December 13, 1909, and the Senate confirmed him by voice vote a week later. Lurton is still the oldest person to be made an associate justice.[l] Lurie suggested that Taft, already beset by the tariff and conservation controversies, desired to perform an official act which gave him pleasure, especially since he thought Lurton deserved it.[128] Justice David Josiah Brewer's death on March 28, 1910 gave Taft a second opportunity to fill a seat on the high court; he chose New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes. Taft told Hughes that should the chief justiceship fall vacant during his term, Hughes would be his likely choice for the center seat. The Senate quickly confirmed Hughes, but then Chief Justice Fuller died on July 4, 1910. Taft took five months to replace Fuller, and when he did, it was with Justice Edward Douglass White, who became the first associate justice to be promoted to chief justice.[m] According to Lurie, Taft, who still had hopes of being chief justice, may have been more willing to appoint an older man than he (White) than a younger one (Hughes), who might outlive him, as indeed Hughes did. To fill White's seat as associate justice, Taft appointed Willis Van Devanter of Wyoming, a federal appeals judge. By the time Taft nominated White and Van Devanter in December 1910, he had another seat to fill due to William Henry Moody's retirement because of illness; he named a Louisiana Democrat, Joseph R. Lamar, whom he had met while playing golf, and had subsequently learned had a good reputation as a judge.[129] With the death of Justice Harlan in October 1911, Taft got As of 2018, the world's "core" Jewish population, those identifying as Jews above all else, was 14.6 million. The "connected" Jewish population, including those who say they are partly Jewish or that have Jewish background from at least one Jewish parent, in addition to the core Jewish population, was 17.8 million. The "enlarged" Jewish population, including those who say they have Jewish background but not a Jewish parent, and all non-Jewish household members who live in households with Jews, in addition to the Jewish connected population, was 20.7 million. The Law of Return Jewish population, which counts all those eligible to immigration to Israel under its Law of Return, was 23.5 million.[1][2][3][4][5] Two countries, the United States (51%), and Israel (30%), including the West Bank (2%), account for 81% of those recognised as Jews and eligible for citizenship by Israel under its Law of Return. France (3%), Canada (3%), Russia (3%), United Kingdom (2%), Argentina (1%), Germany (1%), Ukraine (1%), Brazil (1%), Australia (1%) and Hungary (1%) hold an additional 16%, and the remaining 3% are spread around 98 other countries and territories with less than 0.5% each. With nearly 6.5 million Jews,[6] Israel is the only Jewish-majority and explicitly Jewish state. In 1939, the core Jewish population reached its historical peak of 17 million. Due to the Holocaust, the number was reduced to 11 million by 1945.[7][8][9] The population grew to around 13 million by the 1970s and then recorded near-zero growth until around 2005, due to low fertility rates and to assimilation.[8] From 2005 to 2018, the world's Jewish population grew on average 0.63% annually (while world population grew 1.1% annually in the same period).[1] This increase primarily reflected the rapid growth of Haredi and some Orthodox sectors, who are becoming a growing proportion of Jews.[10] Contents 1 Recent trends 1.1 Debate over United States numbers 2 By country 2.1 Table 2.2 Remnant and vanished populations 3 Major Jewish population centers worldwide 3.1 Jewish population by city 3.2 Jewish population by towns and villages as a percentage of total population 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links Recent trends Recent Jewish population dynamics are characterized by continued steady increase in the Israeli Jewish population and flat or declining numbers in other countries (the diaspora). The Jewish population of Israel increased from the country's inception in 1948 to 6,135,000 in 2014[11] while the population of the diaspora has dropped from 10.5 to 8.1 million over the same period.[4] Current Israeli Jewish demographics are characterized by a relatively high fertility rate of 3 children per woman and a stable age distribution.[12] The overall growth rate of Jews in Israel is 1.7% annually.[13] The diaspora countries, by contrast, have low Jewish birth rates, an increasingly elderly age composition, and a negative balance of people leaving Judaism versus those joining.[4] Immigration trends also favor Israel ahead of diaspora countries. The Jewish state has a positive immigration balance (called aliyah in Hebrew). Israel saw its Jewish numbers significantly buoyed by a million-strong wave of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s[14] and immigration growth has been steady in the low tens of thousands since then.[15] In the rest of the world, only the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany have had a positive recent Jewish migration balance outside of Israel. In general, the modern English-speaking world has seen an increase in its share of the diaspora since the Holocaust and the foundation of Israel, while historic Jewish populations in Eastern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East have significantly declined or disappeared.[16] France continues to be home to the world's third largest Jewish community, around 500,000,[17][18] but has shown an increasingly negative trend. Emigration loss to Israel amongst French Jews reached the tens of thousands between 2014 and 2017 following a wave of antisemitic attacks.[19][20] Debate over United States numbers The number of Jews in the United States has been the subject of much debate because of questions over counting methodology. In 2012, Sheskin and Dashefsky put forward a figure of 6.72 million based on a mixture of local surveys, informed local estimates, and US census data. They qualified their estimate with a concern


