon Chaney Bud an oil prospector Lorne Greene Rice Martin Lotte Lang Marie Dienstmdchen Lou Costello Extra Louis Wolheim The Hoboken Terror Louise Carter Ma Callahan Louise Emmons Faggot Carrier Louise Fazenda Abigail Belldon Loyal Underwood Small Deacon Luciano Simioni David Lucien Littlefield Zeb Hamburger Stand Owner Lucyna Winnicka Marta Luella Gear Julie Dewitt Luis Lomel Carlos Luk Ammann Lila Lee Luke the Dog himself Lydia Knott Aunt Sarah Lydia Yeamans Titus Jane Lyle Latell Policeman Lyle Talbot Slattery Lyn Harding Charles the Bold Duke of Burgundy Lys sia Schlager Sngerin Lyubov Sokolova postman Lyudmila Ivanova Nadezhda Lyudmila K atkina Zinaida Grigorievna Vorobyova Mabel Normand Mabel Macey Harlam Duc de Longueville Maciej Rayzacher Wanata Mack Sennett Customer In Bookstore Doctor Mack Swain Deacon Jones Mack V Wright Macklyn Arbuckle Squire Meredith Maclyn Arbuckle Bishop La Balue Madeleine Carroll Magda Madeline Marshall Lady Diana Mannister Madeline West Gypsy's wife Madge Hunt Mrs Adolph van Housen Mae Marsh Naomi Mae Murray Mugsy Mulane Mahlon Hamilton W hington Irving Mai Wells Idylwood Resident Manfred Karge Hans Coppi Marc Lawrence Mr Jacobs First Mate Marcelle Corday Henrietta Turnbull Marcia Ralston Camille Lansing Marco Antonio Muiz Bruno Marga Lpez Olga Margaret Callahan Sally M on Margaret Seddon Nancy Willoughby Margarete Haagen Adelheid Margarete Hoff Maria Margarete Slezak Rosi Stieglitz Margarita Cordova Nika Flamenco Dancer Margrit Rainer Hilde Staub Telefonistin Margrit Weiler Kunigunde Meier Marie Burke Mrs Schuyler Marie Dressler Ma Harrington Marie Prevost Annie Ostrom Marin Sais Silver Waters Marina Ried Sylvia Mario Alberto Rodrguez Don Ramiro Marion Davies Prudence Cole Marion Leonard Wedding Guest Marion Sunshine Guest Marjorie Gateson Mrs Shackleford Mark Dignam Sir John Mark Hamilton Conductor Marshall Neilan Marilu Marini Martha Mattox Aunt Elizabeth Whitney Martin Faust Count Galli Mary tor Gladys Russell Mary Boland Mrs Peabody Mary Duncan Muriel Preston Mary Forbes Mrs Fish Pennington's Mother Mary Gordon Minor Role Mary Kennedy Antoinette C tleman Mary McAllister Lucy Cavanaugh Mary Miles Minter Mary Richards Mrs Brooks her mother Mary Thurman Mrs Croaker The Doctor's Wife Mary Treen Employment Clerk Marylu Poolman Elisabeth Schumacher Mathilde Danegger Frau Hofmann Matt Moore Bud H kell Matthew Betz Red Hawkins Maude Eburne Mrs Jennings Maude Lowe Maid Maude Turner Gordon Mrs Leigh Maura Monti Csar's blonde lover Max Barwyn Saranoff Max Haufler Frederick Max Haufler Hunziker Oberheizer Max Knapp Fritz Gubler Maximilian Schell Captain Chris Hanson Maxine Jennings Billings's Secretary May McAvoy Esther May Robson Mrs Mary Walker May Vokes Susie Maya Levare Maya Michael Callan Griff Rimer Michael McKeag Roger Michael Rennie Rudolph Michal Gazda pl P senger Flirting with Lawyer's Wife Mickey Kuhn sailor Midori Arimoto Midori Mieczyslaw Kalenik Zbyszko z Bogdanca Mieczyslaw Voit Kuno von Lichtenstein Mikhail Ulyanov General Alexander Gorbatov Milan Beli Raffael Millard K Wilson Jim Calvert credited M K Wilson Milt Dougl Bill Jones a Stage Performer Milton Sills Michael Ramsay Min Johnson At Laundry Mincho Nikolov Red Hawk Minja Vojvodic Black Eagle Mriam Coln Redhead Miroslawa Lombardo Van Worden's mother Mitchell Lewis Sheik Ilderim Molly Malone Molly Young Monroe Salisbury Mary's Cousin Morris Ankrum Wheeler Murdock MacQuarrie Martin Shaler Myrna Dell Ruth Hampton Myron Healey Cole Younger Nadja Tiller Olga Fellmeier Nanine Wright Mrs John Brant Natalia Szymanska wife of Orzechowski Natalie Warfield Nautauka Ned Sparks Mr Bert Conroy Director Nelson McDowell Wild Horse Henderson Niall Macginnis Harbor M ter David Nick Dennis Pablo Nicolai Koesberg Lafayette Nigel Barrie Philip Romilly Nigel de Brulier Simonides Nils ther Andre Nina Quartero Maria Credaro Nita Naldi Mary Gish Noble Johnson Trovio Valdez Norma Shearer Extra Norman Fell Peter Rheimer Norman Kerry Jim Neeland Norval Keedwell Fitz Greene Halleck O Z Whitehead Otis 'Hoppy' Hopkins medical sistant Oleg Vidov Elliot Olin Howland Philemon Onslow Stevens Sir Gerald Markham Ormi Hawley Anitra St Clair Orville Caldwell Tony Anderson Oscar Apfel Major Oscar Shaw Stagg Otto Lederer Colonel Bormsk Otto Zehnder Walter