abby-lane abby-rode abigail-clayton ada-tauler addie-juniper addison-cain adele-wiesenthal adeline-lange adeline-pollicina adriana-amante adrianna-laurenti adrianna-russo agnes agnes-ardant agnes-zalontai aimee-addison aisha-sun aja aleena-ferari alessandra-schiavo aletta-ocean alexandra-nice alexandria-cass alexa-parks alex-dane alex-foxe alexia-knight alexis-devell alexis-firestone alexis-greco alexis-payne alexis-x alex-storm alex-white aliana-love alice-springs alicia-alighatti alicia-monet alicia-rio alicyn-sterling alighiera-olena ali-moore aline-santos alissa-ashley allysin-chaynes alysin-embers alyssa-love alyssa-reece amanda-addams amanda-blake amanda-blue amanda-jane-adams amanda-rae amanda-stone amanda-tyler amber-hunt amberlina-lynn amber-lynn amber-michaels amber-peach amber-wild amber-woods ambrosia-fox amia-miley ami-rodgers amy-allison amy-brooke amy-rose amy-starz anastasia-christ anastasia-sands andrea-adams andrea-brittian andrea-lange andrea-true andy angel angela-baron angela-summers angel-barrett angel-cash angel-cruz angel-cummings angel-ducharme angelica-sin angelika-reschner angelina-brasini angelina-korrs angelina-valentine angel-kelly angel-long angel-west angie-knight anita-andic anita-blond anita-cannibal anita-dark anna-belle anna-malle anna-nikova anna-pierce anna-ventura anna-veruska anne-bie-warburg anne-libert anne-magle anne-sand annette-haven annie-sprinkle ann-kiray ann-marie-michelle antonia-dorian april-flowers april-may april-west arcadia-lake ariana-bali ariana-jollee arlana-blue ashley-anne ashley-brooks ashley-coda ashley-fires ashley-lauren ashley-long ashley-marie ashley-nicole ashley-perk ashley-renee ashley-robbins ashley-welles ashley-wells ashley-winger ashlyn-gere astrid-bone athena-star aubrey-nichols aurora aurora-snow autumn-bliss autumn-rayne ava-devine ava-lauren avalon ava-marteens avy-lee-roth bailey-monroe bambi-allen barbara-bourbon barbara-boutet barbara-dare barbara-doll barbara-moose barbarella 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carmel-nougat carmen-blonde carmen-de-la-torre carmen-moore carmen-rose carol-connors carol-cross carol-cummings carole-dubois carole-gire carole-pierac carol-titian carolyn-connoly carolyn-monroe carrie-cruise cassandra-leigh cassidy cassie-courtland cataline-bullock catherine-count catherine-crystal catherine-ringer catherine-tailleferre cathy-delorme cathy-menard cathy-stewart celeste-fox celine-gallone chanel-preston chanel-price chantal-virapin chanta-rose chantelle-stevens charisma charisma-cole charlie-latour charlie-waters charlotte-de-castille charmane-star chasey-lain chayse-manhattan chaz-vincent chelsea-sinclaire chennin-blanc cheri-janvier cheri-taylor cherry-hill chessie-moore cheyenne-hunter cheyenne-silver china-lee china-leigh china-moon chloe-cruize chloe-dior chloe-kez chloe-stevens chris-collins chris-jordan chris-petersen chrissie-beauchamp christa-abel christa-ludwig christie-ford christi-lake christina-berg christina-blond christina-evol christina-skye christine-black christine-chavert christine-neona christine-rigoler christy-canyon cicciolina cindi-stephens cindy-carver cindy-crawford cindy-more cindy-shepard cindy-wong cinthya-marinho clair-dia claire-robbins claude-janna claudia-jackson claudia-jamsson claudia-mehringer claudia-nero claudia-van-statt claudia-zante claudine-beccarie clea-carson cleo-nichole cleo-patra cody-lane cody-love cody-nicole coffee-brown colleen-brennan connie-bennett connie-peterson constance-money copper-penny coreena corey-everson corinne-lemoine corneliah cory-everson cory-wolf courtney courtney-cummz courtney-james cris-cassidy crissy-moran cris-taliana crystal-breeze crystal-dawn crystal-holland crystal-knight crystal-lake crystal-lovin crystal-sync csilla-kalnay cuban-bee cynara-fox cyndee-summers cynthia-black cynthia-brooks cynthia-hammers cynthia-lavigne dagmar-lost daisy-layne dallas-miko dana-dylan dana-lynn danica-rhea daniela-nanou daniela-schiffer daniele-troeger daniella daniella-schiffer danielle danielle-foxxx danielle-rodgers danny-ricci danyel-cheeks daphne daphne-rosen darby-lloyd-rains darla-crane darla-delovely davia-ardell dayton-rain debbie-northrup debbie-revenge debbie-van-gils debi-diamond debi-jointed debra-lynn deidra-hopkins deidre-holland delania-raffino delia-moore delphine-thail delta-force delta-white demi-moor denice-klarskov denise-derringer denise-dior denise-sloan desiree-cousteau desiree-foxx desiree-lane desiree-west deva-station devin-devasquez devinn-lane devon-shire dia diana-holt diana-kisabonyi diana-siefert diana-stevenson diane-dubois diane-richards diane-sloan diane-suresne dido-angel dillan-lauren dina-deville dina-jewel dina-pearl ditty-blue diva divinity-love djiana dolly-darkley dominique dominique-dewitt dominique-saint-claire donna-hart donna-marie dorle-buchner dorothy-lemay dorothy-onan drea drimla dru-berrymore dusty-rose dyanna-lauren ebony-ayes edina-blond edita-ungerova edwige-faillel eileen-wells elaine-southern elena-berkova elena-maria-ricci eleonore-melzer elisabeth-bure elis-black elise elise-di-medici elle-devyne elle-rio elodie-delage elsa-maroussia elza-brown emili-doll emily-evermoore emily-george emily-jewel emmanuelle-pareze envy-mi erica-boyer erica-eaton erica-havens erica-idol erica-lauren erika-bella erika-cool erika-heaven erika-lockett esme-monroe eva-allen eva-angel eva-dionisio eva-gross eva-kleber eva-lux eva-uettori eve-laurence evelyne-lang evie-delatosso fabiana-venturi faith-stevens fallon fanny-garreau fanny-steel faye-runaway flame flick-shagwell flore-soller flower france-lomay france-quenie francoise frankie-leigh gabriella gabriella-mirelba gabriella-vincze gail-force gail-palmer gail-sterling georgette-saunders georgia-peach georgina-spelvin gia-givanna gianna-lynn gili-sky gina-carrera gina-gianetti gina-janssen gina-lee gina-martell gina-valentino ginger-jay ginger-lee ginger-lynn ginny-noack giovanna gisela-schwarz giselle-monet gladys-laroche gloria-leonard gloria-todd golden-jade greta-carlson greta-milos guia-lauri-filzi gwenda-farnel hare-krane harley-raine hayley-jade hazel-young heather-deeley heather-ellis heather-hart heather-lere heather-lyn heather-manfield heather-thomas heather-torrance heather-wayne heather-young helen-madigan helen-thomas helga-sven helga-wild hillary-summers holly-hollywood holly-joy holly-page holly-ryder honey-winter hottie-hollie hyapatia-lee ida-fabry ildiko-smits illana-moor ines-ridere ingrid-choray isabella-dior isabella-soprano isabelle-allay isabelle-brell isabelle-marchall isobel-wren iveta ivette-blanche jackie-right jacqueline-lorians jacy-allen jada-stevens jade-east jade-hsu jade-marcela jade-summers jade-wong jahn-gold jamie-brooks jamie-james jamie-summers jana-irrova jana-mrazkova jane-baker jane-darling jane-iwanoff jane-lindsay jane-lixx janet-jacme janey-robbins jasmine-delatori jayden-simone jaylyn-rose jayna-woods jazella-moore jazmin-luna-gold jean-afrique jeanette-littledove jeanie-marie-sullivan jean-jennings jeanna-fine jeannie-pepper jenna-jameson jenna-jane jenna-presley jenna-wells jennifer-haussmann jennifer-janes jennifer-jordan jennifer-morante jennifer-noxt jennifer-stewart jennifer-welles jennifer-west jenny jenny-feeling jenny-fields jenny-wings jersey-jaxin jesie-st-james jesse-capelli jessica-bangkok jessica-bogart jessica-darlin jessica-fiorentino jessica-gabriel jessica-laine jessica-may jessica-road jessica-wylde jessi-foster jill-ferari jill-kelly joana-redgrave joan-devlon joanna-storm joanna-sweet jody-maxwell joelle-lequement joelle-petinot johnni-black jordana-james jordan-green jordan-nevaeh jordan-star josephine-carrington joslyn-james julia-chanel julia-dal-fuoco juliana-grandi julia-paes julia-parton julia-perrin julia-swen julia-thomas julie-meadows julie-rage julie-simone juliet-anderson juliet-graham juliette-carelton kacey-jordan kagney-linn-karter kaitlyn-ashley kalena-rios kami-andrews kamila-smith kandee-licks kandi-barbour kapri-styles kara-nox karen-summer kari-foxx karine-gambier karin-schubert karli-sweet karmen-kennedy karol-castro kascha kassi-nova kat kate-frost kate-jones kathia-nobili kathleen-gentry kathleen-white kathy-divan kathy-harcourt kathy-heart kathy-kash katie-cummings katja-love kat-langer katrina-isis katrina-kraven katy-borman katy-caro kaycee-dean kayla-kupcakes kay-parker k-c-valentine keama-kim keira-moon keisha keli-richards kelli-tyler kelly-adams kelly-blue kelly-broox kelly-hearn kelly-kay kelly-kline kelly-nichols kelly-royce kelly-skyline kendra-kay kenzi-marie keri-windsor ketthy-divan kianna-dior kiley-heart kim-alexis kimber-blake kimberly-carson kimberly-kane kimberly-kyle kim-de-place kim-holland kimi-gee kimkim-de kim-kitaine kimmie-lee kimmy-nipples kina-kara kira-eggers kira-red kirsty-waay kitty-langdon kitty-lynxxx kitty-marie kitty-shayne kitty-yung kora-cummings kris-lara krista-lane krista-maze kristara-barrington kristarah-knight kristi-klenot kristina-blonde kristina-king kristina-klevits kristina-soderszk kristine-heller kristin-steen krisztina-ventura krystal-de-boor krystal-steal kylee-karr kylee-nash kylie-brooks kylie-channel kylie-haze kylie-wylde kym-wilde kyoto-sun lachelle-marie lacy-rose lady-amanda-wyldefyre lady-stephanie laetitia-bisset lana-burner lana-cox lana-wood lara-amour lara-roxx lara-stevens lataya-roxx latoya laura-clair laura-lazare laura-lion laura-may laura-orsolya laura-paouck laura-zanzibar lauren-black laurence-boutin lauren-montgomery laurien-dominique laurien-wilde laurie-smith lauryl-canyon lauryn-may leah-wilde lea-magic lea-martini leanna-foxxx lee-caroll leigh-livingston leilani lenora-bruce leslie-winston lesllie-bovee letizia-bruni lexi-lane lexi-matthews lezley-zen lia-fire liliane-gray liliane-lemieuvre lili-marlene lily-gilder lily-labeau lily-rodgers lily-valentine linda-shaw linda-vale linda-wong linnea-quigley lisa-bright lisa-de-leeuw lisa-k-loring lisa-lake lisa-melendez lisa-sue-corey lise-pinson little-oral-annie liza-dwyer liza-harper lizzy-borden logan-labrent lois-ayres lola-cait long-jean-silver loni-bunny loni-sanders loona-luxx lorelei-lee lorelei-rand lorena-sanchez lori-alexia lori-blue lorrie-lovett luci-diamond lucie-doll lucie-theodorova lucy-van-dam lydia-baum lynn-franciss lynn-lemay lynn-ray lynn-stevens lynx-canon lysa-thatcher madelina-ray madison-parker magdalena-lynn maggie-randall mai-lin mandi-wine mandy-bright mandy-malone mandy-may mandy-mistery mandy-starr marcia-minor maren margit-ojetz margitta-hofer margo-stevens margot-mahler mariah-cherry marianne-aubert maria-tortuga marie-anne marie-christine-chireix marie-christine-veroda marie-claude-moreau marie-dominique-cabannes marie-france-morel marie-luise-lusewitz marie-sharp marilyn-chambers marilyne-leroy marilyn-gee