Emilies Sohn Owen Moore Rich Patron Pat Harmon studio Gateman Pat O'Brien Daniel Click Wiley Pat Wing Little Girl Patrice Wymore Adele Elkstrom Patricia Palmer Countess Irsky Patsy Kelly Jill Barker Paul Albert Krumm Paul Paul Henckels Dr Gutknecht Paul Hurst Chris Doble Paul McAllister Jules d'Humbercourt Paul Panzer Captain of the Guard Paul Ralli Andre Telfair Paul Weigel Man in Vienna opera box Paulette Duval Carlotta Pauline Garon Mathilda Ramsay Pedro de Cordoba Duke of Buckingham Peg Hilli Eunice Peggie C tle Paula Collins Peggy Parr The Fiance Pepi Lederer Peppy Percy Ames Lord Andrew Gordon Pert Kelton Toddy Williams Pete Morrison Sheriff Pete Larkin Peter Doherty squadron commander Peter Kowalski Peter Travis Peter Lawford Jimmy Foster Peter Sturm Krapotschkin Philip Ahn Uncle Philip Coolidge Mr Rimer Philipp Lothar Mayring Baron von Renner Franz' father Pina Pellicer Irma Polly Moran Peggy's maid Ralph Byrd Pilot Ralph Forbes John hley Ralph Graves Maximillian of Styria Ralph Kellard Jim Cleland Ramon Novarro Ben Hur Ramn Valds Juan mesero Ral Gimenez Adrian Ray Cooke director's sistant Ray Mayer Henchman Ray Milland Geoffrey Trent Ray Teal Barney Raymond Bloomer Jack Bronson Raymond Hackett Willie Parker Raymond Hatton Downey Hartley's servant Reed Howes Bart Hunter Reginald Barker Perry Murdock Reginald Barlow Power's Man Friday Reimar Baur John Dr Kummerow Renata Vanni Juanita Renate Blume Ingrid Renate Feuereisen Rsli Hausmdchen Ricardo Fuentes Dibujante Richard Bennett John Glidden Richard Carle Mr Pepper Richard Conte Tony Bergdorf Richard Cummings John Barrett Richard Erdman Leo Richard Garrick Doctor Richard H Cutting Gen William Tecumseh Sherman Riley Hatch Philip Schuyler Rita Liechti Serviertochter Robert Ames Soapy Robert Bichler Erwin Schlumpf Robert Bradbury Baron Kovsky credited Ronald Bradbury Robert Brower Hugo Kermaier Robert Burton Sheriff Hacker Robert Dunbar Alec Werden Robert Foulk Sheriff Wimmer Robert G Vignola Robert Gordon Johnny Brant Robert Greig Jarvis the butler Robert Harron Nathan Robert McWade Colonel Sharpe Robert Middlem s Mr George Cafe Proprietor Robert Montgomery Freddie Matthews Robert Paige Ronny Cauldwell credited David Carlyle Robert Parrish newsboy Robert Trsch Armin Witschi Robert Vaughn Bob Ford Robert Vivian Chilsmer Grismer Roberta Shore Ricky Summers Rob't Hall Guard spelled Robert in opening credits Rodolfo Acosta Mexican Rurale Captain Roger Williams Rockin U Cowhand Johnnie Roland Glowacki pl Murderer Rolf Ripperger Barry Rolf Rmer Col Simon McKew Rolfe Sedan portrait photographer Roman Klosowski Szpakowski Ron Hagerthy Bugler Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle Fatty Roscoe Karns Aloysius K Reilly Rossano Brazzi Giovanni Borghese Roy Applegate Sir Karl Pitti Roy D'Arcy General Marlanax Ruby Lafayette Grandma Rudolf Bernhard Schwomm Rudolf Bernhard Ren Gengenbach Rudolf Forster Maler Matthi Rudolf Ulrich O'Brian Rudolph Valentino Marjorie Daw Rudy Bond John Rodman Rupert Julian Cecil Russ Powell Herr Schultz Russell Hardie Lieutenant Gus Littledale Russell Hopton Sheriff Arthur Billings Russell Simpson Acting Sheriff Henry Goodbody Ruth Donnelly Aunt Mimi Ruth Fischer Pariser Freundin Ruth Selwyn Mitzi Ruth Shepley Lady Jane Bolingbroke Ryszard Kotys Mechanic Bulaga Ryszarda Hanin Halina Trushinska Sal Mineo Leoncavallo Borghese Sally Eilers Skater Sally Starr Angela Forbes Sam Gilman Harvey Johnson Sam Hardy Cornelius Vanderbilt Sam McDaniel R putin the Train Porter Sammy Davis Jr Josh Howard Sammy White singer in Coney Island Samuel S Hinds Officer Price Sarah Padden Ma McClune Schaggi Streuli Buol Prsident eines Sportvereins Schaggi Streuli Gustav Hannart Scott Kolk Lieutenant Frane Scotty Mattraw Cook Seena Owen Mary Sidney Franklin Shirley Mitchell Mrs Summers Sid Grauman Robert Rogalski Sidney Blackmer Steve Sidney Bracey dramatic director Sidney Toler Major Allan Pinkerton Siegfried Weiss Wilhelm Canaris Sigfrit Steiner Gloor Buchhalter Sigfrit Steiner Untersuchungsricher Steffen Examining magistrate Steffen Slawomir Lindner Van Worden's father Slim Pickens Lon Dedrick Snitz Edwards Caesar Rinkle Spencer Charters Squire Hennion Stan Jones Gen Ulysses S Grant Stanislav Ledinek Kster Stanislaw Bareja a Home Army soldier Stanislaw