marilyn-jess marilyn-martyn marilyn-star marina-hedman marion-webb marita-ekberg marita-kemper marlena marlene-willoughby marry-queen martine-grimaud martine-schultz maryanne-fisher mary-hubay mary-ramunno mary-stuart mascha-mouton maud-kennedy mauvais-denoir maxine-tyler maya-black maya-france megan-leigh megan-martinez megan-reece mei-ling melanie-hotlips melanie-scott melba-cruz melinda-russell melissa-bonsardo melissa-del-prado melissa-golden melissa-martinez melissa-melendez melissa-monet mercedes-dragon mercedes-lynn merle-michaels mesha-lynn mia-beck mia-lina mia-smiles michele-raven michelle-aston michelle-ferrari michelle-greco michelle-maren michelle-maylene michelle-monroe micki-lynn mika-barthel mika-tan mikki-taylor mimi-morgan mindy-rae ming-toy miranda-stevens miss-bunny miss-meadow miss-pomodoro missy missy-graham missy-stone missy-vega misti-jane mistress-candice misty-anderson misty-dawn misty-rain misty-regan mona-lisa mona-page moni monica-baal monica-swinn monika-peta monika-sandmayr monika-unco monique-bruno monique-cardin monique-charell monique-demoan monique-gabrielle monique-la-belle morgan-fairlane morrigan-hel moxxie-maddron mulani-rivera mysti-may nadege-arnaud nadia-styles nadine-bronx nadine-proutnal nadine-roussial nadi-phuket nanci-suiter nancy-hoffman nancy-vee natacha-delyro natalia-wood natalli-diangelo natascha-throat natasha-skyler naudia-nyce nessa-devil nessy-grant nesty nicki-hunter nicky-reed nicole-berg nicole-bernard nicole-black nicole-grey nicole-london nicole-parks nicole-scott nicole-taylor nicolette-fauludi nicole-west nika-blond nika-mamic niki-cole nikita-love nikita-rush nikki-charm nikki-grand nikki-king nikki-knight nikki-randall nikki-rhodes nikki-santana nikki-steele nikki-wilde niko nina-cherry nina-deponca nina-hartley nina-preta oana-efria obaya-roberts olesja-derevko olga-cabaeva olga-conti olga-pechova olga-petrova olivia-alize olivia-del-rio olivia-flores olivia-la-roche olivia-outre ophelia-tozzi orchidea-keresztes orsolya-blonde paige-turner paisley-hunter pamela-bocchi pamela-jennings pamela-mann pamela-stanford pamela-stealt pandora paola-albini pascale-vital pat-manning pat-rhea patricia-dale patricia-diamond patricia-kennedy patricia-rhomberg patrizia-predan patti-cakes patti-petite paula-brasile paula-harlow paula-morton paula-price paula-winters pauline-teutscher penelope-pumpkins penelope-valentin petra-hermanova petra-lamas peyton-lafferty phaedra-grant pia-snow piper-fawn pipi-anderson porsche-lynn porsha-carrera precious-silver priscillia-lenn purple-passion queeny-love rachel-ashley rachel-love rachel-luv rachel-roxxx rachel-ryan rachel-ryder racquel-darrian rane-revere raven reagan-maddux rebecca-bardoux regan-anthony regine-bardot regula-mertens reina-leone reka-gabor renae-cruz renee-foxx renee-lovins renee-morgan renee-perez renee-summers renee-tiffany rhonda-jo-petty rikki-blake riley-ray rio-mariah rita-ricardo roberta-gemma roberta-pedon robin-byrd robin-cannes robin-everett robin-sane rochell-starr rosa-lee-kimball rosemarie roxanne-blaze roxanne-hall roxanne-rollan ruby-richards sabina-k sabre sabrina-chimaera sabrina-dawn sabrina-jade sabrina-johnson sabrina-love-cox sabrina-mastrolorenzi sabrina-rose sabrina-scott sabrina-summers sacha-davril sahara sahara-sands sai-tai-tiger samantha-fox samantha-ryan samantha-sterlyng samantha-strong samueline-de-la-rosa sandra-cardinale sandra-de-marco sandra-kalermen sandra-russo sandy-lee sandy-pinney sandy-reed sandy-samuel sandy-style sandy-summers sara-brandy-canyon sara-faye sarah-bernard sarah-cabrera sarah-hevyn sarah-mills sarah-shine sara-sloane sasha sasha-hollander sasha-ligaya sasha-rose satine-phoenix satin-summer savannah-stern savanna-jane scarlet-scarleau scarlet-windsor seka selena serena serena-south severine-amoux shana-evans shanna-mccullough shannon-kelly shannon-rush shantell-day sharon-da-vale sharon-kane sharon-mitchell shaun-michelle shawna-sexton shawnee-cates shay-hendrix shayne-ryder sheena-horne sheer-delight shelby-star shelby-stevens shelly-berlin shelly-lyons sheri-st-clair sheyla-cats shonna-lynn shyla-foxxx shy-love sierra-sinn sierra-skye sigrun-theil silver-starr silvia-bella silvia-saint silvie-de-lux silvy-taylor simone-west sindee-coxx sindy-lange sindy-shy siobhan-hunter skylar-knight skylar-price skyler-dupree smokie-flame smoking-mary-jane solange-shannon sonya-summers sophia-santi sophie-call sophie-duflot sophie-evans sophie-guers stacey-donovan stacy-lords stacy-moran stacy-nichols stacy-silver stacy-thorn starla-fox starr-wood stefania-bruni stella-virgin stephanie-duvalle stephanie-rage stephanie-renee stevie-taylor summer-knight summer-rose sunny-day sunset-thomas sunshine-seiber susan-hart susanne-brend susan-nero susi-hotkiss suzanne-mcbain suzan-nielsen suzie-bartlett suzie-carina suzi-sparks sweet-nice sweety-pie sybille-rossani sylvia-benedict sylvia-bourdon sylvia-brand sylvia-engelmann syreeta-taylor syren-de-mer syvette szabina-black szilvia-lauren tai-ellis taija-rae taisa-banx talia-james tamara-lee tamara-longley tamara-n-joy tamara-west tami-white tammy tammy-lee tammy-reynolds tania-lorenzo tantala-ray tanya-danielle tanya-fox tanya-foxx tanya-lawson tanya-valis tara-aire tasha-voux tatjana-belousova tatjana-skomorokhova tawnee-lee tawny-pearl tayla-rox taylor-wane teddi-austin teddi-barrett tera-bond tera-heart tera-joy teresa-may teresa-orlowski teri-diver teri-weigel terri-dolan terri-hall tess-ferre tess-newheart thais-vieira tia-cherry tianna tiara tiffany-blake tiffany-clark tiffany-duponte tiffany-rayne tiffany-rousso tiffany-storm tiffany-towers