Igar Don G par Soarez Stanislaw Jaworski Franek a friend of Orzechowski Stanley Blystone Jailer Steffen Klaus Colpi Stephen Carr Patrick O'Day Stephen McNally Victor 'Vic' Rodell Stephen Talbot Eric Steve Clemente Pedro the Foreman credited Steve Clement Strother Martin Virgil rebel deserter Stuart Erwin Ernest Pratt Baker Picture Producer Sumi Haru Sumi Sydney Chaplin Eloper Train Conductor Little Boy's Father T Roy Barnes Adam Smith The Salesman Hero Tadeusz Bartosik Le gitan Marco Tadeusz Bialoszczynski Duke Janusz I of Warsaw Tadeusz Borowski Eugeniusz Trushinsky Gena Vorobyov Tadeusz Gwiazdowski Train Controller Tadeusz Lomnicki Grzegorz Walicki Tadeusz Lomnicki Lt Zawistowski Ted Healy Doctor Hitchcock Tenen Holtz c ting director Teresa Maxwell Conover Queen Catherine credited Theresa Maxwell Conover Teresa Szmigielwna Lawyer's Wife Teresa Wright Ellen Thea Talbot Sybil Thelma Hill Rose Thelma Percy Theodore Roberts Theo Lingen Paul Fellmeier Theodore Kosloff Monsieur Joromir King of Moravia Theodore Von Eltz Ramon Theresa Maxwell Conover Queen Margaret Thom Findley Antoinette's father Thom Jefferson Peter Thom Meighan The Brox Sisters Three Radio Rogues Group Performing Imitations Timothy Carey Howard Tetley Toby Wing Little Girl Tom Kennedy White Hopeless Tom Lewis James King Tom London credited Leonard Clapham Tom Moore Man in Office Wedding Guest Tom Murray Sheriff Bryan Tom Tyler Al Goss Tom Webb Farmer's Son Trevor Bardette Mitch Willis Truly Shattuck Lucy Hillary Tuesday Weld Ann Gregor Turner Savage Bill Sadie's Chubby Boy Tyrell Davis Alaric Chichester Tyrone Power Sr Lord Cornwallis Ulli Lommel Der kleine Prinz Little Prince Ullrich Haupt Hugo Elsa's rejected suitor Ursula Karusseit Hilde Coppi Urszula Modrzynska Jagienka ze Zgorzelic Valentina Telegina nurse in hospital Valerie French Fern Martin Vera Oelschlegel secretary Verner Clarges Union Officer Vester Pegg Ben Kent Victor Beaumont chief of British intelligence Victoria Shaw Joan Dietrich Victoria Young Kiko Violet Mersereau Willi Ackermann Virginia Cherrill a blind girl Virginia Farmer Nurse Robbins Virginia Sale Emma Stirner Vivienne Osborne Marie Cliff Vivienne Segal Elsa Hofner Vladimir Iv hov major W C Fields Rollo La Rue W C Robinson Bethulian Soldier W Chrystie Miller Grandfather at Farewell W Scott Moore Dougl Romilly W C Fields A British Sergeant W C Robinson Indian W W Bitner Zelaya Chief of the Gypsies Wade Boteler Officer G ton Walburga Gmr Frau Muffler Putzfrau Wallace McCutcheon Jr Wallace Reid Tom Grimes Walo Lnd Hotelpage Walter Catlett Jake Sherman Walter Janssen Wanda Hawley Walter Kingsford Monsieur Pichon Walter Law General Charles Lee Walter Long Operator Walter Pidgeon Franz von Renner Walter Reed Union officer Ward Crane French Secret Service Agent Warren Berlinger Buddy McCalla Warren Cook Earle of Mannister Wayland Tr k Dr Milton Croaker Undertaker's Neighbor Wedgwood Nowell Graham Henderson Wendell Holmes Principal Donlan Werner Buttler Gendarm Dieterli Werner Hahn Logan Werner Lierck Private First Cl s Draeger Wharton James Jim Garland Whitehorse John Oaks Wiktor Grotowicz Director Rozner Wilbur Higby Fowler Wilfred Luc Hugh Frazier Wilfred Noy Dr Joseph Warren Wilfried Pucher Ellis Willard Cooley Frank Raymond Willard Robertson Captain Cornelius Channing Willette Kershaw Mary Jeremiah's wife William A Carroll syrian Soldier William Carroll William B Davidson Dr Delamater William Boyd William Brotherhood Steward William C deMille Zoe Rae Maud William Collier Sr Pat Pop Walters William De Vaull De Rhonde's Butler William E Lowery Yaqui Indian Chief William Forrest Gen Steve Hurlburt William Haines Billy Boone William Henry Confederate lieutenant William Holden Charles Roger Forbes William J Butler Confederate Soldier William Kent King's tailor William Leslie Maj Richard Gray William McCall John Cavanaugh William Norris Uncle Horace William Orlamond Governor William Powell Francis I credited William H Powell William Steele The Foreman credited Bill Gettinger William Welsh Ben Hanfer Willis Bouchey Col Phil Secord Willy Frey Pfarrer Willy Fueter Bernard Benny Willy Maertens Hausmeister Wagner Winter Hall Joseph Witold Pyrkosz Inspector Witold Roszak Witold Skaruch Priest Wladyslaw Pawlowicz Un soldat Wojciech Siemion Lt Marianek Wolfgang Greese Governor William Harrison Wright King a collector Wyndham Standing Sir Fergus C sidy Wynne Gibson Violet Smith Xenia Prtner Gabriele Yvette Mitchell Conchita Zarli Carigiet Schreier Zarli Carigiet Luzi Caviezel Z u Pitts Gertie Zbigniew Cybulski Alfonse Van Worden Zbigniew Dobrzynski Tom z Zbigniew Wjcik Painter Zdzislaw Maklakiewicz Don Roque Busqueros Zofia Merle Draughtswoman Zosia Zygmunt Malanowicz Young Man Zygmunta Malanowicza Zygmunt Malawski pl Policeman Zygmunt Zintel P senger Suffering from Insomnia