tiffany-tyler tiger-lily tigr timea-vagvoelgyi tina-blair tina-burner tina-evil tina-gabriel tina-loren tina-marie tina-russell tish-ambrose tommi-rose tonisha-mills topsy-curvey tori-secrets tori-sinclair tori-welles tracey-adams traci-lords traci-topps traci-winn tracy-duzit tracy-love tracy-williams tricia-devereaux tricia-yen trinity-loren trisha-rey trista-post trixie-tyler ultramax ursula-gaussmann ursula-moore uschi-karnat valentina valerie-leveau valery-hilton vanessa-chase vanessa-del-rio vanessa-michaels vanessa-ozdanic vanilla-deville velvet-summers veri-knotty veronica-dol veronica-hart veronica-hill veronica-rayne veronica-sage veronika-vanoza via-paxton vicky-lindsay vicky-vicci victoria-evans victoria-gold victoria-knight victoria-luna victoria-paris victoria-slick victoria-zdrok viper virginie-caprice vivian-valentine vivien-martines wendi-white wendy-divine whitney-banks whitney-fears whitney-wonders wonder-tracey wow-nikki xanthia-berstein yasmine-fitzgerald yelena-shieffer yvonne-green zara-whites zsanett-egerhazi zuzie-boobies





over double counting and suggested the real figure may lie between 6 and 6.4 million.[21] Drawing on their work, the Steinhardt Social Research Institute released their own estimate of 6.8 million Jews in the United States in 2013.[22] These figures are in contrast to Israeli demographer Sergio Della Pergola's number of 5,425,000, also in 2012.[23] He has called high estimates “implausible” and “unreliable” although he revised the United States Jewish number upward to 5.7 million in subsequent years.[24][23] This controversy followed a similar debate in 2001 when the National Jewish Population Survey released a United States Jewish estimate as low as 5.2 million only to have serious methodological errors suggested in their survey.[23] In sum, a confidence interval of a million or more people is likely to persist in reporting on the number of Jewish Americans. By country Below is a list of Jewish populations in the world by country. All data below, but the last column, is from the Berman Jewish DataBank at Stanford University in the World Jewish Population (2018) report coordinated by Sergio DellaPergola at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[25] The Jewish DataBank figures are primarily based on national censuses combined with trend analysis. "Core" Jewish population refers to those who consider themselves Jews to the exclusion of all else. The "connected" Jewish population, in addition to the core Jewish population, includes those who say they are partly Jewish or that have Jewish background from at least one Jewish parent. The "enlarged" Jewish population includes the Jewish connected population and those who say they have Jewish background but not a Jewish parent, and all non-Jews living in households with Jews. The Law of Return Jewish population includes all those eligible to immigration to Israel under its Law of Return. Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 Countries Core population Connected population Enlarged population Eligible population National official statistics Total pct pmp Total pct pmp Total pct pmp Total pct pmp Israel[a] 6,153,500 42.1 734,010 6,349,300 35.7 757,366 6,545,200 31.6 780,721 6,545,100 27.9 780,722 [6]6,697,000 (2019) United States 5,700,000 39.0 17,517 8,000,000 45.0 24,585 10,000,000 48.3 30,731 12,000,000 51.1 36,878 [26]6,543,820 (2018) France[b] 453,000 3.10 6,965 530,000 2.98 8,149 600,000 2.90 9,225 700,000 2.98 10,763 N/A West Bank[c] 404,600 2.77 136,602 408,900 2.30 138,053 413,200 2.00 139,505 413,200 1.76 139,505 N/A Canada 390,500 2.67 10,640 450,000 2.53 12,262 550,000 2.66 14,986 700,000 2.98 19,074 [27]143,665 (2016) United Kingdom[d] 290,000 1.99 4,367 330,000 1.85 4,970 370,000 1.79 5,572 410,000 1.75 6,175 [28][29][30]269,568 (2011) Argentina 180,300 1.23 4,070 270,000 1.52 6,095 330,000 1.60 7,449 350,000 1.49 7,901 N/A Russia 172,000 1.18 1,172 320,000 1.80 2,180 440,000 2.13 2,997 600,000 2.56 4,087 [31]157,968 (2010) Germany 116,000 0.794 1,396 150,000 0.843 1,805 225,000 1.09 2,708 275,000 1.17 3,309 [32]84,430 (2011) Australia 113,400 0.776 4,629 125,000 0.702 5,102 140,000 0.677 5,715 155,000 0.660 6,327 [33]91,022 (2016) Brazil 93,200 0.638 448 120,000 0.674 577 150,000 0.725 722 180,000 0.767 866 [33]107,329 (2010) South Africa 69,000 0.472 1,221 75,000 0.421 1,327 80,000 0.387 1,416 85,000 0.362 1,504 [33]75,555 (2001) Ukraine 50,000 0.342 1,182 97,000 0.545 2,293 140,000 0.677 3,310 200,000 0.852 4,728 [34]105,480 (2001) Hungary 47,400 0.325 4,837 75,000 0.421 7,653 100,000 0.483 10,204 130,000 0.554 13,265 [33]10,965 (2011) Mexico 40,000 0.274 310 45,000 0.253 348 50,000 0.242 387 65,000 0.277 503 [33]67,476 (2010) Netherlands 29,800 0.204 1,743 43,000 0.242 2,515 52,000 0.251 3,041 60,000 0.256 3,509 [35]0.1% (2016) Belgium 29,200 0.200 2,584 35,000 0.197 3,097 40,000 0.193 3,540 45,000 0.192 3,982 N/A Italy 27,500 0.188 455 34,000 0.191 562 41,000 0.198 678 48,000 0.204 793 N/A Switzerland 18,600 0.127 2,188 22,000 0.124 2,588 25,000 0.121 2,941 28,000 0.119 3,294 [33]16,763 (2011) Chile 18,300 0.125 995 21,000 0.118 1,141 26,000 0.126 1,413 30,000 0.128 1,630 [33]14,976 (2002) Uruguay 16,700 0.114 4,771 20,000 0.112 5,714 25,000 0.121 7,143 27,500 0.117 7,857 N/A Turkey 15,000 0.103 185 19,300 0.108 239 21,000 0.102 260 23,000 0.0980 284 N/A Sweden 15,000 0.103 1,485 20,000 0.112 1,980 25,000 0.121 2,475 30,000 0.128 2,970 N/A Spain 11,700 0.0801 251 15,000 0.0843 322 18,000 0.0870 386 20,000 0.0852 429 N/A Belarus 9,500 0.0650 1,000 18,000 0.101 1,895 25,000 0.121 2,632 33,000 0.141 3,474 [36]12,935 (2009) Panama 10,000 0.0685 2,439 11,000 0.0618 2,683 12,000 0.0580 2,927 13,000 0.0554 3,171 N/A Romania 9,100 0.0623 464 13,500 0.0759 689 17,000 0.0822 867 20,000 0.0852 1,020 [33]3,519 (2011) Austria 9,000 0.0616 1,023 14,000 0.0787 1,591 17,000 0.0822 1,932 20,000 0.0852 2,273 [33]8,140 (2001) Iran 8,500 0.0582 105 11,000 0.0618 136 12,000 0.0580 149 13,000 0.0554 161 [33]9,826 (2016) Azerbaijan 7,800 0.0534 788 10,500 0.0590 1,061 16,000 0.0773 1,616 22,000 0.0937 2,222 [37]9,084 (2009) Venezuela 7,300 0.0500 232 10,000 0.0562 318 12,000 0.0580 382 14,000 0.0596 446 [38][39]9,500 (2010) New Zealand 7,500 0.0513 1,563 8,500 0.0478 1,771 9,500 0.0459 1,979 11,000 0.0469 2,292 [33]6,867 (2013) Denmark 6,400 0.0438 1,103 7,500 0.0421 1,293 8,500 0.0411 1,466 9,500 0.0405 1,638 N/A India 4,900 0.0335 4 6,000 0.0337 4 7,000 0.0338 5 8,000 0.0341 6 [40]4,650 (2011) Latvia 4,700 0.0322 2,474 8,000 0.0450 4,211 12,000 0.0580 6,316 16,000 0.0682 8,421 [41]8,210 (2019) Greece 4,200 0.0288 393 5,500 0.0309 514 6,000 0.0290 561 7,000 0.0298 654 N/A Czech Republic 3,900 0.0267 368 5,000 0.0281 472 6,500 0.0314 613 8,000 0.0341 755 [42]1,474 (2011) Moldova 2,000 0.0137 556 5,700 0.0320 1,583 7,500 0.0363 2,083 11,000 0.0469 3,056 [33]1,601 (2014) Uzbekistan 3,200 0.0219 99 6,000 0.0337 185 8,000 0.0387 247 10,000 0.0426 309 [43]94,689 (1989) Poland 4,500 0.0308 117 7,000 0.0393 182 10,000 0.0483 260 13,000 0.0554 339 [44]2,488 (2011) Kazakhstan 2,700 0.0185 150 4,800 0.0270 267 6,500 0.0314 361 9,600 0.0409 533 [33]5,281 (2009) China[e] 2,800 0.0192 2 2,900 0.0163 2 3,300 0.0160 2 3,500 0.0149 3 N/A Lithuania 2,500 0.0171 893 4,700 0.0264 1,679 6,500 0.0314 2,321 10,000 0.0426 3,571 [33]1,229 (2011) Slovakia 2,600 0.0178 481 3,600 0.0202 667 4,600 0.0222 852 6,000 0.0256 1,111 [45]601 (2019) Costa Rica 2,500 0.0171 510 2,800 0.0157 571 3,100 0.0150 633 3,400 0.0145 694 N/A Colombia 2,200 0.0151 45 2,800 0.0157 57 3,500 0.0169 71 4,500 0.0192 91 N/A Morocco 2,150 0.0147 61 2,500 0.0140 71 2,700 0.0131 77 2,900 0.0124 83 N/A Bulgaria 2,000 0.0137 282 4,000 0.0225 563 6,000 0.0290 845 7,500 0.0320 1,056 [46]1,162 (2011) Estonia 1,900 0.0130 1,462 2,600 0.0146 2,000 3,400 0.0164 2,615 4,500 0.0192 3,462 [47]1,921 (2019) Peru 1,900 0.0130 60 2,300 0.0129 72 3,000 0.0145 94 3,500 0.0149 110 N/A Croatia 1,700 0.0116 415 2,400 0.0135 585 3,000 0.0145 732 3,500 0.0149 854 [33]536 (2011) Georgia 1,600 0.0110 410 4,500 0.0253 1,154 6,000 0.0290 1,538 8,700 0.0371 2,231 [33]1,417 (2014) Ireland 2,600 0.0178 542 3,600 0.0202 750 5,000 0.0242 1,042 7,000 0.0298 1,458 [48]1,921 (2016) Puerto Rico 1,500 0.0103 441 2,000 0.0112 588 2,500 0.0121 735 3,000 0.0128 882 N/A Serbia 1,400 0.00959 200 2,100 0.0118 300 2,800 0.0135 400 3,500 0.0149 500 [33]578 (2011) Finland 1,300 0.00890 236 1,600 0.00899 291 1,900 0.00918 345 2,200 0.00937 400 [49]1,093 (2017) Norway 1,300 0.00890 245 1,500 0.00843 283 2,000 0.00967 377 2,500 0.0107 472 [50]809 (2019) Tunisia 1,050 0.00719 91 1,200 0.00674 104 1,300 0.00628 113 1,400 0.00596 122 N/A Japan 1,000 0.00685 8 1,200 0.00674 9 1,400 0.00677 11 1,600 0.00682 13 N/A Paraguay 1,000 0.00685 147 1,300 0.00731 191 1,600 0.00773 235 1,900 0.00809 279 [33]1,100 (2002) Guatemala 900 0.00616 53 1,200 0.00674 71 1,500 0.00725 89 1,800 0.00767 107 N/A Singapore 900 0.00616 158 1,000 0.00562 175 1,200 0.00580 211 1,400 0.00596 246 N/A Ecuador 600 0.00411 36 800 0.00450 48 1,000 0.00483 60 1,200 0.00511 71 N/A Gibraltar 600 0.00411 17,143 700 0.00393 20,000 800 0.00387 22,857 900 0.00383 25,714 [33]763 (2012) Luxembourg 600 0.00411 1,000 800 0.00450 1,333 1,000 0.00483 1,667 1,200 0.00511 2,000 N/A Portugal 600 0.00411 58 800 0.00450 78 1,000 0.00483 97 1,200 0.00511 117 [33]3,061 (2011) Bolivia 500 0.00342 45 700 0.00393 63 900 0.00435 81 1,000 0.00426 90 N/A Bosnia and Herzegovina 500 0.00342 143 800 0.00450 229 1,000 0.00483 286 1,200 0.00511 343 [51]262 (2013) Cuba 500 0.00342 44 1,000 0.00562 88 1,500 0.00725 133 2,000 0.00852 177 N/A U.S. Virgin Islands 400 0.00274 3,810 600 0.00337 5,714 700 0.00338 6,667 800 0.00341 7,619 N/A Kyrgyzstan 400 0.00274 65 700 0.00393 113 1,000 0.00483 161 1,500 0.00639 242 [52]455 (2018) Bahamas 300 0.00205 750 500 0.00281 1,250 700 0.00338 1,750 800 0.00341 2,000 [33]191 (2010) Kenya 300 0.00205 6 500 0.00281 10 700 0.00338 14 900 0.00383 18 N/A Netherlands Antilles 300 0.00205 926 500 0.00281 1,543 700 0.00338 2,160 800 0.00341 2,469 N/A Jamaica 200 0.00137 69 300 0.00169 103 400 0.00193 138 500 0.00213 172 [33]506 (2011) Suriname 200 0.00137 333 400 0.00225 667 600 0.00290 1,000 800 0.00341 1,333 [53]181 (2012) Thailand 200 0.00137 3 300 0.00169 5 400 0.00193 6 500 0.00213 8 N/A Turkmenistan 200 0.00137 34 400 0.00225 69 600 0.00290 103 800 0.00341 138 [54]1,537 (1995) Zimbabwe 200 0.00137 12 600 0.00337 36 800 0.00387 48 1,000 0.00426 60 N/A Armenia 100





0.000685 33 300 0.00169 100 500 0.00242 167 700 0.00298 233 [55]127 (2011) Bermuda 100 0.000685 1,639 200 0.00112 3,279 300 0.00145 4,918 400 0.00170 6,557 [33]135 (2010) Botswana 100 0.000685 43 200 0.00112 87 300 0.00145 130 400 0.00170 174 N/A DR Congo 100 0.000685 1 200 0.00112 2 300 0.00145 4 400 0.00170 5 N/A Cyprus 100 0.000685 83 200 0.00112 167 300 0.00145 250 400 0.00170 333 N/A Dominican Republic 100 0.000685 9 200 0.00112 19 300 0.00145 28 400 0.00170 37 N/A Egypt 100 0.000685 1 200 0.00112 2 300 0.00145 3 400 0.00170 4 N/A El Salvador 100 0.000685 16 200 0.00112 31 300 0.00145 47 400 0.00170 63 N/A Ethiopia 100 0.000685 1 500 0.00281 5 1,000 0.00483 10 2,500 0.0107 24 N/A Indonesia 100 0.000685 0 200 0.00112 1 300 0.00145 1 400 0.00170 2 N/A Malta 100 0.000685 250 200 0.00112 500 300 0.00145 750 400 0.00170 1,000 N/A Namibia 100 0.000685 40 200 0.00112 80 300 0.00145 120 400 0.00170 160 N/A Nigeria 100 0.000685 1 200 0.00112 1 300 0.00145 2 400 0.00170 2 N/A North Macedonia 100 0.000685 48 200 0.00112 95 300 0.00145 143 400 0.00170 190 [56]53 (2002) Madagascar 100 0.000685 4 200 0.00112 8 300 0.00145 12 400 0.00170 16 N/A Philippines 100 0.000685 1 200 0.00112 2 300 0.00145 3 400 0.00170 4 N/A Slovenia 100 0.000685 48 200 0.00112 95 300 0.00145 143 400 0.00170 190 [33]99 (2001) South Korea 100 0.000685 2 200 0.00112 4 300 0.00145 6 400 0.00170 8 N/A Syria[f] 100 0.000685 5 200 0.00112 11 300 0.00145 16 400 0.00170 22 N/A Taiwan 100 0.000685 4 200 0.00112 8 300 0.00145 13 400 0.00170 17 N/A Uganda N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [57]7,189 (2014) Aruba N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]354 (2010) Nicaragua N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]199 (2005) Barbados N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]103 (2011) Mauritius N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]43 (2011) Tajikistan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [37][58]38 (2010) Anguilla N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]16 (2001) Faroe Islands N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [59]12 (2011) Montenegro N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]12 (2003) British Virgin Islands N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]11 (2010) Liechtenstein N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [60]26 (2000) Falkland Islands N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A [33]1 (2006) World 14,606,000 100% 1,876 17,794,400 100% 2,286 20,687,800 100% 2,657 23,472,400 100% 3,015 N/A Including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, not including the West Bank. Figures includes France and Monaco. See: History of the Jews in France and History of the Jews in Monaco. West Bank total population (without East Jerusalem): 2,548,700; Gaza: 1,839,900; Total: 4,388,600. The West Bank also includes 404,600 Jews and 8,600 non-Jewish members of Jewish households, for a total of 413,200 Jews and others. The reported West Bank total of 2,961,900 includes Palestinian, Jewish and other residents. Including the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. Figures include mainland China and Hong Kong SAR. See: History of the Jews in China and History of the Jews in Hong Kong. Includes Lebanon. Remnant and vanished populations The above table represents Jews that number at least a few dozen per country. Reports exist of Jewish communities remaining in other territories in the low single digits that are on the verge of disappearing, particularly in the Muslim world, as their reaction to the birth of Israel in 1948 was the persecution of Jews in nearly all Muslim lands; these are often of historical interest as they represent the remnant of much larger Jewish populations. For example, Egypt had a Jewish community of 80,000 in the early 20th century that numbered fewer than 40 as of 2014, mainly because of the forced expulsion movements to Israel and other countries at that time.[61] Afghanistan may have only one Jew left, Zablon Simintov, despite a 2,000 year history of Jewish presence.[62] In Syria, another ancient Jewish community saw mass exodus at the end of the 20th century and numbered fewer than 20 in the midst of the Syrian Civil War.[63] The size of the Jewish community in Indonesia has been variously given as 65, 100, or 18 at most over the last 50 years.[64][65] Major Jewish population centers worldwide Jewish population by city Visualization of Urban Areas by Jewish Population Censuses in many countries do not record religious or ethnic background, leading to a lack of certainty on the exact numbers of Jewish population. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. City Country Number New York City[66] United States 1,100,000 Jerusalem[67] Israel 546,100 Los Angeles[68] United States 519,200 Tel Aviv[67] Israel 401,500 San Francisco[68] United States 391,550 Chicago[68] United States 291,800 Paris[69] France 277,000 Boston[68] United States 248,000 Rishon LeZiyyon[67] Israel 229,300 Petah Tiqwa[67] Israel 220,900 Haifa[67] Israel 217,600 Washington, D.C.[68] United States 215,600 Philadelphia[68] United States 214,600 Ashdod[67] Israel 200,400 Netanya[67] Israel 196,300 Toronto[70] Canada 188,710 Be'er Sheva[67] Israel 181,000 London[71] United Kingdom 172,000 Buenos Aires[69] Argentina 159,000 Ramat Gan[72] Israel 146,900 Atlanta[68] United States 119,800 Miami[68] United States 119,000 Moscow[73] Russia 100,000 San Diego[68] United States 100,000 Montreal[70] Canada 90,780 Cleveland[74][75][76][77] United States 86,600 Denver[78] United States 83,900 Phoenix[79] United States 82,900 Las Vegas[80] United States 80,000 Budapest[81] Hungary 80,000 Detroit[82][failed verification] United States 78,000 São Paulo[83] Brazil 75,000 Marseille[84] France 70,000 Seattle[85] United States 63,400 Dallas[86] United States 57,800 St. Louis, Missouri[87] United States 54,500 Tampa[88] United States 51,100 Johannesburg[89] South Africa 50,000 Houston[90] United States 48,400 Portland[91] United States 47,500 Pittsburgh[92] United States 42,200 Melbourne[93] Australia 41,643 Minneapolis[94] United States 40,240 Saint Petersburg[73] Russia 40,000 Rio de Janeiro[95] Brazil 40,000 Mexico City[96] Mexico 39,777 Sydney[97] Australia 35,196 Hartford[98] United States 34,500 New Haven[99] United States 29,700 Cincinnati[100] United