three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities.[172] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. List of heads of state (since 1897) Korean Empire (1897 ~ 1910) Emperor Gojong 12 October 1897 ~ 20 July 1907 Emperor Sunjong 20 July 1907 ~ 29 August 1910 Republic of Korea (1948 ~) President Syngman Rhee 24 July 1948 ~ 26 April 1960 President Yun Posun 13 August 1960 ~ 23 March 1962 President Park Chung-hee 17 December 1963 ~ 26 October 1979 President Choi Kyu-hah 6 December 1979 ~ 16 August 1980 President Chun Doo-hwan 1 September 1980 ~ 24 February 1988 President Roh Tae-woo 25 February 1988 ~ 24 February 1993 President Kim Young-sam 25 February 1993 ~ 24 February 1998 President Kim Dae-jung 25 February 1998 ~ 24 February 2003 President Roh Moo-hyun 25 February 2003 ~ 24 February 2008 President Lee Myung-bak 25 February 2008 ~ 24 February 2013 President Park Geun-hye 25 February 2013 ~ 10 March 2017 President Moon Jae-in 10 May 2017 ~ The name "Korea" is written as it started from 1897. Demographics Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language.[173] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside.[174] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea.[175] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent.[176] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea.[177] Language Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Korea" news newspapers books scholar JSTOR (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. The classification of Korean is debated. Some linguists place it in the Altaic language family; others consider it to be a language isolate. Korean is agglutinative in its morphology and SOV in its syntax. Like Japanese and Vietnamese, Korean has borrowed much vocabulary from the Chinese or created vocabulary on Chinese models. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. While Hangul may appear logographic, it is actually a phonemic alphabet organised into syllabic blocks. Each block consists of at least two of the 24 hangul letters (jamo): at least one each of the 14 consonants and 10 vowels. Historically, the alphabet had several additional letters (see obsolete jamo). For a phonological description of the letters, see Korean phonology. Culture and arts Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture Korea is located in KoreaGoguryeo tombsGoguryeo tombsHistoric Monuments and Sites in KaesongHistoric Monuments and Sites in KaesongBaekje Historic AreasBaekje Historic AreasChangdeok Palace / Jongmyo ShrineChangdeok Palace / Jongmyo ShrineGyeongju Historic AreasGyeongju Historic AreasHaeinsaHaeinsaHahoeHahoeYangdongYangdongHwaseongHwaseongJejuJejuNamhansanseongNamhansanseongRoyal Tombs of the JoseonRoyal Tombs of the JoseonBulguksa and SeokguramBulguksa and SeokguramDolmen SitesDolmen SitesSansaSansa Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea.[178][179] Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Korean Buddhist architecture Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu) In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as "Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk" (????, ????) and "Eastern Nation of Decorum" (??????, ??????).[180] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year's Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year's Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person's stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Literature Main article: Korean literature Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called "Classical" or "Traditional." Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd century?bce, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Music Main article: Music of Korea Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times.