States 27,000 Vancouver[101] Canada 26,255 Milwaukee[102] United States 25,800 Manchester[103] United Kingdom 25,000 Berlin[104] Germany 25,000 Tucson[105][106] United States 22,900 Rochester[107] United States 22,500 Columbus[108] United States 25,500 Montevideo[109] Uruguay 20,000 Amsterdam[110] Netherlands 20,000 Kansas City[111] United States 19,000 Orlando[112] United States 19,000 Kiev[113] Ukraine 17,900 Istanbul[114][115] Turkey 17,000 Austin[116] United States 16,300 Strasbourg[117] France 16,000 Cape Town[89][118] South Africa 16,000 Porto Alegre[119] Brazil 15,000 Jacksonville[120] United States 15,000 Antwerp[107] Belgium 15,000 Panama City[121] Panama 15,000 Providence[122] United States 14,200 Ottawa[70] Canada 14,010 Winnipeg[70] Canada 13,690 Rome[123] Italy 13,000 Buffalo[124] United States 13,000 San Antonio[125] United States 12,740 Richmond[126] United States 12,500 Albany[127] United States 12,500 Odessa[citation needed] Ukraine 12,400 Charlotte[68] United States 12,000 New Orleans[128] United States 12,000 Munich[129] Germany 11,000 Frankfurt[130] Germany 10,500 Kharkiv[citation needed] Ukraine 10,300 Indianapolis[131] United States 10,000 Córdoba[103] Argentina 9,000 Stockholm[132] Sweden 9,000 Nashville[citation needed] United States 9,000-9,200 Louisville[133] United States 8,700 Calgary[70] Canada 8,335 Milan[123] Italy 8,000 Rosario[103] Argentina 8,000 Leeds[134] United Kingdom 8,000 Vienna[135] Austria 7,000 Chapel Hill[68] United States 6,000 Raleigh[68] United States 6,000 Zurich[136] Switzerland 6,000 Edmonton[70] Canada 5,550 Birmingham[137] United States 5,300 Perth[138] Australia 5,187 Hong Kong[139] Hong Kong 5,000 El Paso[140] United States 5,000 Madison[141] United States 5,000 Santa Fe[103] Argentina 5,000 Bogotá[142] Colombia 5,500 Dayton[143] United States 4,000 Toledo[143] United States 3,900 Glasgow[144] Scotland 3,500 Youngstown[145] United States 3,200 Prague[146] Czech Republic 3,000 Greensboro[147] United States 3,000 Durban[89] South Africa 2,700 Athens[citation needed] Greece 2,500 Bucharest[148] Romania 2,481 Brisbane[149] Australia 2,195 Curitiba[150] Brazil 1,774 Belo Horizonte[150] Brazil 1,714 Izmir[115] Turkey 1,500 Pretoria[89] South Africa 1,500 Dublin[151] Ireland 1,439 Recife[152] Brazil 1,300 Helsinki[153] Finland 1,200 Montgomery[154] United States 1,200 Brasília[155] Brazil 1,103 Florence[123] Italy 1,000 Casablanca[156] Morocco 1,000 Asunción[157] Paraguay 1,000 Sofia[citation needed] Bulgaria 1,000 Guadalajara[158] Mexico 900 Bratislava[159] Slovakia 800 Monterrey[160] Mexico 500 Jewish population by towns and villages as a percentage of total population List does not include cities in Israel. Rank City Country Percent Number 1 Qirmizi Q?s?b?[161] Azerbaijan 100 3,300 2 Kiryas Joel[162] United States 99 22,000 3 Deal[citation needed] United States 91 600 4 Beachwood[163] United States 90.4 10,700 5 Hampstead[164] Canada 74.2 5,170 6 Côte-Saint-Luc[165] Canada 69.1 20,146 7 Lakewood[166] United States 59 59,607 8 Teaneck[167] United States 50 18,000 9 Livingston[citation needed] United States 46 12,600 10 Caulfield North[168] Australia 41.4 6,319 11 Caulfield South[169] Australia 33.9 4,008 12 Rose Bay[170] Australia 27.3 2,744 13 Sarcelles[171] France 25 15,000 14 Mercer Island[172] United States 25 5,000 15 St Kilda East[173] Australia 24.8 3,246 16 Créteil[174] France 24.4 22,000 17 Vaucluse[175] Australia 23.2 2,163 18 Westmount[176] Canada 23.2 4,495 19 Bellevue Hill[177] Australia 21.4 2,300 20 Dollard-des-Ormeaux[178] Canada 21.1 10,115 21 Vaughan[179] Canada 18.2 33,090 22 Elsternwick[180] Australia 17.8 1,846 23 Montreal West[181] Canada 13.8 710 24 New York City[182] United States 18 1,540,000 25 Bondi[183] Australia 12.7 1,272 26 Los Angeles[182] United States 12.5 519,000 27 Mount Royal[184] Canada 12.0 2,205 28 San Jose, California[185] United States 4 40,000 29 Marseille[186] France 9 70,000 30 Buenos Aires[187] Argentina 8.22 244,000 31 Newton Mearns[188] United Kingdom ( Scotland) 5.98 1,431 32 Philadelphia[82][failed verification] United States 4.89 276,000 33 Toronto[189] Canada 4.21 103,500 See also Aliyah Historical Jewish population comparisons Jewish ethnic divisions Judaism Judaism by country to fill a sixth seat on the Supreme Court. After Secretary Knox declined appointment, Taft named Chancellor of New Jersey Mahlon Pitney, the last person appointed to the Supreme Court who did not attend law school.[130] Pitney had a stronger anti-labor record than Taft's other appointments, and was the only one to meet opposition, winning confirmation by a Senate vote of 50–26.[131] Taft appointed 13 judges to the federal courts of appeal and 38 to the United States district courts. Taft also appointed judges to various specialized courts, including the first five appointees each to the United States Commerce Court and the United States Court of Customs Appeals.[132] The Commerce Court, created in 1910, stemmed from a Taft proposal for a specialized court to hear appeals from the Interstate Commerce Commission. There was considerable opposition to its establishment, which only grew when one of its judges, Robert W. Archbald, was in 1912 impeached for corruption and removed by the Senate the following January. Taft vetoed a bill to abolish the court, but the respite was short-lived as Wilson signed similar legislation in October 1913.[133] 1912 presidential campaign and election Further information: 1912 United States presidential election Moving apart from Roosevelt 1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft During Roosevelt's fifteen months beyond the