[181] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old.[182] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Religion Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[183][184][185] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North.[186][187] According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%.[188] Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries.[189] Cuisine Main article: Korean cuisine See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Traditional Korean meal Bulgogi and side dishes Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means "mixed rice" (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles).[190][191] Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include "Choco Pie", shrimp crackers, "bbeongtwigi" (puffed rice grains), and "nurungji" (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Education Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Students are required to go to elementary and middle school, and do not have to pay for their education, except for a small fee called a "School Operation Support Fee" that differs from school to school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea's science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average.[192] South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent.[193][194] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Science and technology Main article: History of science and technology in Korea See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea's history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae (???, ???), a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra.[195] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 75051, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234.[196][6][197][198][9][4] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read.[199] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea's movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe's invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg's Printing press.[200] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology.[201] During the Joseon period, the Turtle Ship was invented, which were covered by a wooden deck and iron with thorns,[202][203][204] as well as other weapons such as the bigyeokjincheolloe cannon (?????, ?????) and the hwacha. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Sport Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do Main article: Taekwondo Taekwon-Do is Korea's most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido Main article: Hapkido Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum Main article: Ssireum Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea's Three Kingdoms Period (57?bce to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon Main article: Taekkyon Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Comparison of the two countries of Korea Indicator North Korea South Korea Capital Pyongyang Seoul Official languages Korean Official scripts Choson'gul Hangul Government Juche single-party state Representative democracy Formal declaration 9 September 1948 15 August 1948 Area 120,540 km2 100,210 km2 Population (2014/2013 est.) 24,851,627 50,219,669 GDP total (2011/2014 est.) $40 billion $1.755 trillion GDP/capita (2011/2014 est.) $1,800 $34,777 Currency Korean People's won (sign: ?, ISO: KPW) Korean Republic won (?, KRW) Calling code +850 +82 Internet TLD .kp .kr Drives on the right Active military personnel 1,106,000 639,000 Military expenditure (2010/2012) $10 billion $30 billion Notable public holidays in South Korea Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea Independence Movement Day, March 1st Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea's declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on March 1, 1919. The name is derived from Korean ? "sam" 'three', ? "il" 'one,' and ? "jeol" 'day', the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on August 29, 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On March 1, 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside March 1 as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Memorial day, June 6th Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. National Liberation Day, August 15th Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. Gwangbok means "returned





light" representing gaining national sovereignty from Japan. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day, October 9th Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997.[205] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil.[206][207][208][209] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn't have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people.[210] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization.[211] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. See also icon Geography portal icon Asia portal flag North Korea portal flag South Korea portal North KoreaSouth Korea relations Index of Korea-related articles Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea Inter-Korean summits Korean name List of people of Korean descent National Treasures of North Korea National Treasures of South Korea Korean natural farming Korean cuisine List of Korean inventions and discoveries Korean War compositional unit (an example is the distinctive four note figure used in his Fifth Symphony). Later Romantic composers such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonn Dvork, and Gustav Mahler used more unusual chords and more dissonance to create dramatic tension. They generated complex and often much longer musical works. During the late Romantic period, composers explored dramatic chromatic alterations of tonality, such as extended chords and altered chords, which created new sound "colours". Composers in the Romantic era increased the size of the orchestra by adding players and using new instruments, creating a more powerful sound. Some Wagnerian orchestras included multiple harps, massive string sections and Wagner tubas. 20th- and 21st-century music Jazz group consisting of double bassist Reggie Workman, tenor saxophone player Pharoah Sanders, and drummer Idris Muhammad, performing in 1978 In the 19th century, one of the key ways that new compositions became known to the public was by the sales of sheet music, which amateur music lovers would perform at home on their piano or other instruments. With 20th-century music, there was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music. In the 20th century, contemporary classical composers were also influenced by the African-American improvisation-based jazz music. The jazz influence can be seen in Third Stream music and in the compositions of Leonard Bernstein. The focus of art music was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th-century art music. Cage wrote compositions for traditional classical instruments and unusual sound-producing devices not normally thought of as instruments, such as radios. The invention of sound recording and the ability to edit music on tape gave rise to new subgenre of classical music, including the acousmatic[5] and Musique concrte schools of electronic composition, in which composers made pieces using reel-to-reel tape recorders and electronic equipment. Role of women Main articles: Women in music Composers, and List of female composers by birth date Nineteenth-century composer and pianist Clara Schumann In 1993, American musicologist Marcia Citron asked "[w]hy is music composed by women so marginal to the standard 'classical' repertoire?"[6] Citron "examines the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works." She argues that in the 1800s, women composers typically wrote art songs for performance in small recitals rather than symphonies intended for performance with an orchestra in a large hall, with the latter works being seen as the most important genre for composers; since women composers did not write many symphonies, they were deemed to be not notable as composers.[6] According to Abbey Philips, "women musicians have had a very difficult time breaking through and getting the credit they deserve."[7] During the Medieval eras, most of the art music was created for liturgical (religious) purposes The Korean War (in South Korean Korean: ????; Hanja: ????; RR: Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Korean: ??????; Hanja: ??????; MR: Choguk haebang chonjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 27 July 1953)[45][46][c] was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the support of the United Nations, principally from the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea.[48][49][50][51] At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States liberated Korea from imperial Japanese colonial control on 15 August 1945. After the war had ended, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel into two zones of occupation, the Soviets administered the northern half and the Americans administered the southern half. With the border set at the 38th parallel in 1948, two sovereign states were established as a result of geopolitical tensions of the Cold War (between the Soviet Union and the United States). A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military (Korean People's Army, KPA) forcessupported by the Soviet Union and Chinacrossed the border and advanced into South Korea on 25 June 1950.[52] The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation of the United Nations Command and the dispatch of forces to Korea[53] to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion.[54][55] Twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.[56] After the first two months of war, South Korean Army (ROKA) and the US forces rapidly dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat. As a result, the ROKA and US troops retreated to a small area behind a defensive line known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, and cut off many KPA troops in South Korea. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces invaded North Korea in October 1950 and moved rapidly towards the Yalu Riverthe border with Chinabut on 19 October 1950, Chinese forces of the People's Volunteer Army (PVA) crossed the Yalu and entered the war.[52] The surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces and Chinese forces were in South Korea by late December. In these and subsequent battles, Seoul was captured four times, and communist forces were pushed back to positions around the 38th parallel, close to where the war started. After this the front stabilized and the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, the war in the air, however, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive U.S. bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, and Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was ever signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict.[57][58] In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the DMZ[59] and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War.[60] The Korean War was among the most destructive conflicts of the modern era, with approximately 3 million war fatalities and a larger proportional civilian death toll than World War II or the Vietnam War. It incurred the destruction of virtually all of Korea's major cities, thousands of massacres by both sides (including the mass killing of tens of thousands of suspected communists by the South Korean government), and the torture and starvation of prisoners of war by the North Korean command. North Korea became among the most heavily-bombed countries in history. Contents 1 Names 2 Background 2.1 Imperial Japanese rule (19101945) 2.2 Korea divided (19451949) 2.3 Chinese Civil War (19451949) 2.4 Communist insurgency in South Korea (1948-1950) 2.5 Prelude to war (1950) 2.6 Comparison of forces 3 Course of the war 3.1 Factors in US intervention 3.2 United Nations Security Council Resolutions 3.3 United Nations' response (JulyAugust 1950) 3.4 The drive south and Pusan (JulySeptember 1950) 3.5 Battle of Inchon (September 1950) 3.6 Breakout from the Pusan Perimeter 3.7 UN forces invade North Korea (SeptemberOctober 1950) 3.8 China intervenes (OctoberDecember 1950) 3.9 Fighting around the 38th Parallel (JanuaryJune 1951) 3.10 Stalemate (July 1951 July 1953) 3.11 Armistice (July 1953 November 1954) 3.12 Division of Korea (1954present) 4 Characteristics 4.1 Casualties 4.1.1 Military 4.1.2 Civilian 4.2 US unpreparedness for war 4.3 Armored warfare 4.4 Naval warfare 4.5 Aerial warfare 4.6 Bombing of North Korea 4.7 US threat of atomic warfare 4.8 War crimes 4.8.1 Civilian deaths and massacres 4.8.2 Prisoners of war 4.8.2.1 Chinese POWs 4.8.2.2 UN Command POWs 4.8.3 Starvation 4.9 Recreation 5 Aftermath 6 See also 6.1 War memorials 7 Footnotes 8 Citations 9 References 10 External links 10.1 Historical 10.2 Media 10.3 Organizations 10.4 Memorials Names Korean War South Korean name Hangul ???? Hanja ???? Transcriptions North Korean name Choson'gul ?????? Hancha ?????? Transcriptions In South Korea, the war is usually referred to as "625" or the "625 Upheaval" (6.25 ?? (??), yook-i-o dongnan), reflecting the date of its commencement on 25 June.[61] In North Korea, the war is officially referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" (Choguk haebang chonjaeng) or alternatively the "Choson [Korean] War" (????, Choson chonjaeng).[62] In China, the war is officially called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea" (simplified Chinese: ??????; traditional Chinese: ??????; pinyin: Kngmei Yuncho Zhnzheng),[63][64] although the term "Chaoxian (Korean) War" (simplified Chinese: ????; traditional Chinese: ????; pinyin: Choxian Zhnzheng) is also used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hn (Korean)[d] War" (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: Hn Zhn) more commonly used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the US, the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.[65] It has been sometimes referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, relative to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, and the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it.[66][67] Background Imperial Japanese rule (19101945) Main article: Korea under Japanese rule Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War (189495), ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire.[68] A decade later, after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War (190405), Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905, then annexed it with the JapanKorea Annexation Treaty in 1910.[69] Many Korean nationalists fled the country. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, and had a fractious relationship with its US-based founding president, Syngman Rhee.[70] From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.[71][72] In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had also occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign (December 1941 August 1945). The communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Korea and Manchuria.[73] At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, China, the United Kingdom and the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent".[74] Korea divided (19451949) Main article: Division of Korea At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war on Japan on 9 August 1945, three days after the USA atomic bombing of Hiroshima.[72][75] By 10 August, the Red Army had begun to occupy the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.[76] On the night of 10 August in Washington, US Colonels Dean Rusk and Charles H. Bonesteel III were assigned with dividing the Korean Peninsula into Soviet and US occupation zones and proposed the 38th Parallel. This was incorporated into the US General Order No. 1 which responded to the Japanese surrender on 15 August. Explaining the choice of the 38th Parallel, Rusk observed, "even though it was further north than could be realistically reached by US forces, in the event of Soviet disagreement ... we felt it important to include the capital of Korea in the area of responsibility of American troops". He noted that he was "faced with the scarcity of US forces immediately available, and time and space factors, which would make it difficult to reach very far north, before Soviet troops could enter the area".[77] As Rusk's comments indicate, the US doubted whether the Soviet government would agree to this.[78][79][80][81] Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, however, maintained his wartime policy of co-operation, and on 16 August the Red Army halted at the 38th Parallel for three weeks to await the arrival of U.S. forces in the south.[76] On 8 September 1945, US Lieutenant General John R. Hodge arrived in Incheon to accept the Japanese surrender south of

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